UPSC CSE Mains Syllabus: GS-3-  Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life


A vaccine could be a weakened biological or synthetic agent administered to humans that will protect them from contracting infectious diseases by supplying specific antibodies to neutralise the disease-causing pathogen, while not making a person actually sick from it.

Surge in vaccine development:

COVID – a new challenge:

COVID is a new challenge in the form of a virus that has just emerged in humans, and the response will be more complex because there are no existing vaccines or production processes for coronavirus vaccines.

Vaccine trials as of now:

The World Health Organization (WHO) site lists 10 vaccine candidates in clinical evaluation and 126 candidate vaccines in pre-clinical evaluation, as on June 9.

Stages and processes:

The general stages of the development cycle of a vaccine are,


Clinical development is a three-phase process.


Created by : Kingmakers R&D

Current progress:

Vaccine candidates:

Vaccine candidates are being generated.

This is usually followed by two important steps that are typically needed before bringing a vaccine into clinical trials.

  1. First, the vaccine is tested in appropriate animal models to see whether it is protective. However, animal models for SARS-CoV-2might be difficult to develop. Even in the absence of an animal model, it is possible to evaluate the vaccine because serum from vaccinated animals can be tested in in vitro neutralisation assays.
  2. Second, vaccines need to be tested for toxicity in animals, e.g., in rabbits. This testing, which has to be performed in a manner compliant with GLP (Good Laboratory Practice),typically takes 3–6 months to complete.”

What next:

Road ahead:

 Source:” The Hindu“.


With the advent of COVID-19 vaccine development has got a boost, however, maintaining good manufacturing practice standards is essential. Discuss the issues involved in creating and rolling out a vaccine successfully.