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INDO NEPAL BORDER ISSUES

INDO NEPAL BORDER ISSUES

On Friday, India’s Defense Minister Rajnath Singh inaugurated the 80-kilometre (50-mile) Lipulek path, which will serve as the shortest route between the capital of New Delhi and Kailash-Mansarovar, the revered Hindu pilgrimage site on the Tibetan plateau.

Nepal’s protest:

Nepal has protested against the inauguration by India of a Himalayan highway constructed in the disputed territory at a strategic three-way junction with Tibet and China.

Nepal’s foreign ministry denounced India’s “unilateral act” that “is contrary to the understanding reached between the two countries … that a solution to border issues will be pursued through negotiations.”

In 2015, Kathmandu had also objected to an agreement between India and China to include the Lipulekh Pass as a bilateral trade route without Nepal’s consent.

Lipulek is a Himalayan pass on the border between the Uttarakhand state of India and the Chinese Tibet region near their tri-junction with Nepal.

Nepal has ongoing claims to the south side of the pass, known as the Kalapani Area, which is controlled by India. The pass is near the Chinese trading town of Taklakot (Purang) in Tibet and has been used since ancient times.

Treaty of Sugaul:

The Treaty of Sugaul, a treaty that formed the boundary line of Nepal, was signed on 1815 and ratified by 4 March 1816 between the East India Company and the King of Nepal following the Anglo-Nepal War of 1814-16. It shows the Makhali River as the western border with India, but separate British maps display the source of the tributary at different locations.

The discrepancy in locating the source of the river led to boundary disputes between India and Nepal, with each country producing maps supporting their own claims.

image 2022 08 17T123629.471

India’s response:

“India is committed to resolving outstanding boundary issues through diplomatic dialogue and in the spirit of our close and friendly bilateral relations with Nepal,” Indian foreign affairs spokesman said.

On its part, New Delhi has said it was open to talks once the coronavirus lockdown is eased. But Kathmandu wants the talks to be held as soon as possible.

Lack of maps published by Nepal:

  • The Lipulekh Pass is claimed by Nepal based on an 1816 treaty it entered with the British colonial rulers to define its western border with India.
  • It also claims the highly strategic areas of Limpiyadhura and Kalapani, although Indian troops have been deployed there since New Delhi fought a war with China in 1962.
  • According to the Treaty of Sugauli, Kali river was agreed as the demarcation line for the boundary between India and Nepal.
  • But there are two Kali rivers, which created the scope for different interpretations by the two neighbours.
  • The disputed landfalls between the two Kali rivers.
  • Part of the boundary issue, is due to a lack of maps published by Nepal.

  • There is a “trust deficit” between the governments of the two countries.
  • An expert group should be formed which will visit the disputed area and agree on a demarcation line between the two neighbours.

Way forward:

  • There is a “trust deficit” between the governments of the two countries.
  • An expert group should be formed which will visit the disputed area and agree on a demarcation line between the two neighbours.

Source:” https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/05/nepal-angry-india-road-disputed-border-area-200511133007074.html “.

POSSIBLE UPSC CSE MAINS QUESTION:

What are the major boundary issues of India with Nepal? What is the possible way forward?

image 2022 08 17T123710.358

Way forward:

  • There is a “trust deficit” between the governments of the two countries.
  • An expert group should be formed which will visit the disputed area and agree on a demarcation line between the two neighbours.

Source:” https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/05/nepal-angry-india-road-disputed-border-area-200511133007074.html “.

POSSIBLE UPSC CSE MAINS QUESTION:

What are the major boundary issues of India with Nepal? What is the possible way forward?