Syllabus GS II Structure, organisation and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

Discuss the supreme court’s direction on the MTP Act and explain the Gap in the MTP Act.

The Supreme Court expanded the scope of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act to include unmarried women and allowed a 25-year-old woman to abort her 24-weeks pregnancy arising out of a consensual relationship.

A woman’s right to reproductive choice is an inseparable part of her personal liberty under Article 21 of the Constitution and she has a sacrosanct right to bodily integrity

Supreme court’s directive on the MTP Act:

Gap in the Medical termination of pregnancy Act:

The Supreme Court’s expansion of the law to include unmarried women as part of the MTP Act has given women in similar circumstances an option now to access healthcare services without having to travel the long legal route to the top court every time.

~Source The Hindu

Syllabus GS III Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment. 

How was waste water surveillance used to find the hotspot of the infections and explain how this method improves the underestimation of infections.

Wastewater or sewage can tell us volumes about the health of a community. The idea here is very simple: most pathogens of interest, e.g., bacteria, virus or protozoa remain viable in the sewage environment for days.

Wastewater-based health surveillance or environmental surveillance is an excellent tool for tracking the presence of different pathogens in the environment. All it needs is a regular and consistent testing of wastewater. It is quite economical and provides real-time data, which makes it very useful for developing countries such as India where not everyone has access to healthcare.

Hotspot identification

Wastewater surveillance improves the underestimation of infections:

This study on Bangalore sewage network has been instrumental in developing an early warning system where real-time genomic surveillance is the backbone in understanding the variants causing the emerging patterns in viral load in wastewater.

~Source The Hindu