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GMT 08-08-2022

1. Consider the following statements regarding Mission Vatsalya Scheme

  1. It is a roadmap to achieve development and child protection priorities aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals
  2. It is implemented by the ministry of Women and Child Development

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Now private players to help Mission Vatsalya to achieve ‘Leave No Child Behind’ goal

  • Ministry of Women and Child Development has planned to initiate the involvement of Private Aided Sponsorship wherein interested sponsors including individuals, institutions, companies, banks, industrial units or trusts, etc. can support the children through the Mission Vatsalya scheme.

About Mission Vatsalya Scheme

  • Mission Vatsalya Scheme is a roadmap to achieve development and child protection priorities aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
  • Mission Vatsalya promotes family-based non-institutional care of children in difficult circumstances based on the principle of institutionalization of children as a measure of last resort.
  • The Ministry of Women and Child Development is implementing a Centrally Sponsored Scheme “Mission Vatsalya” erstwhile Child Protection Services (CPS) Scheme, since 2009-10 for the welfare and rehabilitation of children
  • Its core motto is, “Leave No Child Behind,” which places a strong emphasis on children’s rights, advocacy, and awareness as well as the enhancement of the juvenile justice system’s care and protection.
  • It serves as the country’s general framework for child protection services.
  • Components under Mission Vatsalya include- Improve functioning of statutory bodies; Strengthen service delivery structures; Upscale institutional care/services; Encourage non-institutional community-based care; emergency outreach services; Training and capacity building.

The key objectives of Mission Vatsalya are:

  • Coordinate and network with all allied systems to promote convergent efforts for seamless service delivery to children in order to ensure appropriate inter-sector response at all levels.
  • To improve family and community-level child protection, empower families and communities to recognise risks and vulnerabilities affecting children, and develop and promote preventative strategies to shield kids from danger, risk, and abuse.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1839815

2. Black Sea Grain Initiative is a United Nations-backed agreement between which one of the following countries?

  1. Russia, Turkey and China
  2. Ukraine, Turkey and Romania
  3. Georgia, Bulgaria and Ukraine
  4. Russia, Ukraine and Turkey

Answer: (d) Russia, Ukraine and Turkey

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: First grain cargo ship has left Ukraine since war began — how big a deal is this?

  • Sierra Leone-registered ship, ‘Razoni’, carrying 26,527 tonnes of corn (maize) set sail from Ukraine’s Odesa port.
  • The first under a United Nations-backed agreement enabling resumption of Ukrainian farm produce exports through its Black Sea ports.
  • The so-called Black Sea Grain Initiative – involving signing of separate accords by Russia and Ukraine with the UN and Turkey on July 22 – provides for exports from three ports: Odesa, Chornomorsk and Yuzhny.
  • Under the deal, the ships are to be guided through the Black Sea waters by Ukraine’s navy to avoid mined areas.
  • The vessels will then proceed to Turkey’s Bosphorus Strait along an agreed corridor and, from there, to various ports of the world.
  • The ships are to be inspected- to ensure only commercial foodstuffs and fertilisers are carried-by a joint coordination centre set up in Istanbul with representatives from UN, Ukraine, Russia and Turkey.
  • Of the total sunflower oil imported by India in 2020- 21, 80% was from Ukraine.
  • Sunflower oil is India’s fourth largest consumed vegetable oil after palm, soybean and mustard with 70% of the oil consumption in southern states.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/ukraine-cargo-ship-grain-export-significance-world-agriculture-trade-india-ties-8069457/#:~:text=On%20Monday%2C%20a%20Sierra%20Leone,ports%20on%20the%20Black%20Sea.

3. Consider the following statements regarding Committee for Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals

  1. It is a statutory Committee of Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying
  2. It is duty bound to take all such measures as may be necessary to ensure that animals are not subjected to unnecessary pain or suffering before

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Trials on animals continue to fly below the radar

  • Over 150 animals have been rescued recently from a prestigious university, putting the spotlight back on animal trials that fly below the radar.
  • And this, despite the Centre having rules to prevent cruelty towards animals used in research and ensure good laboratory practices.

About Committee for Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals

  • The Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA) is a statutory Committee of Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying (DAHD), Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying (MoFAH&D) constituted under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (PCA) Act, 1960.
  • CPCSEA is duty bound to take all such measures as may be necessary to ensure that animals are not subjected to unnecessary pain or suffering before, during or after performance of experiments on them.
  • For this purpose, the Committee formulated the Breeding of and Experiments on Animals (Control & Supervision) Rules, 1998 (amended in 2001 & 2006) to regulate the experimentation on animals.
  • Under the provisions of the above rules, establishments who are engaged in Bio-medical research, breeding and trading of laboratory animals are required to get themselves registered with CPCSEA.

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/science/trials-on-animals-continue-to-fly-below-the-radar/article65707136.ece

4. Consider the following statements regarding Indian Virtual Herbarium

  1. It is a collection of plants and preserved parts of plants which presents a rich botanical diversity of India.
  2. It was developed by scientists of the BSI.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Indian Virtual Herbarium, biggest database of country’s flora, is a global hit

  • With details of about one lakh plant specimens, the Indian Virtual Herbarium, the biggest virtual database of flora in the country, is generating a lot of interest and turning out to be an eye-catching endeavour.
  • India’s biggest virtual database of flora was launched in July 01 by Botanical Survey of India (BSI). The portal recorded 02 lakh visits from 55 countries in just 30 days.
  • Herbarium specimens are considered important tools for plant taxonomy, conservation, habitat loss and even climate change

About Indian Virtual Herbarium

  • It is a collection of plants and preserved parts of plants. The virtual herbarium also presents a rich botanical diversity of the country.
  • Developed by scientists of the Botanical Survey of India
  • Each record in the digital herbarium includes an image of the preserved plant specimen, scientific name, collection locality, and collection date, collector name, and barcode number.
  • The digital herbarium includes features to extract the data State-wise, and users can search plants of their own States, which will help them identify regional plants and in building regional checklists.
  • The portal provides most valuable historical collections of botanists like William Roxburgh, Nathaniel Wallich and Joseph Dalton Hooker, considered the founding fathers of botany in India.
  • The digital herbarium has some of the oldest botanical specimens dating as early as 1696. 

Source: TH

5. Consider the following statements regarding Organisation of Islamic Cooperation

  1. It is the second largest intergovernmental organisation after the United Nations
  2. It is headquarters in Saudi Arabia.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: External Affairs Ministry condemns OIC Secretariat statement on J&K

  • Ministry of External Affairs has condemned a statement issued by the General Secretariat of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) on Jammu and Kashmir

About Organisation of Islamic Cooperation

  • The OIC claims to be the “collective voice of the Muslim world”. It was established at a 1969 summit in Rabat (Morocco) after what it describes as the ‘criminal arson’ of Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem.
  • It is presently based in Jeddah
  • The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation is the second largest intergovernmental organisation after the United Nations, with the membership of 57 states, covering four continents.
  • The OIC is the collective voice of the Muslim world to ensure and safeguard their interest on economic socio and political areas
  • The OIC has consultative and cooperative relations with U. N. and other inter-governmental organisations to protect the interest of Muslims, and settle conflicts and disputes involving member states
  • U. N. members with a Muslim majority can join the organisation. The membership is to be ratified with full consensus at the OIC’s Council of Foreign Ministers. The same provisions apply for acquiring an observer status. 
  • The OIC is financed by the member states proportionate to their national incomes.
  • The Council of Foreign Ministers is the chief decision-making body and meets annually to decide on how to implement the OIC’s general policies
  • In addition, this council also appoints, for a period of five years, the Secretary General, who is the chief administrative officer of the grouping.

Source: https://newsonair.com/2022/08/06/external-affairs-ministry-condemns-oic-secretariat-statement-on-jk/

6. Consider the following statements

  1. India is the second largest edible oil market in the world
  2. The Yellow revolution was launched to increase the production of edible oil
  3. Dhara Mustard Hybrid-11 is genetically modified variety of mustard

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Towards self-reliance in edible oils

  • India is the second largest edible oil market in the world. It consumes, on an average, 21 million tonnes (mt) of edible oil each year, of which, 7-8 mt are produced locally, while 13 mt — that is, 66-68 per cent — are imported.
  • According to a 2018 Rabobank report, the annual consumption of edible oil is set to cross 34 mt by 2030, which would require import of almost 25 mt.
  • Russia-Ukraine war stopped sunflower oil flows from Ukraine, and this was followed by Indonesia’s ban on palm oil exports. A price rally of more than 50 per cent followed, impacting both the industry and the consumers.

About Yellow revolution

  • The revolution launched in 1986- 1987 to increase the production of edible oil, especially mustard and sesame seeds to achieve self-reliance is known as the Yellow Revolution.
  • Sam Pitroda is Known as the father of the Yellow Revolution in India.
  • It targeted nine oilseeds that are groundnut, mustard, soybean, safflower, sesame, sunflower, niger, linseed, and castor.

Dhara Mustard Hybrid-11

  • Dhara Mustard Hybrid-11, otherwise known as DMH – 11, is a genetically modified hybrid variety of the mustard species Brassica juncea.
  • It was developed by Professor Deepak Pental from the University of Delhi, with the aim of reducing India’s demand for edible oil imports.

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/opinion/towards-self-reliance-in-edible-oils/article65727989.ece

7. Consider the following statements regarding National Mission on Edible oil – Oil Palm

  1. It aims to increasing crude palm oil production with the aim to reduce the import burden.
  2. It will involve raising the area under oil palm cultivation to 10 lakh hectares by 2025-26.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Towards self-reliance in edible oils

  • With 10-12 per cent of the projected 2030 imports taken care through the Oil Palm Mission, the possibilities of augmenting local supply through other high oil-yielding oilseeds must be studied.
  • It is amongst the top two preferred oils in the upper half of India, which accounts for more than 50 per cent of our population.

About National Mission on Edible oil – Oil Palm

  • The National Mission on Edible Oils – Oil Palm (NMEO-OP) has been launched with the aim to augment the availability of edible oil in the country by harnessing area expansion, increasing crude palm oil production with the aim to reduce the import burden.
  • Under this scheme, it is proposed to cover an additional area  of 6.5 lakh hectare (ha.) for oil palm till the year 2025-26 and thereby reaching the target of 10 lakh hectares ultimately.
  • The scheme will immensely benefit the oil palm farmers, increase capital investment, create employment generation, shall reduce the import dependence and also increase the income of the farmers.
  • National Mission on Edible Oils – Oil Palm (NMEO-OP) as a new Centrally Sponsored Scheme with a special focus on the North east region and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/opinion/towards-self-reliance-in-edible-oils/article65727989.ece

8. Consider the following statements regarding Minerals Security Partnership

  1. It is an international partnership that seeks to develop and secure global supply chains for critical minerals
  2. India is a part of this Partnership

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What are rare earth elements, and why is India keen to join a global alliance to ensure their supply?

  • The Covid-19 pandemic that caused massive supply-chain disruptions, a group of western nations are cooperating to develop alternatives to China to ensure key industrial supplies.

What is the Minerals Security Partnership (MSP)?

  • The US and 10 partners — Australia, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the European Commission — have come together to form the MSP.
  • The new grouping is aimed at catalysing investment from governments and the private sector to develop strategic opportunities.
  • The partnership seeks to catalyse public and private investment for mining, processing and recycling projects that adhere to the highest environmental, social and governance (ESG) standards.
  • The MSP will help catalyse investment from governments and the private sector for strategic opportunities — across the full value chain — that adhere to the highest environmental, social, and governance standards.
  • The alliance is seen as primarily focused on evolving an alternative to China, which has created processing infrastructure in rare earth minerals and has acquired mines in Africa for elements such as Cobalt.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-sci-tech/explained-rare-earth-elements-india-global-alliance-supply-8070563/

9. Which of the following rare earth elements are found in India?

  1. Lanthanum
  2. Cerium
  3. Neodymium
  4. Praseodymium
  5. Samarium

Select the correct options from the given below codes

  1. 2 and 5 only
  2. 1, 3 and 4 only
  3. 2,4 and 5 only
  4. 1,2,3,4 and 5

Answer: (d) 1,2,3,4 and 5

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What are rare earth elements, and why is India keen to join a global alliance to ensure their supply?

  • India has an ambitious plan to convert a large percentage of its transport to electric, and would require these minerals.
  • According to the plan, 80 per cent of the country’s two- and three-wheeler fleet, 40 per cent of buses, and 30 to 70 per cent of cars will be EVs by 2030.
  • If India is not able to explore and produce these minerals, it will have to depend on a handful of countries, including China, to power its energy transition plans to electric vehicles. That will be similar to our dependence on a few countries for oil

What are rare earth elements?

  • The 17 rare earth elements (REE) include the 15 Lanthanides (atomic numbers 57 — which is Lanthanum — to 71 in the periodic table) plus Scandium (atomic number 21) and Yttrium (39).
  • REEs are classified as light RE elements (LREE) and heavy RE elements (HREE).
  • Some REEs are available in India — such as Lanthanum, Cerium, Neodymium, Praseodymium and Samarium, etc.
  • Others such as Dysprosium, Terbium, and Europium, which are classified as HREEs, are not available in Indian deposits in extractable quantities.
  • Hence, there is a dependence on countries such as China for HREEs, which is one of the leading producers of REEs, with an estimated 70 per cent share of the global production.
  • According to the US Geological Survey, supplies from China had started to become erratic as early as 1990, as Beijing kept changing the amounts that it would allow to be produced and exported

Why are these minerals important?

  • Minerals like Cobalt, Nickel, and Lithium are required for batteries used in electric vehicles. REEs are an essential — although often tiny — component of more than 200 consumer products, including mobile phones, computer hard drives, electric and hybrid vehicles, semiconductors, flatscreen TVs and monitors, and high-end electronics.
  • India is seen as a late mover in attempts to enter the lithium value chain, coming at a time when EVs are predicted to be a sector ripe for disruption

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-sci-tech/explained-rare-earth-elements-india-global-alliance-supply-8070563/

10. Right to Privacy’ is protected under which Article of the Constitution of India?

  1. Article 15
  2. Article 19
  3. Article 21
  4. Article 29

Answer: (c) Article 21

Explanation:

  • In Puttaswamy v. Union of India case, 2017, the Right to Privacy was declared a fundamental right by the Supreme Court.
  • Right to Privacy is protected as an intrinsic part of the Right to Life and Personal Liberty under Article 21 and as a part of the freedoms guaranteed by Part III of the Indian Constitution.