UPSC CSE Mains Syllabus: GS-2- Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

In news:

COVID lessons not enough:

History is set in periods divided by wars and victors, but should include ecological changes to the landscape in a region as part of the lesson.

Just as there was a movement in history to include narratives of the subaltern, there is a need for integration with ecological connections and changes.

For examples,

  1. What were the consequences, for instance, of the British building railways across the country for better extraction of resources?
  2. Trains were earlier powered by wood from deforestation.
  3. Where did the wood come from and what was the local effect on people and forest cover?
  4. Similarly, geography must describe the land and the forests, how cities develop and what these changes do to the coast and the hinterland, water bodies and the commons.

Holistic approach to education:

Inter disciplinary approach:

Small beginnings:

Ecocentric education:

It will ultimately fail since all goods used in any economy arise from the natural world. Our educational system needs to lay down the bricks for this understanding.

Source:” The Hindu “.


In combating new age problems like climate change; an interdisciplinary and holistic pedagogy is needed. Elaborate.