UPSC CSE Mains Syllabus: GS-2- India and its neighborhood- relations. 

What led to the current situation?

Yet China chose to increase tensions along the LAC.

Salami slice strategy:

  1. China’s rising tensions with the U.S., its threats against Taiwan
  2. Repeated naval incidents in the South China Sea
  3. New security law for Hong Kong
  4. Finally the tensions along the LAC.

To understand this shift, one has to get a sense of the sources of China’s conduct.

Understanding the shift:

Chinese assessment of the global scenario:

  1. The global economy in the doldrums
  2. Globalisation in an irrecoverable crisisaccentuated by the COVID-19 outbreak
  3. The U.S. under an isolationist Policytaking the most aggressive position towards China since Richard Nixon.

With all these China believes the global order is at a breaking point.

It is fighting back through what game theorists call “salami tactics” — where a dominant power attempts to establish its hegemony piece by piece. India might be one slice in this salami slice strategy.

Perception of decline:

The author says that,

(Here it should be noted that Indian foreign policy in recent days is one of multi-alignment. India has ties with China in BRICS, SCO etc.)

Right time for China : Regional and Global condition

India’s traditional clout in its neighbourhood was slipping:

A confluence of all these factors, which point to a decline in the country’s smart power, allowed China to make aggressive moves on the LAC.

What India needs is a national security strategy that’s decoupled from the compulsions of domestic politics and anchored in neighbourhood realism. It should stand up to China’s bullying on the border now, with a long-term focus on enhancing capacities and winning back its friendly neighbours. There are no quick fixes this time.

Source:” The Hindu“.


Chinese aggression along the Galwan valley is not a reckless action but a well calculated strategic move. Critically examine, in light of the India’s non- alignment policy.