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1. The Equal Pay International Coalition is led by which of the following international organisation?

  1. ILO
  2. UN Women
  3. OECD
  4. All the above organisation

Answer: (d) All the above organisation

Explanation:

In NEWS: Pay transparency can address the gender pay gap

  • International Equal Pay Day is being marked by a webinar on tackling the gender pay gap that will discuss issues raised in a new ILO paper on the importance of pay transparency legislation.
  • On average, women, are paid about 20 per cent less than men, globally.
  • While individual characteristics such as education, working time, occupational segregation, skills and experience, explain part of the gender pay gap, a large part is due to discrimination based on gender.

About Equal Pay International Coalition

  • EPIC is the Equal Pay International Coalition.
  • Led by the ILO, UN Women, and the OECD. Hence option (d) is correct
  • The Coalition’s goal is to achieve equal pay for women and men everywhere.
  • By bringing together a diverse set of actors with different areas of focus and expertise, EPIC supports governments, employers, workers, and their organizations to make concrete and coordinated progress towards this goal.
  • EPIC is currently the only multi-stakeholder partnership working to reduce the gender pay gap at the global, regional and national levels.
  • EPIC also includes Equal Pay Champions who are influential individuals who advocate for equal pay in their personal capacity.
  • EPIC accelerates progress towards gender pay equity by raising awareness, sharing knowledge, embracing innovation and scaling up initiatives and programmes that have already yielded positive results.
  • The Coalition also provides support to improve legislation, build capacity and strengthen monitoring and enforcement mechanisms
  • EPIC provides a platform for members to express their views, experiences and ideas on how to tackle the gender pay gap

Source: https://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_856203/lang–en/index.htm

2. Consider the following statements regarding Convention on the Elimination of ALL Forms of Discrimination against Women

  1. It is adopted by the OECD.
  2. India has not yet ratified the CEDAW.
  3. It eliminates all forms of discrimination against women in all areas of life

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1, 2 and 3
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 3 only

Answer: (d) 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: The gender pay gap, hard truths and actions needed

  • India is among the most important countries when it comes to the global economic growth and structural transformation
  • Indian women earned, on an average, 48% less compared to their male counterparts in 1993-94. Since then, the gap declined to 28% in 2018-19 as in the labour force survey data of the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO).
  • The pandemic reversed decades of progress as preliminary estimates from the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) 2020-21 show an increase in the gap by 7% between 2018-19 and 2020-21.
  • The ILO has enshrined ‘equal pay for work of equal value’ in its Constitution and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women provides an international legal framework for realising gender equality and addressing the intersecting forms of discrimination and vulnerabilities among women and girls.

About Convention on the Elimination of ALL Forms of Discrimination against Women

  • The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) is the body of independent experts that monitors implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Hence statement 3 is correct
  • Adopted by the United Nations in 1979, CEDAW is the most important human rights treaty for women. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • The CEDAW Committee consists of 23 independent experts on women’s rights from around the world.
  • It was instituted on 3 September 1981 and has been ratified by 189 states.
  • India signed CEDAW on July 30, 1980 and ratified it on July 9, 1993, with certain reservations. India has not yet ratified the Optional Protocol to CEDAW. Hence statement 2 is incorrect

States that ratify the Convention are legally obliged to:

  • Eliminate all forms of discrimination against women in all areas of life.
  • Ensure women’s full development and advancement in order that they can exercise and enjoy their human rights and fundamental freedoms in the same way as men; and
  • Allow the CEDAW Committee to scrutinize their efforts to implement the treaty by reporting to the body at regular intervals.

In accordance with the Optional Protocol to the Convention, the Committee is mandated to:

  • Receive communications from individuals or groups of individuals submitting claims of violations of rights protected under the Convention to the Committee
  • Initiate inquiries into situations of grave or systematic violations of women’s rights. These procedures are optional and are only available where the State concerned has accepted them.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/the-gender-pay-gap-hard-truths-and-actions-needed/article65907149.ece

3. Consider the following statements regarding Financial Action Task Force

  1. It is the global money laundering and terrorist financing watchdog.
  2. It was established by the G-7 countries
  3. Its Secretariat is located in Paris

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1, 2 and 3
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 3 only

Answer: (b) 1,2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: A disruptive nexus of China and Pakistan

  • Recently, China used its status as a permanent member of the UN Security Council (UNSC) to put a hold on the UN Security Council’s Al Qaida and ISIL (Daesh) Sanctions Committee’s (also known as the UNSC 1267 Committee) listing of Laskar-e-Taiba (LeT) terrorist Sajid Mir, one of India’s most wanted in the 2008 Mumbai attacks.
  • China’s efforts to save its “all weather friend” from global censure, Pakistan continues to be in the “grey list” of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF).

About the Financial Action Task Force

  • The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) was established in July 1989 by a Group of Seven (G-7) Summit in Paris, initially to examine and develop measures to combat money laundering. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • FATF expanded its mandate to incorporate efforts to combat terrorist financing, in addition to money laundering.  In April 2012, it added efforts to counter the financing of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
  • The objectives of the FATF are to set standards and promote effective implementation of legal, regulatory and operational measures for combating money laundering, terrorist financing and other related threats to the integrity of the international financial system. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Its Secretariat is located at the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) headquarters in Paris. Hence statement 3 is correct
  • Currently, it comprises 37 member jurisdictions.
  • India has been a member of the FATF since 2010.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/a-disruptive-nexus-of-china-and-pakistan/article65906029.ece

4. Consider the following statements regarding Green Fins Hub

  1. It aims to protect coral reefs through environmentally friendly guidelines promoting sustainable diving and snorkelling
  2. It is launched by the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), along with UK-based charity Reef-World Foundation

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: UNEP launches new worldwide digital platform to encourage sustainable marine tourism

  • Green Fins Hub will help diving and snorkeling operators worldwide to make simple, cost-efficient changes to their daily practices by utilizing tried and tested solutions
  • The United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), along with UK-based charity Reef-World Foundation, recently launched the Green Fins Hub. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It would help spread awareness about the global best practices to protect the coral reefs and their fragile marine ecosystems.
  • It aims to protect coral reefs through environmentally friendly guidelines promoting sustainable diving and snorkelling. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It provides the only internationally recognised environmental standards for marine tourism and its robust assessment system measures compliance.
  • Green Fins encourages and empowers divers, snorkellers, the diving industry and coastal communities to reduce the pressures on coral reefs by offering marine tourism companies practical, low-cost alternatives to harmful practices – such as anchoring, fish feeding and chemical pollution – as well as providing strategic training, support and resources.
  • Green Fins is the world’s first independent certificate to stop the environmental impact from marine-based tourism, implemented predominantly through its membership available for marine tourism operators everywhere.
  • Green Fins memberships are managed through a centralised platform – the Green Fins Hub. This allows all operators easy access to a personalised action plan, a library of environmental solutions as well as connection to other operators and conservation experts through the Community Forum.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/environment/unep-launches-new-worldwide-digital-platform-to-encourage-sustainable-marine-tourism-84946

5. Manasbal Lake is located in which of the following area in India?

  1. Jhelum Valley
  2. Leepa Valley
  3. Murree hills
  4. Bagrot Valley

Answer: (a) Jhelum Valley

Explanation:

In NEWS: After 33 years, Kashmir’s pristine Manasbal Lake opens for NCC cadets again

  • Central Kashmir’s Manasbal Lake is once again open for training drills, more than three decades after raging militancy forced the Navy to abandon it.
  • The NCC has been working in J&K since 1965 and would train cadets on the shores of Dal Lake and Manasbal Lake. The security situation had forced us to shift the training module outside the Valley.
  • Amid picturesque hills and pristine waters, over 100 National Cadet Corps (NCC) cadets, both from J&K and outside
  • Manasbal Lake is located in the Jhelum Valley in the north of Ganderbal district of Jammu and Kashmir, India. The name is believed to be derived from Mansarovar Lake. Hence option (a) is correct
  • It is the deepest lake in India. Lotus is found in abundance in this lake. The roots of these plants are marketed for food use.
  • The site was abandoned by the Navy in 1989.
  • The Mughal Garden, called the Jaroka Bagh, (meaning bay window) built by Nur Jahan overlooks the lake.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/after-33-years-kashmirs-pristine-manasbal-lake-opens-for-ncc-cadets-again/article65890337.ece

6. Consider the following statements regarding Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme

  1. It is a flagship scheme of the Union MSME ministry.
  2. It is a credit linked subsidy scheme for generation of employment opportunities through establishment of micro enterprises in rural as well as urban areas of the Country.
  3. KVIC is the nodal Agency at the national level to implement the scheme

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1, 2 and 3
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 3 only

Answer: (b) 1,2, and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: KVIC Launches 72 units under Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme to empower artisans

Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) Manoj Kumar inaugurated 72 Units assisted under PMEGP and Disbursed Margin Money Subsidy to 720 PMEGP Beneficiaries.

About PMEGP

  • The Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP) is  a flagship scheme of the Ministry of MSME. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It was launched in September 2008 by merging the erstwhile Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP) implemented by KVIC and Pradhan Mantri Rojgar Yojana (PMRY) implemented by District Industries Centers.
  • This is a credit linked subsidy scheme for generation of employment opportunities through establishment of micro enterprises in rural as well as urban areas of the Country. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • KVIC is the nodal Agency at the national level to implement the scheme. Hence statement 3 is correct
  • Maximum cost of the project eligible for subsidy under the scheme in the manufacturing sector is Rs. 50 lakh, and Rs. 20 lakh in the service sector.
  • The maximum cost of the project eligible for subsidy under this scheme in manufacturing sector is Rs.50 lakh and in service sector, it is Rs.20 lakh.
  • The KVIC is currently geo-tagging all PMEGP units to as to verify the actual physical status of the units and monitor their performance during a specific period of time.
  • Till date, more than 1 lakh PMEGP units have been geotagged, enabling anyone to locate the unit using a mobile application.
  • The role of the District Level Task Force Committee has been removed for approving the PMEGP projects.

Source:https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1860145#:~:text=Mumbai%2C%2017%20September%202022,at%20KVIC%20Office%2C%20Mumbai%20today.

7. Often the term KRITAGYA is seen in news, it is related to

  1. Promote speed breeding for crop improvement
  2. Promote double agricultural exports
  3. Promote domestic production of edible oils
  4. Promote sustainable consumption

Answer: (a) Promote speed breeding for crop improvement

Explanation:

In NEWS: ICAR hoisting Hackathon 3.0 “KRITAGYA” to promote Speed Breeding of crops

  • The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is hosting Hackathon 3.0 “KRITAGYA” to promote “speed breeding for crop improvement” in association with its National Agricultural Higher Education Project and Crop Science Division. Hence option (a)  is correct
  • This initiative aims to help the crop sector achieve the desired immediate results by fostering employability, entrepreneurship, innovation, and problem-solving skills.
  • Additionally, it will encourage the nation to adopt more technologically advanced solutions.
  • Speed breeding for crop improvement will be the main topic of the problem statements and solutions.
  • Global food security has become a major concern due to the expanding human population and the changing environment, as the current rate of improvement of several important crops is insufficient to meet future demand.
  • Speed breeding is currently being used widely as a solution in this direction to shorten generation times and allow for multiple generations of crops per year.
  • The definition of KRITAGYA is: KRI for Krishi meaning Agriculture, TA for Taknik meaning Technology, and GYA for Gyan meaning Knowledge

About Hackathon 1.0 & 2.0

  • Hackathon 1.0 (Promoting Innovation in Farm Mechnization) was organised in the year 2020 to promote potential technology solutions for enhancing farm mechanization with special emphasis on women-friendly equipments.
  • Hackthon-2.0 (Innovations for Precision and Economical Animal Farming) was held in the year 2021.

Source: https://newsonair.com/2022/09/18/icar-hoisting-hackathon-3-0-kritagya-to-promote-speed-breeding-of-crops/

8. Which of the following statement is correct regarding SOVA?

  1. It is a new marine information dissemination system.
  2. It is a novel mobile banking “Trojan” virus.
  3. It is a satellite mission to the measure the polarization of X-Rays
  4. It is a portal to promote soya bean export

Answer: (b) It is a novel mobile banking “Trojan” virus.

Explanation:

In NEWS: Indians at risk because of this new mobile banking virus

  • India’s federal cyber security agency issued an advisory saying that the virus has upgraded to its fifth version after it was first detected in the Indian cyberspace in July.
  • The new mobile banking ‘Trojan’ virus — SOVA — which can stealthily encrypt an Android phone for ransom and is hard to uninstall is targeting Indian customers. Hence option (b)  is correct
  • Previously, Sova focused on countries like the USA, Russia and Spain and later targeted India.
  • This virus is one of the most dangerous viruses for mobile net banking users in India. It is hard to uninstall and is the fifth version of the first detected virus in Indian cyberspace.
  • It has the capability to encrypt all the data. This was reported by the country’s federal cyber security agency.
  • This version of the malware hides the fake android applications that have similar logos, equivalent to the search engines like Chrome, Amazon, and NFT platforms to fool users by installing it.
  • The key feature of this virus is its smart action. It recodes the protection module that aims to save itself from different victims’ actions.
  • It is capable of collecting keystrokes, steal cookies, intercept multi-factor authentication tokens, take screenshots and record video from a webcam and perform gestures like green click, swipe etc., using android accessibility service.
  • It is also capable of intercepting actions that seek to uninstall the malware from setting or pressing the icon.
  • It is a major threat to privacy and security of sensitive customer data and can cause large-scale financial frauds and cyberattacks.

Source: https://www.financialexpress.com/industry/technology/indians-at-risk-because-of-this-new-mobile-banking-virus-check-details/2669293/

9. With respect to International Treaty of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, consider the following statement

  1. It is a legally binding agreement was adopted by the Food and Agriculture Organization.
  2. It provides solutions to achieve food and nutritional security as well as climate resilient agriculture.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: India to host 9th session of Seed Treaty from Sept 19

India to host 9th Session of Governing Body of the ITPGRFA from 19-24th September 2022 in New Delhi

About the ITPGRFA

  • ITPGRFA is a legally binding comprehensive agreement adopted in November 2001 at Rome during the 31st session of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, which entered into force on June 29, 2004 and currently has 149 Contracting Parties, including India. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The objectives of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture are the conservation and sustainable use of all plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of their use, in harmony with the Convention on Biological Diversity, for sustainable agriculture and food security. Hence statement 2 is correct

The Treaty aims at:

  • Recognizing the enormous contribution of farmers to the diversity of crops that feed the world.
  • Establishing a global system to provide farmers, plant breeders and scientists with access to plant genetic materials.
  • Ensuring that recipients share benefits they derive from the use of these genetic materials with the countries where they have been originated.

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/economy/agri-business/india-to-host-9th-session-of-seed-treaty-from-sept-19/article65899067.ece

10. Consider the following

  1. Black-necked crane
  2. Cheetah
  3. Flying squirrel
  4. Snow leopard

Which of the above are naturally found in India?

  1. 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. 1, 3 and 4 only
  3. 2 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: (b) 1,3 and 4 only

Explanation:

Cheetah is an extinct species in India. They have gone extinct during the pre-independence era mainly due to hunting. By the beginning of the twentieth century, the species was already heading for extinction in many areas.