UPSC CSE Mains Syllabus: GS-2- Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

Close relationship:

Some contention:

Subsequent rise of red flags:

There was a growing appreciation that the balance of challenges and opportunities presented by China were shifting as its economic power and concomitant political influence grew with unprecedented scale and speed, and in ways that concerned European security.

This led the EU to make an accusation against China on June 10, 2020: “Foreign actors and certain third countries, in particular Russia and China, have engaged in targeted influence operations and disinformation campaigns around COVID-19 in the EU, its neighbourhood and globally, seeking to undermine democratic debate and exacerbate social polarisation, and improve their own image in the COVID 19 context.”

In the trinity of determinants identified by the EU in March 2019 — namely

  1. [negotiating] Partner,
  2. [economic] Competitor
  3. Systemic Rival

The last dimension is gradually becoming the dominant political narrative.

Source:” The Hindu“.


With deteriorating relationship between the European Union and China, there is an opportune moment for India to strengthen the India-EU relationship as well as to emerge as a regional super power. Comment.