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UPSC CSE – SYLLABUS – GS – 3- Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention.

Linkages between development and spread of extremism.


There is no proper definition for radicalisation. It is generally understood as a process whereby people adopt extremist belief systems—including the willingness to use, encourage or facilitate violence—with the aim of promoting an ideology, political project or cause as a means of social transformation.

Radicalization leading to violence may take diverse forms depending on the context and time period, and may be associated with different causes or ideologies.

Types of Radicalisation :

  •  Right-Wing Extremism – It is characterized by the violent defence of a racial, ethnic or pseudo-national identity, and associated with racism, xenophobia and opposition to immigration and/or left-wing political groups.
  •  Politico-Religious Extremism – It results from political interpretation of religion and the defence, by violent means, of a religious identity perceived to be under attack (via international conflicts, foreign policy, social debates, etc.)
  •  Left-Wing Extremism – It focuses primarily on anti-capitalist demands and calls for the transformation of political systems considered responsible for producing social inequalities

Scenario & challenges:

  •  India also faces the issue of radicalisation and it occurs primarily in the form of left wing extremism and politico-religious.
  •  Some sections of the society, especially the younger generation, are attracted to the Maoists, arising out of an incomplete understanding of their ideology. Similar is the case with Politico – religious radicalism.
  •  Radicalisation of the youth at a very tender age. At such age, knowledge accumulation or ability to think rationally would not have developed and hence are vulnerable to be lured easily.
  •  Utilising the issues faced by the sections of the society either with in the nation or outside. Eg: radicalising youth to join ISIS.
  •  Access to advance technology, including cyberspace, sophisticated communications, global funding have led to growing radicalisation in India. This should be seen along with digital penetration in the nation. 
  •  Violence against minorities may also provide fuel to radicalisation.

What is needed:

  •  India’s approach in dealing with left wing extremism is welcome as it is based on a two pronged approach of armed intervention as well as economic development. Such developmental programmes must be informed to the sections most vulnerable to be radicalised.
  •  Raising public awareness of the diverse forms of violent radicalization, of behaviours that may be signs that a person is becoming radicalized.
  •  Engaging with religious leaders/ institutions enjoying considerable popularity among the followers for carrying out de-radicalisation.
  • Community development and awareness activities would help.
  • Development of prevention strategies to meet the needs of individual groups, communities or organizations.
  •  The Ministry Of Home Affairs houses the Counter Terrorism and Counter Radicalization Division. Such initiatives are much needed.
  •  Finally addressing the root cause of radicalisation is needed.

Radicalisation is a threat to the nation, it’s unity and diversity and hence needs to be eradicated.

Source:” – “


What do you know about radicalisation? Explain with its types. Discuss the scenario and challenges of radicalisation in India. How could this be eradicated?