UPSC CSE Mains Syllabus: GS-2 Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.
- India has been elected to the U.N. Security Council as a non-permanent member. This is a significant diplomatic victoryfor the country.
- It has long been pushing for reforms at global institutions.
- India was the only contestant for the Asia Pacific seat.
- But the Indian foreign policy establishment took no chances as the election would be done by secret ballot at the UN General Assembly and two-thirds of the voteswere needed for victory.
- India secured the seat with 184 votes in the 193-strong General Assembly.
- India sought the support of member countries by highlighting its commitment to multilateralism and reforms.
- India had launched a campaign brochure which highlighted its demand for transparency in mandates for UN peacekeeping missions and push for the India-led Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism, and called for joint efforts for UN reform and expansion of the Security Council.
- A “new orientation for a reformed multilateral system” (NORMS) would be India’s overall objective during the two-year tenure that will begin next year.
- Achieving India’s objectives would depend on how it will conduct diplomacyin the global body, build alliances and raise issues that go beyond the interests of the big five.
- India has long been of the view that the structure of the UN Security Councildoesn’t reflect the realities of the 21st century.
- It has also got increasing support from member countries for its push for reforms.
What are ‘non-permanent seats’ at the UNSC?
The UNSC is composed of 15 members:
five permanent members — China, France, Russian Federation, the United States, and the United Kingdom — and 10 non-permanent members who are elected by the General Assembly.
The non-permanent members are elected for two-year terms — so every year, the General Assembly elects five non-permanent members out of the total 10.
These 10 seats are distributed among the regions of the world:
- five seats for African and Asian countries
- one for Eastern European countries
- two for Latin American and Caribbean countries and
- two for Western European and Other Countries.
India begins its term in the beginning of 2021, and will hold the position until the end of 2022.
- The five permanent members of the Security Council have resisted the attempts to reform UNSC.
- The COVID-19 pandemic has already shaken up the global order and sharpened the rivalry between the U.S. and China.
- It has also opened up fresh debates on strengthening multilateralismand multilateral institutions.
- In this context, the challenges before India are many.
- The Security Council is one of the most important multilateral decision-makingbodies where the contours of global geopolitics are often drawn.
- India should avoid the temptation of taking sides at a time when the Security Council is getting more and more polarised.
- To serve its interests and push for its agenda of multilateralism and reforms, India should adopt value-based positionsthat are not transactional, aspire for the leadership of the non-permanent members of the Council and be the voice of the weaker nations.
Source:” The Hindu“.
POSSIBLE UPSC CSE MAINS QUESTION: