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GMT 13-07-2022

1. Consider the following statements regarding Godavari river:

  1. The Godavari is the largest river system of the Peninsular India.
  2. The river flows through the States of Maharashtra, Telangana, Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh and finally falls into the Bay of Bengal.
  3. The right bank tributaries are more in number and larger in size than the left bank tributaries.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  • 1 and 2 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer:  (a) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In the news: Godavari flood affects 1.5 lakh,12 habitations hit in Chintoor Agency, many villages cut off in Andhra Pradesh.

Godavari:

  • The Godavari is the largest river system of the Peninsular India and is revered as Dakshina Ganga. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The Godavari basin extends over states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana,Chhattisgarh and Odisha in addition to smaller parts in Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka and Union territory of Puducherry (Yanam) having a total area of ~ 3 lakh Sq.km. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • The basin is bounded by Satmala hills, the Ajanta range and the Mahadeo hills on the north, by the Eastern Ghats on the south and the east and by the Western Ghats on the west.
  • The Godavari River rises from Trimbakeshwar in the Nashik district of Maharashtra about 80 km from the Arabian Sea at an elevation of 1,067 m.
  • The total length of Godavari from its origin to outfall into the Bay of Bengal is 1,465 km.
  • The left bank tributaries are more in number and larger in size than the right bank tributaries. Hence statement (3) is incorrect.
  • The Manjra (724 km) is the only important right bank tributary. It joins the Godavari after passing through the Nizam Sagar.
  • Left Bank Tributaries: Dharna, Penganga, Wainganga, Wardha, Pranahita [conveying the combined waters of Penganga, the Wardha and Wainganga], Pench, Kanhan, Sabari, Indravati etc.
  • Right Bank Tributaries: Pravara, Mula, Manjra, Peddavagu, Maner etc.

2. The Supreme Court can issue directions for the enforcement of any fundamental right under which of the following Articles of the Constitution of India?

  • Article 14
  • Article 28
  • Article 32
  • Article 44

Answer: (c) Article 32

Explanation:

In the news: A new judicial device for ‘complete justice(editorial)

Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by Article 32

  • The right to move the Supreme Court by appropriate proceedings for the enforcement of the rights conferred by this Part is guaranteed
  • The Supreme Court shall have power to issue directions or orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, whichever may be appropriate, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by this Part.

What is a Writ Petition?

  • A writ petition is essentially a court petition for extraordinary review, asking a court to intervene in a lower court’s decision. Under the Indian legal system, jurisdiction to issue ‘prerogative writs’ is given to the Supreme Court and the High Courts of Judicature of all Indian states. Parts of the law relating to writs are outlined in the Constitution of India.

Type of Writs:

The Constitution empowers the Supreme Court and High Courts to issue orders or writs.

The types of writs are:

  • Habeas Corpus
  • Certiorari
  • Prohibition
  • Mandamus
  • Quo Warranto

3. Consider the following statements regarding Supreme court of India:

  1. The Regulating Act of 1773 established the Supreme Court at Calcutta as a Court of Record, with full power and authority.
  2. It did not have the power of judicial review.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In the news: A new judicial device for ‘complete justice’

History of the Supreme Court of India

  • The promulgation of the Regulating Act of 1773 established the Supreme Court of Judicature at Calcutta as a Court of Record, with full power & authority. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • It was established to hear and determine all complaints for any crimes and also to entertain, hear and determine any suits or actions in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
  • The Supreme Courts at Madras and Bombay were established by King George – III in 1800 and 1823 respectively.
  • The law declared by the Supreme Court is binding on all Courts within the territory of India.
  • It has the power of judicial review – to strike down the legislative and executive action contrary to the provisions and the scheme of the constitution, the distribution of power between Union and States or inimical to the fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.

4. “Biorock technology” is talked about in which one of the following situations?

  • Restoration of damaged coral reefs
  • Development of building materials using plant residues
  • Identification of areas for exploration/extraction of shale gas
  • Providing salt licks for wild animals in forests/protected areas

Answer: (a) Restoration of damaged coral reefs

Explanation: 

‘Biorock Technology’, it is a method that applies safe, low voltage electrical currents through seawater, causing dissolved minerals to crystallise on structures, growing into a white limestone (CaCo3) similar to that which naturally makes up coral reefs and tropical white sand beaches.Biorock, also known as Seacrete or Seament, refers to the substance formed by electro-accumulation of minerals dissolved in seawater.The formed material has a strength similar to concrete. It can be used to make robust artificial reefs on which corals grow at very rapid rates.Fragments of broken corals are tied to the biorock structure, where they are able to grow at least four to six times faster than their actual growth as they need not spend their energy in building their own calcium carbonate skeletons. Hence option (a) is correct.

5. The terms ‘Carina Nebula’ and the ‘Southern Ring Nebula’ are currently seen in the news is associated with

  • Hubble Space Telescope
  • Broad Band X-ray Telescope
  • Astro 2
  • James Webb Space Telescope

Answer: (d) James Webb Space Telescope

Explanation:

In the news:NASA telescope dives deep into the universe,James Webb telescope captures images

The James Webb Space Telescope, the largest and most powerful orbital observatory ever launched.The pictures, designed to peer farther than before with greater clarity to the dawn of the universe, were hailed by NASA as a milestone marking a new era of astronomical exploration.The crowning debut image, was a “deep field” photo of a distant galaxy cluster, SMACS 0723, revealing the most detailed glimpse of the early universe recorded to date.Among the other Webb subjects were two enormous clouds of gas and dust blasted into space by stellar explosions to form incubators for new stars — the Carina Nebula and the Southern Ring Nebula, each thousands of light years away from Earth. The collection also included fresh images of another galaxy cluster known as Stephan’s Quintet, first discovered in 1877. Hence option (d) is correct.

6. Right to Privacy’ is protected under which Article of the constitution of India?

  • Article 14
  • Article 12
  • Article 21
  • Article 29

Answer: (c) Article 21

Explanation:

In the news: Rightful challenge

It is now a settled position that the right to life and liberty under article 21 includes the right to privacy. Right to privacy is ‘a right to be let alone’. A citizen has a right to safeguard the privacy of his own, his family, marriage, procreation, motherhood, child-bearing and education among other matters. Hence option (c) is correct.

7. Which of the following releases ‘Index of Industrial Production (IIP)’ in India?

  • National Statistical Office
  • Reserve Bank of India
  • Ministry of Labour and Employment
  • World economic forum

Answer: (a) National Statistical Office

Explanation:

In the news:Industrial output jumps 19.6%,May IIP logs fastest growth in 12 months led by consumer durables, capital goods.

Index of Industrial Production:

  • The Index of Industrial Production (IIP) is an index that shows the growth rates in different industry groups of the economy in a fixed period of time.
  • It is compiled and published monthly by the Central Statistical Organisation (CSO), Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.
  • Base Year for IIP is 2011-2012.
  • The eight core industries of India represent about 40% of the weight of items that are included in the IIP. Hence option (a) is correct.

8. Which of the following is/are the causes of inflation?

  1. Increase in price of inputs.
  2. Increase in indirect taxes.
  3. Low growth of the Agricultural sector.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  • 1 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In the news: Impact of inflation on India’s poor negligible: Sitharaman

This type of inflation is caused due to various reasons such as:

  • Increase in price of inputs. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • Hoarding and Speculation of commodities.
  • Defective Supply chain.
  • Increase in indirect taxes. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • Depreciation of Currency.
  • Crude oil price fluctuation.
  • Defective food supply chain.
  • Low growth of the Agricultural sector. Hence statement (3) is correct.

9. Secularism mean?

  • The state is to give patronage to any one religion.
  • Lacking religious practices and doctrines.
  • To impose one religious practice on the rest of the people.
  • Respect all religions without favouring any one religion.

Answer: (d) Respect all religions without favouring any one religion.

Explanation:

In the news:A new judicial device for ‘complete justice

What is Secularism? It means the separation of religion from political, economic, social and cultural aspects of life, religion being treated as a purely personal matter.

The term secularism means being separate from religion or having no religious bias. Hence option (d) is correct.

10. A Parliamentary System of Government is one in which

  • All political parties in the Parliament are represented in the Government
  • The Government is responsible to the Parliament and can be removed by it
  • The Government is elected by the people and can be removed by them
  • The Government is chosen by the Parliament but cannot be removed by it before completion of a fixed term.

Answer: (b) The Government is responsible to the Parliament and can be removed by it

Explanation:

A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic governance of a state (or subordinate entity) where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the support (“confidence”) of the legislature, typically a parliament, to which it is accountable.The Government is responsible to the Parliament and can be removed by it. Hence statement (b) is correct.