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Consider the following statements:

  1. Pursuant to the report of H.N. Sanyal Committee, the Contempt of Courts Act, 1971 was passed.
  2. The Constitution of India empowers the Supreme Court and the High Courts to punish for contempt of themselves.
  3. The Constitution of India defines Civil Contempt and Criminal Contempt.
  4. In India, the Parliament is vested with the powers to make laws on Contempt of Court.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 1, 2 and 4 only

(c) 3 and 4 only

(d) 3 only

Answer: (b) 1, 2 and 4 only

Explanation:

Why in news: Mallya gets four-month jail term for contempt.

  • Contempt of court often referred to simply as “contempt”, is the offence of being disobedient to or disrespectful toward a court of law and its officers in the form of behaviour that opposes or defies the authority, justice and dignity of the court.
  • Both the High Court and the Supreme Court of India are bestowed with the power to punish for the contempt of the court.
  • According to the Indian Penal Code Section 12 of Contempt of Court Act, 1971, contempt of court can be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to two thousand rupees, or with both.

Contempt of Court Act-1971:

  • Article 129 and 215 of the Constitution of India empowers the Supreme Court and High Court respectively to punish people for their respective contempt.
  • Section 10 of The Contempt of Courts Act of 1971 defines the power of the High Court to punish contempt of its subordinate courts.
  • Power to punish for contempt of court under Articles 129 and 215 is not subject to Article 19(1) (a).
  • A contempt of court may be punished with simple imprisonment for a term, which may extend to six months, or with fine.

Reason behind its existence:

  • Needed to punish wilful disobedience to court orders (civil contempt),
  • To prevent interference in the administration of justice.
  • To prevent threats to judges.
  • Insulate the institution from unfair attacks.
  • Prevent a sudden fall in the judiciary’s reputation in the public eye.

Consider the following statements:

1. If rupee is depreciating then it will make imports costlier

2. If rupee is depreciating then export income will rise

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 & 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation: C) Both 1 & 2

Why in news: Rupee drops 19 paise to new low of 79.45

Currency Depreciation:

  • Currency depreciation is a fall in the value of a currency in a floating exchange rate system.
  • Rupee depreciation means that the rupee has become less valuable with respect to the dollar.

Currency Appreciation: It is an increase in the value of one currency in relation to another currency.

  • Currencies appreciate against each other for a variety of reasons, including government policy, interest rates, trade balances and business cycles.
    • Currency appreciation discourages a country’s export activity as its products and services become costlier to buy.

Considered the following statement

1. India is the third largest oil consumer in the world.

2. Iraq is the largest supplier of Oil to India

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 & 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation: Both 1 & 2

Why in news: India’s imports of Russian oil said to surge to record.

  • India is the world’s third-largest consumer of oil and over 80% of it is imported.
  • Historically, Russia has not been a major supplier to India. In January and February this year, India did not import any crude from Russia at all.
  • But in March, imports began to rise. According to tanker tracking data in May, Russian oil imports are now the second-largest source for India after imports from Iraq, according to data analytics firm Kpler.          

With reference to NATO Consider the following Statements

  1. Recently, Sweden and Finland joined the NATO Alliance
  2. Joining NATO is a seven step process which requires approval all the founding members.

 Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Why in news:

Lithuania widens curbs on trade via Kaliningrad

Kaliningrad | History, Map, & Points of Interest | Britannica
https://www.aa.com.tr/uploads/userFiles/ab870dc1-e87c-46af-a54e-cc928be7834a/natto.jpeg

Nord stream 1 pipe line between which two countries?

(a) France and German

(b) German and Russia

(c) Russia and India

(d) Russia and Ukraine

Explanation: B) German and Russia

What is the Nord Stream 1 Gas Link? – Civilsdaily

Why in news: Europe frets over reduced gas supplies from Russia Gazprom begins 10 days of maintenance on Nord Stream 1.

Nord Stream consists of two pipelines, which have two lines each.

Nord Stream 1 was completed in 2011 and runs from Vyborg in Leningrad (Russia) to Lubmin near Greifswald, Germany.

Considered the following regarding statement regarding Cloudbust.

  1. A cloudburst refers to an extreme amount of rain that happens in a short period, sometimes accompanied by hail and thunder, and this has a precise definition.
  2. A cloudburst occurs when moisture-carrying air moves up a hilly terrain, forming a vertical column of clouds known as ‘Cirrocumulus clouds.

 Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation: (a) 1 only

Why in news?

‘Amarnath-like events unpredictable’Flash floods were due to ‘sudden’ cloud formation: Ministry of Earth Sciences

They are more likely to occur in mountainous zones mainly because of terrain and elevation.

  • A cloudburst occurs when moisture-carrying air moves up a hilly terrain, forming a vertical column of clouds known as ‘cumulonimbus’ clouds.
  • Such clouds usually cause rain, thunder and lightning. This upward motion of the clouds is known as an ‘orographic lift’.
  • These unstable clouds cause an intense rainstorm over a small area after becoming heavy enough and locked in the ridges and valleys between the hills.
  • The energy necessary for the cloudburst comes from the upward motion of air. Cloudbursts mostly occur at elevations between 1,000-2,500 metres above sea level
  • India Meteorological Department (IMD) defines it as unexpected precipitation exceeding 100mm (or 10 cm) per hour over a geographical region of approximately 20 to 30 square km. Significant amounts of rainfall such as this can result in floods.

Which of the following animals are found in the National Emblem of India?

  1. Lion
  2. Elephant
  3. Horse
  4. Bull

  Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 4 only

(b) 1, 2 and 3 only

(c) 1, 2 and 4 only

(d) 1, 3 and 4 only

Explanation: (d) 1, 3 and 4 only

https://knowindia.india.gov.in/assets/images/National-Emblem.png

Why in news: PM unveils National Emblem atop new Parliament building the sculpture made of bronze weighs 9,500 kg and is 4.34 metres wide

  • National Emblem of India is a representative seal of the Republic of India that is adapted from the Lion Capital of Ashoka Pillar (based in Sarnath, Uttar Pradesh.)
  • India adopted it as the State Emblem on 26th January 1950. The motto of the Indian National Emblem is ‘Satyamev Jayate’ or ‘Truth Alone Triumphs.’National Emblem is the symbol of authority and is present in all the official communications of the government.
  • The State Emblem is an adaptation of the Lion Capital of Asoka at Sarnath.
  • In the original, there are four lions, mounted back to back, on a circular abacus, which itself rests on a bell-shaped lotus.
  • The frieze of the abacus has sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening Dharma Chakras.
  • The profile of the Lion Capital showing three lions mounted on the abacus with a Dharma Chakra in the centre, a bull on the right and a galloping horse on the left, and outlines of Dharma Chakras on the extreme right and left was adopted as the State Emblem of India on January 26, 1950.
  • The bell-shaped lotus was omitted.
  • The motto Satyameva Jayate, which means ‘Truth Alone Triumphs’, written in Devanagari script below the profile of the Lion Capital is part of the State Emblem of India

Consider the Following statements regarding non performing assets?

  1. In India, debt is classified as non-performing asset, when the loan payments have not been made for a minimum period of 90 days.
  2. In the case of agricultural loans, NPAs are declared if the interest and/or instalment or principal remain unpaid for two harvest seasons.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) None of the above

Explanation: (c) Both 1 and 2

Why in news: The scam fault line is damaging India’s banking

What are Non Performing Assets?

  • When an asset no longer generates income for the bank, it is considered a non-performing asset.
  • Previously, an asset was classified as a non-performing asset (NPA) based on the concept of “Past Due.”
  • A ‘non-performing asset’ (NPA) was defined as a credit for which interest and/or principal instalments have been ‘past due’ for a specified period of time.
  • To move toward international best practices and ensure greater transparency, ’90 days’ overdue norms for identifying NPAs were made applicable beginning with the fiscal year ended March 31, 2004.
  • Commercial loans that are more than 90 days past due and consumer loans that are more than 180 days past due are typically classified as nonperforming assets by banks.
  • In the case of agricultural loans, NPAs are declared if the interest and/or instalment or principal remain unpaid for two harvest seasons.
  • However, this period should not be longer than two years. Any unpaid loan/instalment will be classified as NPA after two years.

Considered the following statement regarding World Population Prospects.

   1. India is set to surpass China as the world’s most populous country in 2050.

   2. The world’s population was growing at its slowest pace since 1950, having fallen below 1% in 2020

   3. In 2021, the average fertility of the world’s population stood at 2.3 births per woman over a lifetime, having fallen from about 5 births in 1950.

 Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 2 only.

(d) 1, 2 and 3.

Explanation: (b) 2 and 3 only

Why in news: India set to beat China in population: UN report

  • According to ‘The World Population Prospects 2022’ published by the Population Division of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, India is projected to surpass China as the world’s most populous country by 2023.
  • With each counting more than 1.4 billion residents this year, a United Nations report said on Monday, warning that high fertility would challenge economic growth.
  • The world’s population was growing at its slowest pace since 1950, having fallen below 1% in 2020, UN estimates showed.
  • In 2021, the average fertility of the world’s population stood at 2.3 births per woman over a lifetime, having fallen from about 5 births in 1950.

Consider the following countries:

  1. Azerbaijan
  2. Kyrgyzstan
  3. Tajikistan
  4. Uzbekistan
  5. Turkmenistan

Which of the above have borders with Afghanistan?

(a) 1, 2 and 5 only

(b) 1, 2, 3 and 4 only

(c) 3, 4 and 5 only

(d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Correct Answer: (c) 3, 4 and 5 only

image 1
  1. Explain the reasons behind the landslide in Manipur and also give suggestions to avert the future disasters.

The Railways have reportedly blamed jhum or shifting or slash-and-burn cultivation on hill slopes for the tragedy, sparking debates on the tendency to overlook geological challenges and not factor in climate change while executing major developmental projects.

Major reasons behind the Landslide in Manipur:

  • Sanctioned in February 2005 as a national project, the 110.625 km Jiribam-Imphal line is considered a vital segment of the Trans-Asian Railway envisaged as an integrated freight railway network across Europe and Asia.
  • The broad-gauge project connecting Manipur’s Jiribam, a town on the border with Assam, and State capital Imphal mostly across the fragile hills of Noney district, is expected to reduce the travel time from the existing 10-12 hours to three hours.
  • The railways have tagged this project, expected to be functional by December 2023, as its most ambitious and challenging endeavour.
  • The project involves 46 tunnels with a total length of 61.398 km, 16 road overbridges and under-bridges, and 140 major and minor rail bridges.
  • Tunnel number 12 on this line is India’s longest railway tunnel at 11.55 km and one of the rail bridges near Noney is being built at a pier height of 141 metres, the world’s tallest.
  • The Railways have apparently blamed two successive disasters along project sites in the northeast on the traditional practice of jhum or shifting cultivation.
  • The first was the Lumding-Silchar railway, which was breached at 58 locations and the second was the Jiribam-Imphal section.
  • Jhum is practised on hill slopes by clearing vegetation. Northeast Frontier Railway officials have been quoted as stating that their pleas to the State governments to stop jhum cultivation near railway formations often go unheard.
  • Attributing the Noney landslide to jhum was unfortunate as shifting cultivation and landslides have always been a feature in the northeast, a Himalayan region.
  • There are also established State rules that forbid jhum in given areas and it is the responsibility of the administration to ensure that such rules are enforced.

People tend to forget or not question the development models being implemented in such fragile hill or mountain ecosystems.

Most disasters are man-made as the designs are not suited to the geology.

Projects do not factor in climate change, which has been causing short bursts of heavy rainfall over a small area instead of moderate showers spread over a larger area.

Suggestions to avert Disasters in future:

  • In India, the mountainous and hilly areas in 16 States and in two Union Territories in the Himalayan region, sub-Himalayan parts of the northeast and in the Western Ghats are landslide-prone. These areas comprise about 12.6% or 4.2 lakh sq. km of India’s landmass spreading over 159 districts.
  • Disasters and human fatalities can be minimised if its national landslide susceptibility mapping is integrated with infrastructure development and planning in hilly or mountainous terrain.
  • The structural measures involve engineering works for stabilisation and control of landslides while non-structural measures emphasise the identification and avoidance of landslide-prone areas through monitoring and warning systems.
  • Successes of structural measures include Varunabhat in Uttarkashi, Tindharia in West Bengal’s Darjeeling district and some hydroelectric projects under construction. Nainital in Uttarakhand and Nilgiris in Tamil Nadu are the only two places in India where non-structural measures have been successfully implemented through landslide hazard zoning information.

Increasing human interference with nature has led to a rise in the number of natural disasters. However, the National Disaster Response Force under The Disaster Management Act, 2005 have conducted several successful rescue operations by providing aid and assistance to the affected state, including deploying, at the State’s request, of Armed Forces, Central Paramilitary Forces, and such communication, air and other assets. They have also worked to increase the awareness among people to reduce the effect of such natural calamities by organising preparedness campaigns.