UPSC CSE Mains Syllabus: GS-3- Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

GS – 2- Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections. 

GS – 4 – Contributions of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India and World.

Lessons from the Lives and Teachings of Great Leaders, Reformers and Administrators

Globalisation and migrants:


Lee Kuan Yew: First Prime Minister of Singapore from 1959 to 1990

Mahatma Gandhi

Gandhian’ economics:

Gandhian’ economics, which E.F. Schumacher (author of Small is Beautiful ) and J.C. Kumarappa (sometimes referred to as Gandhi’s Planning Commission) articulated very well, is based on simple principles.

  1. Human beings and local communities must be the means for human progress— and their well-being must be the purpose of progress too.
  2. Governance must be strengthened at the local level, in villages and cities.
  3. Wealth is good, but wealthy people must be only trustees of a community’swealth, and not its owners.
  4. The alienation of owners from workers must be reduced with the creation of new models of cooperative capitalist enterprises,where the workers, not remote capitalists, or the state, are owners of the enterprises.

All citizens of the State (and India too) deserve jobs, livelihoods and a good life with dignity, whether they are migrants or not. The test of public policies must be not what is good for investors and for the GDP, but what is good for the people, especially those who are the most powerless. In Lee’s, Tata’s, and Gandhi’s books, diluting the rights of workers to make life easier for investors was not done.

Road ahead:

Source:” The Hindu“.


“Economy must serve human needs, rather than human beings becoming fodder for the GDP”. Analyse the statement considering Gandhian village economics.