UPSC CSE Mains Syllabus: GS-2  India and its neighborhood- relations.

In news:

The deadly clashes at Galwan and the ongoing standoff between India and China on the ridges or “fingers” around the Pangong Tso are a metaphor for the wider conflict between the two countries over all the areas that Chinese strategy refers to as the “five fingers of the Tibetan palm”.

Five fingers of the Tibetan palm:

According to the construct, attributed to Mao and cited in the 1950s by Chinese officials, Xizang (Tibet) was China’s right palm, and it was its responsibility to “liberate” the fingers, defined as Ladakh, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, and the North East Frontier Agency (NEFA, or Arunachal Pradesh).


Sixty years ago, India began to set about ensuring that quite the reverse ensued, and all five fingers were more closely attached to India, not China.

Chinese agenda:

Even after India and China signed the Panchsheel agreement in 1954 and before the 1962 China-India war, the Nehru government had begun to worry about some of China’s proclamations.

India’s counter strategy:

Following this India set into motion at the time, that provided an effective counter to Mao’s five finger policy over the course of the century.



The same has not happened with Nepal.

What is needed:

Tibet issue:

J&K reorganisation:

Beijing issued a statement decrying the impact on Jammu and Kashmir, and another one specifically on Ladakh, calling it an attempt to “undermine China’s territorial sovereignty by unilaterally changing its domestic law” and warning that the move was “unacceptable and will not come into force”.

Keeping in mind the past policies would help India in succeeding in the current border issue with China.

Source:” The Hindu“.


In order to resolve the recent border issue with China it is imperative to look in to the past policies that India adopted. Elaborate.