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Syllabus GS II Development 14-07-2022

1. Which of the following releases the Global Gender gap index?

  • IMF
  • WHO
  • UN Women
  • World Economic forum

Answer: (d) World Economic forum

Explanation:

In the news: India ranks 135 out of 146 in Gender Gap Index, Country is worst performer in the world in ‘health and survival’ sub-index: report. India ranks 135 among a total of 146 countries in the Global Gender Gap Index, 2022, released by the World Economic Forum. Hence option (d) is correct.

  • The Global Gender Report, 2022, which includes the index, says it will now take 132 years to reach gender parity, with the gap reducing only by four years from 2021 and the gender gap closing by 68.1%.
  • But this does not compensate for the generational loss between 2020 and 2021 as the trends leading up to 2020 showed that the gender gap was set to close within 100 years.
  • India ranks poorly among its neighbours and is behind Bangladesh (71), Nepal (96), Sri Lanka (110), Maldives (117) and Bhutan (126). Only the performance of Iran (143), Pakistan (145) and Afghanistan (146) was worse than India in South Asia. In 2021, India ranked 140 out of 156 nations.
  • The Global Gender Gap Index benchmarks gender parity across four key dimensions or sub-indices — economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, health and survival, and political empowerment.
  • It measures scores on a 0-to-100 scale, which can be interpreted as the distance covered towards parity or the percentage of the gender gap that has been closed.

2. Right to property is a?

  • Legal right
  • Fundamental right
  • Constitutional right
  • Natural right

Answer: (c) constitutional right

Explanation:

In the news:Cannot impose ‘omnibus’ ban on demolitions: SC

The Constitution originally provided for the right to property under Articles 31.. Article 31 provided that “no person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law.” It also provided that compensation would be paid to a person whose property has been taken for public purposes.

The provisions relating to the right to property were changed a number of times. The 44th Amendment of 1978 removed the right to property from the list of fundamental rights. A new provision, Article 300-A, was added to the constitution, which provided that “no person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law”.Thus, if a legislator made a law depriving a person of his property, there would be no obligation on the part of the State to pay anything as compensation.Right to property is still a constitutional right under Article 300A of the Constitution of India though not a fundamental right. Hence (c) is the correct answer.

3. Consider the following statements regarding the Blue dot network:

  • The  Blue dot network will be led by the US along with Japan, India and Australia.
  • The initiative is meant to galvanise the private sector investment in infrastructure development in emerging markets.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In the news: Scale up the India-South Korea bilateral partnership,There is much potential for Seoul to become the fourth pillar in New Delhi’s Indo-Pacific strategy

Blue Dot network is ledby the US along with Japan and Australia. India is not a member. Hence Statement (1) is incorrect.

  • Objective: The initiative is meant to galvanise the private sector investment in infrastructure development in emerging markets. Hence Statement  (2) is correct.
  • It is expected to serve as a global evaluation and certification system for roads, ports, and bridges with a focus on the Indo-Pacific region.
    • The projects that are approved will get a “Blue Dot”, which would set universal standards of excellence to attract private capital to projects in developing and emerging economies.
    • It will be a globally recognized symbol of market-driven, transparent and sustainable infrastructure projects.
    • It will foster sustainable economic growth by promoting excellence in infrastructure development and supporting alternatives to predatory lending.

4. In the context of vaccines manufactured to prevent COVID-19 pandemic, consider the following statements:

  1. The Serum Institute of India produced COVID-19 vaccine named Covishield using mRNA platform.
  2. Sputnik V vaccine is manufactured using a vector based platform.
  3. COVAXIN is an inactivated pathogen based vaccine.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • 1 and 2 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 3 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (b)  2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In the news:The Sputnik V conundrum

Hence statement (1) is incorrect: The Serum Institute of India produced COVID-19 vaccine named Covishield but not using mRNA platform. It has been prepared using the viral vector platform. In the vaccine, a chimpanzee adenovirus – ChAdOx1 – has been modified to enable it to carry the COVID-19 spike protein into the cells of humans. This cold virus is basically incapable of infecting the receiver, but can very well teach the immune system to prepare a mechanism against such viruses.

The same technology was used to prepare vaccines for viruses like Ebola.

Hence statement (2) is correct: Sputnik V, the world’s first registered vaccine, is based on the human adenoviral vector-based platform. The gene from adenovirus, which causes the infection, is removed while a gene with the code of a protein from another virus spike is inserted.

Hence statement (3) is correct: Covexin is an inactivated viral vaccine. It is developed with Whole-Virion Inactivated Vero Cell-derived technology. That is, it contains inactivated viruses that cannot infect a person, but still can teach the immune system to prepare a defence mechanism against the active virus.

5. Consider the following statement regarding James Webb Space Telescope:

  1. It is the world’s most powerful ‘telescope’.
  2. The James Webb Space Telescope is a spacecraft telescope designed to detect the most distant and coldest objects in the Universe.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In the news:

In high-res: unfolding mysteries of the night sky

  • The James Webb Space Telescope is a spacecraft telescope designed to detect the most distant and coldest objects in the Universe, Hence statement (2) is correct. It will also analyse far away potentially habitable planets and other cosmic events. The main goal of JWST is to surpass the range of the Hubble Telescope and It is the world’s most powerful ‘telescope’ , Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • It is named after a NASA administrator (James E. Webb) who headed the Apollo, Gemini and Mercury missions (1961-1968).
  • NASA coordinated the development of JWST in association with the Canadian Space Agency and European Space Agency. The telescope was launched on December 25, 2021. Ariane 5 rocket carried the telescope to orbit from Kourou, French Guiana.
  • It will provide better infrared sensitivity and image resolution over the Hubble Telescope. Viewing power is almost 100 times greater than all other major telescopes on and off the plane.

6. Consider the following statement regarding Climate change:

  1. Climate change is a long-term change in the average weather patterns that have come to define Earth’s local, regional and global climates.
  2. The largest driver of warming is the emission of gases that create a greenhouse effect, of which more than 90% are carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane
  3. Climate change threatens people with food insecurity, water scarcity, flooding, infectious diseases, extreme heat, economic losses, and displacement.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

     (a) 1 and 2 only

     (b) 2 and 3 only

     (c) 1 and 3 only

     (d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In the news: Climate Change Missions in all districts of T.N.

Climate change includes both global warming driven by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases and the resulting large-scale shifts in weather patterns.Hence statement (1) is correct

Though there have been previous periods of climatic change, since the mid-20th century humans have had an unprecedented impact on Earth’s climate system and caused change on a global scale

  • Climate Change is a periodic modification of Earth’s climate brought about due to the changes in the atmosphere as well as the interactions between the atmosphere and various other geological, chemical, biological and geographical factors within the Earth’s system.
  • Climate change can make weather patterns less predictable. These unforeseen weather patterns can make it difficult to maintain and grow crops, making agriculture-dependent countries like India vulnerable.
  • It is also causing damaging weather events like more frequent and intense hurricanes, floods, cyclones, flooding etc.
  • Due to the rising temperature caused by climate change, the ice in the polar regions is melting at an accelerated rate, causing sea levels to rise. This is damaging the coastlines due to the increased flooding and erosion.
  • The cause of the current rapid climate change is due to human activities and threatening the very survival of humankind.
  • The largest driver of warming is the emission of gases that create a greenhouse effect, of which more than 90% are carbon dioxide (CO2) and methaneHence statement (2) is correct.
  • Fossil fuel burning (coal, oil, and natural gas) for energy consumption is the main source of these emissions, with additional contributions from agriculture, deforestation, and manufacturing.
  • Temperature rise is accelerated or tempered by climate feedbacks, such as loss of sunlight-reflecting snow and ice cover, increased water vapour (a greenhouse gas itself), and changes to land and ocean carbon sinks.
  • Temperature rise on land is about twice the global average increase, leading to desert expansion and more common heat waves and wildfires.
  • Temperature rise is also amplified in the Arctic, where it has contributed to melting permafrost, glacial retreat and sea ice loss.
  • Warmer temperatures are increasing rates of evaporation, causing more intense storms and weather extremes.
  • Impacts on ecosystems include the relocation or extinction of many species as their environment changes, most immediately in coral reefs, mountains, and the Arctic.
  • Climate change threatens people with food insecurity, water scarcity, flooding, infectious diseases, extreme heat, economic losses, and displacement.Hence statement (3) is correct.

  7. Consider the following statements:

  1. The Speaker from time to time summons each House of Parliament to meet.
  2. There are usually three sessions in a year, the Budget Session, the Monsoon Session and the Winter Session.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In the news:

Ahead of the monsoon session, govt. calls for all-party meeting

The president from time to time summons each House of Parliament to meet. But, the maximum gap between two sessions of Parliament cannot be more than six months. In other words, the Parliament should meet at least twice a year. There are usually three sessions in a year, viz,

1. the Budget Session (February to May);

2. the Monsoon Session (July to September); and

3. the Winter Session (November to December).

8. At the national level, which ministry is the nodal agency to ensure effective implementation of the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006?

  • Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climatic change.
  • Ministry of Panchayat Raj
  • Ministry of Rural Development
  • Ministry of Tribal Affairs

Answer: (d) Ministry of Tribal Affairs

Explanation:

In the news: Withdraw new forest rules: Cong.

The Union Ministry of Tribal Affairs (MoTA)is the nodal agency for the implementation of the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition Of Forest Rights) Act, 2006. The ministry deals with forest and livelihood objectives at the national level. Hence option (d) is correct.

9. Which of the following are the possible effects of the Climate change?

   1.Intense drought

   2.Storms

   3. Heat waves

   4.Rising sea level

   5. Melting glacier

   6. Warming ocean.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  • 1, 2, 4 and 5 only
  • 2, 3, 5, and 6 only
  • 1, 3, 4, and 5 only
  • 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6

Answer: (d) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6

Explanation:

In the news: Climate Change Missions in all districts of T.N.

Intense drought,.Storms ,Heat waves,Rising sea levels,Melting glaciers and  Warming oceans are the possible effects of climate change.Hence option (d) is correct.

10. Consider the following statements:

  1. I2U2 is the new grouping formed by four nations- India, Israel, UAE, and the US.
  2. It is focused on expanding economic and political cooperation in the Middle East and Asia, including through trade, combating climate change, energy cooperation, and coordination on other vital shared interests.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In the news:I2U2 can become a regional feature like Quad: Sullivan

I2U2 initiative is a new grouping of India, Israel, USA and UAE.In the grouping’s name, ‘I2’ stands for India and Israel, whereas ‘U2’ stands for USA and the UAE.This is a great achievement which tells the geopolitical changes that happen in the region.This will not only revitalise and re-energize the system of alliances and partnerships around the world, but also stitch together partnerships that did not exist previously or were not utilised to their full extent. Hence option (c) is correct.