UPSC CSE Mains Syllabus: GS-2- Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s

Gulf nation: eight countries (Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates)


These have added to their geopolitical significance.

At the same time, turbulence has often characterised their inter se political relations.


Post decolonisation of the Persian gulf nations, the imperatives of rivalry and cooperation became evident.

The logic of Saudi-Iranian cooperation is being affected by psychological, nationalistic, and prestige factors, which are likely to persist for a long time.’ A United States State Department report put it.

Efforts for cooperation:

United States role:

Declining US commitments:

US and Middle east relations is based on a convergence of interests in which oil, trade, arms purchases, etc have a role along with wider U.S. regional and global determinants.


Emerging shape of the region:

India’s relationship with the west asia:

Iran in particular:

India has eschewed involvement in local or regional disputes. Indian interests do not entail power projection; they necessitate in their totality, peace and regional stability, freedom of navigation and access to the region’s markets in terms of trade, technology and manpower resources. Indian interests would be best served if this stability is ensured through cooperative security since the alternative — of competitive security options — cannot ensure durable peace.

Source:” The Hindu“.

Possible UPSC CSE Mains Question:

The turbulence in the Persian Gulf has been surging and will aggravate in the post Covid world. In this context, discuss the challenges India face in maintaining cordial relationship with the region.