Syllabus GS III-Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology. 

  1. Explain in detail the reasons why India should support antibiotics development.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a looming public health crisis impacting every country globally with a disproportionate impact on lives and livelihood in low and middle-income countries.

The reasons for India should support antibiotics development:

To tackle the AMR crisis,

Reasons for the big pharma companies exiting the business:

Way Forward:

~Source The Hindu

Syllabus GS II:Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. 

2. Preconception nutrition, maternal nutrition and child feeding practices in the first 1,000 days of life need priority. In this context, explain the current status, challenges and also give suggestions to improve the conditions of women and children.

As India launches the celebrations of its 75th anniversary of Independence, there is much to be proud about; significant advances have been made in science, technology, and medicine, adding to the country’s ancient, traditional, and civilisational knowledge base, wisdom and wealth.

Current status:

  1. It is disconcerting that even after seven decades of Independence, India is afflicted by public health issues such as child malnutrition (35.5% stunted, 67.1% anaemic) attributing to 68.2% of under-five child mortality.
  2. Poor nutrition not only adversely impacts health and survival but also leads to diminished learning capacity, and poor school performance. And in adulthood, it means reduced earnings and increased risks of chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity.
  3. Data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-5 2019-21, as compared to NFHS-4 2015-16, reveals a substantial improvement in a period of four to five years in several proxy indicators of women’s empowerment, for which the Government deserves credit.
  4. There is a substantial increase in antenatal service attendance (58.6 to 70.0%); women having their own saving bank accounts (63.0 to78.6%); women owning mobile phones that they themselves use (45.9 % to 54.0%); women married before 18 years of age (26.8 % to 23.3 %); women with 10 or more years of schooling (35.7% to 41.0%), and access to clean fuel for cooking (43.8 % to 68.6%).
  5. Alarmingly, during this period, the country has not progressed well in terms of direct nutrition interventions.
  6. Preconception nutrition, maternal nutrition, and appropriate infant and child feeding remain to be effectively addressed.
  7. India has 20% to 30% undernutrition even in the first six months of life when exclusive breastfeeding is the only nourishment required.

Challenges :


Source ~The Hindu