UPSC CSE Mains Syllabus: GS-2-  India and its neighborhood- relations.

India Nepal Relationship – Need for Revival

India Nepal relationship took a plunge owing to the demarcation of border. The immediate provocation for the contention is the long-standing territorial issue surrounding Kalapani and the origin of Kali river.  It is a patch of land near the India-Nepal border, close to the Lipulekh Pass on the India-China border. 

·         Lipulek is a Himalayan pass on the border between the Uttarakhand state of India and the Chinese Tibet region near their tri-junction with Nepal.   ·         Nepal has ongoing claims to the south side of the pass, known as the Kalapani Area, which is controlled by India. ·         The pass is near the Chinese trading town of Taklakot (Purang) in Tibet and has been used since ancient times.    Treaty of Sugaul:  ·         The Treaty of Sugaul, a treaty that formed the boundary line of Nepal, was signed on 1815 and ratified by 4 March 1816 between the East India Company and the King of Nepal following the Anglo-Nepal War of 1814-16.  It shows the Makhali River as the western border with India, but separate British maps display the source of the tributary at different locations.    ·         The discrepancy in locating the source of the river led to boundary disputes between India and Nepal, with each country producing maps supporting their own claims. 

Origin of the issue: 

Lack of maps published by Nepal: 

Nepali action: 

Nepali nationalism: 

This illustrates the complexity underlying India-Nepal issues that cannot be solved by rhetoric or unilateral map-making exercises.

Efforts taken so far:

Road ahead: 

Source:”The Hindu “.


What is the India Nepal border issue all about? Assess the efforts taken to douse it. Provide a way forward for warm relationship.