UPSC CSE Mains Syllabus: GS-2-   Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s

RIC – beginning and changing dynamics

India decided to attend a (virtual) meeting of the Foreign Ministers of Russia, India and China (RIC). Amid the tensions on the Line of Actual Control, the dominant calls were for a more decisive westward shift in India’s foreign policy.

A RIC meeting seemed incongruous in this setting.

The leaders’ statements at the meeting reflected their divergent preoccupations.

  1. China: The Chinese Minister called for opposing bullying practices, rejecting power politics and supporting the rule of law in international relations. This was an irony as China itself has not respected the international rules.
  2. Russia: Russia’s Foreign Minister criticised unilateral coercive measures to settle scores with geopolitical rivals and topple regimes.
  3. India: India’s External Affairs Minister pointedly emphasised that for a durable world order, major powers should respect international law and recognise the legitimate interest of partners.

RIC beginnings:


The RIC shared some non-West (as distinct from anti-West) perspectives on the global order, such as

Upswing in India’s relations with Russia and China:

Change in India – China relationship:

China went back on the 2005 agreement, launched the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, worked to undermine India’s influence in its neighbourhood and expanded its military and economic presence in the Indian Ocean.

  Agreement on the Political Parameters and Guiding Principles for the Settlement of the Boundary Question, a pact the two governments had signed in April 2005: The 2005 pact had considered the two sides’ “strategic and reasonable interests”It had said any settlement “should safeguard due interests of populations in border areas”Both sides have asked their special representatives to reach consensus on definition of LACDefence ministries, military leaders to undertake regular visits to each other’s countries.

Change in India – Russia relationship:

Autonomy needed:

The current India-China stand-off has intensified calls for India to fast-track partnership with the U.S. This is an unexceptionable objective, but is not a silver bullet. National security cannot be fully outsourced. India’s quest for autonomy of action is based on its geographical realities, historical legacies and global ambitions — not a residual Cold War mindset.

Source:”Indian Express”.


The Solidarity among Russia, China and India that began with RIC dialogue has now changed based on the priorities and internal dissension between them. Critically analyse.