UPSC CSE Mains Syllabus: GS-3- Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention

Hybrid warfare – China

In news:

The Indian Express reported that Zhenhua, a Chinese company, monitors the subject’s digital footprint across social media platforms, maintains an ‘information library’, which includes content not just from news sources, forums, but also from papers, patents, bidding documents, even positions of recruitment. Significantly, it builds a ‘relational database’, which records and describes associations between individuals, institutions and information.”

Hybrid warfare:

Features of Hybrid warfare:

1) Disinformation and misinformation operations:

2) Political and economic coercion: 

3) Cyber and space operations: 

4) Proxies and state-controlled forces: 

China and Hybrid warfare:

How India fought hybrid warfare – Doklam Episode:

Chinese strategy:

India’s counter strategy:

Caution needed:


What do you know about Hybrid warfare? Assess the threats from China in this regard? How could India counter it?