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GMT 28/09/2022

1. Consider the following statements regarding JALDOOT app

  1. It has been jointly developed by Ministry of Rural Development and Panchayati Raj.
  2. It will be used across the country to capture the water level of two or three selected wells in a village.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: JALDOOT App launched: to enable monitoring of ground water tables across the country

  • The Union Rural Development Ministry on Tuesday launched a mobile application that will enable gram rojgar sahayaks to measure the water level of selected wells twice a year — before and after the monsoon. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • This app will be used across the country to capture the water level of two or three selected wells in a village. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Manual monitoring of water levels in open wells will be done twice a year — pre-monsoon and post-monsoon — according to the statement.
  • Jaldoots, the personnel assigned to measure water level, will upload the geo-tagged photographs through the app on every occasion of measurement
  • The app will facilitate panchayats with robust data which can be further used for better planning of works.
  • The ground water data could be utilised as part of the Gram Panchayat Development Plan and MGNREGA planning exercises

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1862606

2. Consider the following statements regarding the Rotterdam Convention

  1. India is not yet ratified this Convention
  2. It covers pesticides and industrial chemicals that have been banned or severely restricted for health or environmental reason
  3. Annex II lists chemicals that have been banned or severely restricted for health or environmental reasons

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (c) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Rotterdam Convention: International trade of 2 hazardous pesticides recommended for ‘prior informed consent’

  • International trade of two new hazardous pesticides — Iprodione and Terbufos — has been recommended for “prior informed consent” (PIC) procedure under the Rotterdam Convention.
  • The chemicals are dangerous for humans and aquatic animals.

About Rotterdam Convention

  • It is a treaty under United Nations Organization.
  • It is a multilateral environmental agreement which prescribes obligations on the importers and exporters of certain hazardous chemicals.
  • It focuses on an open exchange of information and calls on exporters of hazardous chemicals to use proper labelling, include directions on safe handling, and inform purchasers of any known restrictions or bans.
  • The convention has 161 parties, which includes 158 UN member states, the Cook Islands, the State of Palestine, and the European Union. 
  • Annex II lists chemicals that have been banned or severely restricted for health or environmental reasons. Hence statement 3 is incorrect
  • India ratified the Convention in 2005. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Convention covers pesticides and industrial chemicals that have been banned or severely restricted for health or environmental reasons by Parties and which have been notified by Parties for inclusion in the PIC procedure. Hence statement 2 is correct

The objectives of the Convention are:

  • to promote shared responsibility and cooperative efforts among Parties in the international trade of certain hazardous chemicals in order to protect human health and the environment from potential harm.
  • to contribute to the environmentally sound use of those hazardous chemicals, by facilitating information exchange about their characteristics, by providing for a national decision-making process on their import and export and by disseminating these decisions to Parties.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/agriculture/rotterdam-convention-international-trade-of-2-hazardous-pesticides-recommended-for-prior-informed-consent85130#:~:text=International%20trade%20of%20two%20new,PIC)%20procedure%20under%20Rotterdam%20convention.

3. Consider the following statements regarding Prior Informed Consent Procedure

  1. Rotterdam Convention creates legally binding obligations for the implementation of this procedure.
  2. It enhances the control of certain substances in international trade
  3. The PIC procedure ban or restrict any chemicals exports

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Rotterdam Convention: International trade of 2 hazardous pesticides recommended for ‘prior informed consent’

  • Iprodione & Terbufos dangerous for health of humans, aquatic animals; India among largest exporters of Terbufos
  • In India, the use of these chemicals was permitted by the 2015 Anupam Verma committee report.  The country is among the largest exporters of Terbufos.
  • The recommendations were made by the Chemical Review Committee on September 22, 2022 at the 18th meeting of the Rotterdam Convention’s Chemical Review Committee (CRC 18) held at Rome, Italy.
  • Iprodione, a fungicide used on vines, fruits, trees and vegetables, has been classified as carcinogenic and toxic for reproduction.

About Prior Informed Consent Procedure

  • The Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade is a global treaty that came into force in February 2004.  Hence statement 1 is correct

As of October 2014, 154 countries, called Parties, had ratified the Convention.

It has the aim of protecting human health and the environment by promoting information exchange on pesticides and industrial chemicals that have been banned or severely restricted in Parties and by making the PIC procedure legally binding.

  • The key provisions of the Rotterdam Convention are information exchange on potentially hazardous chemicals, pesticides and pesticide formulations as well as the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) procedure.
  • The PIC procedure enhances the control of certain substances in international trade – importing Parties to the Convention have to decide whether or not they consent to imports of PIC listed chemicals and exporting parties must ensure that their exporters comply with the decisions. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The PIC listing of a substance does not represent a global ban of a substance nor a recommendation to ban the substance. Hence statement 3 is incorrect
  • PIC listing does also not mean that a substance cannot be used safely.
  • The PIC listing process is a procedural process and does not involve a risk evaluation by the Convention’s Chemical Review Committee (CRC).
  • Intentional misuse is not a reason for including pesticides in the PIC list.
  • CropLife International supports the PIC in principle

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/agriculture/rotterdam-convention-international-trade-of-2-hazardous-pesticides-recommended-for-prior-informed-consent–85130#:~:text=International%20trade%20of%20two%20new,PIC)%20procedure%20under%20Rotterdam%20convention.

4. Consider the following statements

  1. A sounding rocket is an instrument-carrying rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its sub-orbital flight.
  2. Rohini RH-200 is a two-stage sounding rocket capable of climbing to a height of 70 km bearing scientific payloads.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: ISRO eyeing 200th successful launch of RH-200 sounding rocket in a row

  • Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) hopes to achieve a remarkable feat — the 200th successful launch of the Rohini RH-200 sounding rocket in a row.
  • The 3.5-metre-tall RH-200, a trusted member of the Rohini sounding rocket family used by the ISRO for atmospheric studies, has completed 198 consecutive successful flights.

About RH-200

  • RH-200 is a two-stage rocket capable of climbing to a height of 70 km bearing scientific payloads. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The first and second stages of RH-200 are powered by solid motors.
  • The ‘200’ in the name denotes the diameter of the rocket in mm. Other operational Rohini variants are RH-300 Mk-II and RH-560 Mk-III.
  • The ISRO has launched more than 1,600 RH-200 rockets so far.
  • Rohini is a series of sounding rockets developed by theIndian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) for meteorological and atmospheric study. 
  • These sounding rockets are capable of carrying payloads of 2 to 200 kilograms between altitudes of 100 to 500 kms.

About Sounding Rocket

  • A sounding rocket is an instrument-carrying rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its sub-orbital flight.  Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The rockets are used to launch instruments from 48 to 145 km above the surface of the Earth.
  • The first sounding rocket to be launched from Thumba was the American Nike-Apache – on November 21, 1963.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/isro-eyeing-200th-successful-launch-of-rh-200-sounding-rocket-in-a-row/article65931221.ece

5. Madhav National Park, recently seen in the news, is located in which of the following regions?

  1. Uttar Pradesh
  2. Gujarat
  3. Assam
  4. Madhya Pradesh

Answer: (d) Madhya Pradesh

Explanation:

In NEWS: 60 years after they were last seen, tigers to come back to Madhya Pradesh’s Madhav National Park

  • Tigers will be reintroduced in the Madhav National Park (MNP) of Madhya Pradesh more than six decades. Hence option (d) is correct
  • The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) has given the green signal to relocate five tigers from three national parks of the state to MNP.

About Madhav National Park

  • The park is situated near Shivpuri town and is a part of the upper Vindhyan hills.
  • The Park was the hunting ground of Mughal emperors and Maharaja of Gwalior.
  • It got the status of a National Park in 1958.
  • The Park is gifted with a diverse ecosystem comprising of lakes, forests and grasslands.
  • The forest is home to antelopes like Nilgai, Chinkara and Chowsinga and Deer including Chital, Sambar and Barking Deer.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/60-years-after-they-were-last-seen-tigers-to-come-back-to-madhya-pradesh-s-madhav-national-park-85133v

6. Consider the following statements regarding Very Short-Range Air Defence System missile

  1. It is a Man Portable Air Defence System (MANPAD) designed and developed indigenously by DRDO
  2. It is used to defend against low-altitude air threats, notably helicopters and low-flying aircraft.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: DRDO tests of Very Short-Range Air Defence System missiles successful

THE Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) conducted two successful test flights of Very Short-Range Air Defence System (VSHORADS) missiles capable of neutralising low altitude aerial threats at short ranges.

About Very Short-Range Air Defence System (VSHORADS) missiles

  • It is a Man Portable Air Defence System (MANPAD) designed and developed indigenously by DRDO’s Research Centre Imarat (RCI), Hyderabad in collaboration with other DRDO laboratories and Indian Industry Partners. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The last line of defence for soldiers against hostile combat helicopters and aircraft is VSHORADS. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • VSHORADS features a number of cutting-edge technologies, including an integrated avionics system and a miniaturised Reaction Control System.
  • Numerous unique technologies, including integrated avionics and a miniaturised Reaction Control System (RCS), have been successfully tested and are included in the VSHORADS missile.
  • The missile is propelled by a dual thrust solid motor and is designed to eliminate low altitude aerial threats at close ranges.
  • The missile’s design, including the launcher, has undergone extensive optimization to ensure portability. The mission objectives have been fully satisfied by both flight tests.
  • VSHORAD is the soldier’s last line of defence against enemy combat aircraft and helicopters in the multi-layered air defence network.
  • These Very Short-Range Air Defence Missiles are seen to be absolutely essential for the defence of any significant city or any important strategic area.
  • The Air Defense Guns L-70 and ZU-23 in the Indian Army’s current stock are more than 40 years old and hence completely out of date.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/pune/drdo-tests-of-very-short-range-air-defence-system-missiles-successful-8176722/

7. Consider the following statements regarding AVGAS 100 LL

  1. It is the indigenously developed special aviation fuel meant for piston engine aircrafts and unmanned arial vehicles.
  2. It has been developed by Indian Oil Corporation.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Centre launches indigenously developed aviation fuel AVGAS 100 LL

  • The government launched the indigenously developed AVGAS 100 LL, a special aviation fuel meant for piston engine aircrafts and unmanned ariel vehicles. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It has been developed by Indian Oil Corporation. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Currently, India is importing this product from European countries.
  • The launch of indigenous AV GAS 100 LL is important to serve the needs of a thriving aviation industry with increase in footfall at airports, rise in number of aircraft and Flying Training Organisations (FTOs) in trainee aircraft for pilot training in future.
  • Avgas 100LL has lean mixture octane rating of better than 100, whilst its rich mixture octane rating exceeds 130 that allows high performance engines to operate safely.
  • Avgas is fuel for small piston engine powered aircraft, while jet fuel is more like kerosene and is used to power turbine engine aircraft.
  • As the demand for air transport in India is expected to increase manifold in the future, there is going to be a huge demand for trained pilots.

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/current-affairs/centre-launches-indigenously-developed-aviation-fuel-avgas-100-ll-122092600834_1.html

8. Consider the following statements regarding Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) Order, 1968

  1. Election Commission is the only authority to decide issues on a dispute or a merger under the order.
  2. Election Commission can decide disputes among rival groups or sections of a recognised political party staking claim to its name and symbol.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Supreme Court refuses to stay EC proceedings on Shinde’s claim over party

  • Uddhav Thackeray, a Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court on Tuesday allowed the Election Commission of India (ECI) to go ahead and decide on Maharashtra Chief Minister Eknath Shinde’s claim that his faction represents the “real” Shiv Sena party.
  • The Bench led by Justice D.Y. Chandrachud dismissed the Thackeray camp’s plea to stay the Election Commission of India (ECI) proceedings under the Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) Order of 1968.

Under what authority does the EC decide such disputes?

  • The Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) Order, 1968 empowers the EC to recognise political parties and allot symbols.
  • Under Paragraph 15 of the Order, it can decide disputes among rival groups or sections of a recognised political party staking claim to its name and symbol. Hence statement 2 is correct

What is the legal status of Paragraph 15?

  • Under Paragraph 15, the EC is the only authority to decide issues on a dispute or a merger. The Supreme Court upheld its validity in Sadiq Ali and another vs. ECI in 1971. Hence statement 1 is correct

What aspects does the EC consider before recognising one group as the official party?

  • The ECI primarily ascertains the support enjoyed by a claimant within a political party in its organisational wing and in its legislative wing.
  • Whenever the EC could not test the strength of rival groups based on support within the party organisation, it fell back on testing the majority only among elected MPs and MLAs.
  • The splinter group of the party – other than the group that got the party symbol – had to register itself as a separate party.
  • They could lay claim to national or state party status only on the basis of its performance in state or central elections after registration.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/real-shiv-sena-tussle-supreme-court-allows-election-commission-to-hear-shinde-factions-claim-over-party-symbol/article65941840.ece

9. Consider the following statements regarding Operation Megh Chakra

  1. It is launched by the Central Bureau of Investigation
  2. It aims to combat the spread of Child Sexual Abuse Materials online.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Operation Megh Chakra: CBI raids at 56 locations across 20 states over online child sexual abuse

  • The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) launched Operation Megh Chakra on September 24, 2022 to conduct searches at 56 locations across India as part of a nationwide drive against the circulation and sharing of child sexual abuse material (CSAM). Hence statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is correct
  • This operation was launched after the CBI received intelligence from Interpol’s Singapore special unit based on the information received from authorities in New Zealand.
  • The CBI has filed two cases accusing that large number of Indian nationals of being involved in online circulation, downloading and transmission of CSAM using cloud-based storage.
  • The searches were conducted in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Goa, Karnataka, Telangana, Tamil Nadu and others.
  • The raids witnessed the seizure of electronic devices, like mobile phones and laptops, that belonged to suspects.
  • Similar exercise was launched by CBI last year under the code name Operation Carbon.
  • 13 states and 1 Union Territory were raided and the CBI filed 24 cases involving more than 80 people.
  • The raids under Operation Carbon was conducted in 76 locations across India.

Source: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/et-tv/karnataka-another-terrorist-suspect-arrested-2-more-arrested-from-shivamogga/videoshow/94445443.cms

10. Who among the following rulers advised his subjects through this inscription?

“Whosoever praises his religious sect or blames other sects out of excessive devotion to his own sect, with the view of glorifying his own sect, he rather injures his own sect very severely.”

  1. Ashoka
  2. Samudragupta
  3. Harshavardhana
  4. Krishnadeva Raya

Answer: (a) Ashoka

Explanation:

James Prinsep was the first person to decipher Ashoka’s edicts.