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Daily Prelims Test – 8_April 2021

  1. Recently, the term Seechewal Model is seen in the news, is it?
  2. Tidal Energy
  3. Clean and hygienic Beach
  4. Man and Animal conflict
  5. Wastewater management

Answer: (d) Wastewater management

Explanation:

In NEWS: Patiala village uses unique method to treat wastewater

  • A new wastewater treatment plant opened recently in a village in Punjab’s Patiala district uses a method devised by one of the state’s leading environmentalists, Sant Balbir Singh Seechewal, to treat, recycle and reuse wastewater.
  • The impact of climate change, pollution and a lack of infrastructure means villages in India often face water shortage for agricultural and domestic purposes. Water-intensive crops, low water efficiency and unregulated groundwater are the main factors that account for agriculture water demand.
  • The model is a pipe-and-pump formula used to remove heavy solid particles, oil and other material from water.  It was introduced by Sant Baba Balbir Singh Seechewal and was first used in Seechewal, Punjab.
  • The project aims to implement a combination of processes through four-well systems of wastewater treatment for reuse apart from human consumption.
  • The project will reduce the usage of freshwater by providing an option of treated water to farmers. It will aim at water sustainability with appropriate technologies of water recycle-reuse-recharge
  • The plant in Dhingi village of Patiala aims to achieve the following objective using the ‘Seechewal Model’ of wastewater management:
  • Recycling and reusing the treated wastewater for irrigation
  • Preventing further contamination of groundwater. Hence option (d) is correct
  • Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/agriculture/patiala-village-uses-unique-method-to-treat-wastewater-76345

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  • 2.Accelerator Lab is an innovative initiative by which one of the following international organisations?

  • United Nations Development Programme
  • World Intellectual Property Organization
  • World Trade Organization
  • World Health Organization
  • Answer: (a) United Nations Development Programme
  • Explanation:
  • In NEWS: Spices Board India and UNDP India’s Accelerator Lab sign MoU to develop blockchain-powered traceability Interface for Indian spices
  • UNDP and Spices Board India are working towards integrating the Blockchain Traceability Interface with the e-Spice Bazaar portal developed by Spices Board India for connecting spices farmers with markets
  • About blockchain-based traceability interface:
  • Blockchain-based traceability interface will be integrated with the e-Spice Bazaar portal. The portal was developed by Spices Board India for connecting spices farmers with markets.
  • It will bring ease and transparency in data management across a complex network. This network includes farmers, distributors, processors, retailers, regulators, and consumers thus simplifying the supply chain.
  • It will also allow farmers and other stakeholders to access the information. This makes the entire supply chain more efficient and equitable.
  • About Accelerator Lab
  • The Accelerator Lab is an innovative new initiative by the UNDP, State of Qatar and the Federal Republic of Germany to find 21st century solutions to today’s complex new challenges. Hence option (a) is correct
  • India’s Accelerator Lab will be part of a network of 60 global labs covering 78 nations, that will test and scale new solutions to global challenges like climate change and inequality.
  • These Labs will identify grassroots solutions together with local actors and validate their potential to accelerate development.
  • This lab will seek to address some of the most pressing issues facing India, such as air pollution, sustainable water management and client-resilient livelihoods through innovation.
  • The vision is to make faster progress in meeting the ambitious Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the U.N. by 2030.
  • UNDP Accelerator Lab in India has been launched by UNDP in collaboration with Atal Innovation Mission.
  • Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1709674

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  • 3.Which of the following statements is correct with respect to Ganuga?
  • It is the traditional wood pressed method of extracting oil.
  • It is a cave painting on Sulawesi Island in Indonesia
  • It is an ancient martial art from Punjab
  • It is one of the biggest religious festivals of eastern India in the border state of Uttar Pradesh
  • Answer: (a) It is the traditional wood pressed method of extracting oil.
  • Explanation:
  • In NEWS: NRI returns to extol benefits of sustainable living
  • After living abroad for more than two decades, 60-year-old Vasireddy Anil Kumar, who returned to his hometown Khammam from the U.S. in 2019. Vasireddy Anil Kumar is promoting traditionally extracted oil and natural pest-control practices.
  • About Ganuga
  • It is a Telugu word for the traditional wood pressed method of extracting oil. Hence option (a) is correct
  • The bullock-driven method of extracting oil using a wooden mortar is an eco-friendly activity and causes no pollution.
  • The method has a great potential for creating a healthy society and sustained livelihood.
  • The cold pressed method helps in retaining the natural antioxidants and has gained popularity among health-conscious people.
  • Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Hyderabad/nri-returns-to-extol-benefits-of-sustainable-living/article34256789.ece

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  • 4.SUPACE is an artificial Intelligence portal launched by the: 
  • Indian Space Research Organisation
  • Soil & Land Use Survey of India
  • Environmental Protection Agency
  • Supreme Court of India
  • Answer: (d) Supreme Court of India
  • Explanation:
  • In NEWS: CJI launches top court’s AI-driven research portal
  • A pet project of Chief Justice of India S A Bobde, the Supreme Court Portal for Assistance in Court’s Efficiency (SUPACE) is a tool that collects relevant facts and laws and makes them available to a judge. Hence option (d) is correct
  • Launching the portal, CJI Bobde said though some interpret AI as automated decision making, the Supreme Court’s system is not designed to take decisions, but only to process facts and to make them available to judges looking for an input for a decision.
  • About SUPACE
  • A tool that collects relevant facts and laws and makes them available to a judge.
  • It is an Artificial Intelligence (AI) portal which is designed to make research easier for judges.
  • It is not designed to take decisions, but only to process facts
  • It is designed to make research easier for judges, thereby easing their workload.
  • A big step in ensuring access to justice and will be helpful to Judiciary in reducing pendency and delivering justice to needy people.
  • Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/cji-launches-top-courts-ai-driven-research-portal-7261821/

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  • 5.Consider the following Statements with respect to HTBt cotton
  • It is a genetically modified crop of unapproved genes and it makes the crop resistant to a commonly-used herbicide.
  • It is not permissible in India.
  • Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 
  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2
  • Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2
  • Explanation:
  • In NEWS: Highest HTBT cotton sowing in coming kharif: Shetkari Sanghatana
  • Maharashtra farmers will cultivate the unapproved herbicide-tolerant Bt (HTBt) cotton in over 50 per cent of the area under the fibre crop during the next crop year starting July, according to the State apex farmers’ body Shetkari Sanghatana
  • It is unlawful to develop HTBt cotton in India because the Government has not cleared it for industrial cultivation. During the present crop year to June and the earlier one, farmers in some parts of the nation had defied the Government in cultivating HTBt cotton.
  • Farmers have been cultivating HTBt crop despite the penal provisions that carrying, storing, selling or sowing of unauthorised GM crops will result in ₹1-lakh fine and five years’ imprisonment.
  • In Maharashtra, the cotton is cultivated in 29 percent of the total land under Kharif cultivation, farmers planted the illegal variety on 25-35 percent of the area.
  • What is HT Bt cotton?
  • Herbicide-tolerant Bt (HT Bt) Cotton is genetically modified crop of unapproved genes which is not permissible in India. Hence statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is correct
  • Technically, herbicide is like a poison which is used to destroy unwanted vegetation.
  • The technique in the HT Bt Cotton makes the crop resistant to herbicide following modification in genes of the seeds.
  • Normally, when an herbicide is sprayed, then it destroys unwanted vegetation along with causing harm the cotton crop also.
  • But with the introduction of HT Bt Cotton, there won’t be any impact of herbicide on the cotton crop while the unwanted vegetation will be destroyed.
  • This will lead to more use of chemicals in fields causing harm to other crops.
  • About BT cotton
  • In India, the government has approved only cultivation of genetically-modified (GM) non-food crops, which is cotton.
  • Since 2006, no new GM variety, including cotton, has been approved by the Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC), the nodal agency to clear GM crops in the country.
  • Bt cotton is the only genetically modified (GM) crop that has been approved for commercial cultivation by the Government of India.
  • Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/economy/agri-business/highest-htbt-cotton-sowing-in-coming-kharif-shetkari-sanghatana/article34251566.ece

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  • 6.Consider the following Statements with respect to Film Certificate Appellate Tribunal
  • It was a statutory body constituted set up by the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting 
  • Its main job was to hear appeals filed under the Cinematograph Act, by applicants for certification aggrieved by the decision of the Central Board of Film Certification
  • Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 
  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2
  • Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2
  • Explanation:
  • In NEWS: Explained: The role, significance of film certification tribunal, now abolished
  • Earlier this week, the government by an ordinance abolished the Film Certificate Appellate Tribunal (FCAT), which heard appeals by filmmakers seeking certification for their films.
  • The Tribunals Reforms (Rationalisation And Conditions Of Service) Ordinance, 2021, which came into effect on April 4, amends the Cinematograph Act, 1952 by omitting some sections and replacing the word “Tribunal” with “High Court” in other sections
  • In effect, filmmakers will now have to approach the High Court with appeals they would have earlier filed with the NCAT.
  • About Film Certificate Appellate Tribunal (FCAT)
  • FCAT was a statutory body constituted by the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting in 1983, under Section 5D of the Cinematograph Act, 1952. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Its main job was to hear appeals filed under Section 5C of the Cinematograph Act, by applicants for certification aggrieved by the decision of the Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC). Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The tribunal was headed by a chairperson and had four other members, including a Secretary appointed by the Government of India to handle. 
  • The Tribunal was headquartered in New Delhi.
  • About CBFC certificate
  • In India, all films must have a CBFC certificate if they are to be released theatrically, telecast on television, or displayed publicly in any way.

 The CBFC — which consists of a Chairperson and 23 members, all appointed by the Government of India — certifies films under four categories:

  • U: Unrestricted public exhibition (Suitable for all age groups)
  • U/A: Parental guidance for children under age 12
  • A: Restricted to adults(Suitable for 18 years and above
  • S: Restricted to a specialised group of people, such as engineers, doctors or scientists.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/the-role-significance-of-film-certification-tribunal-now-abolished-7263409/


  • 7.Consider the following Statements with respect to Net-zero
  • It is a state in which a country’s emissions are compensated by absorption and removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere
  • It is inspired by an IPCC report that calls for global net emissions through various means to reach zero by 2050

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What is net-zero, and what are India’s objections?

  • One of the objectives of Kerry’s visit is to explore whether New Delhi can be nudged to drop its hard opposition, and open up to the possibility of pledging itself to a 2050 net-zero goal.
  • In its bid to reclaim the global climate leadership, the US is widely expected to commit itself to a net-zero emission target for 2050 at the summit.
  • Several other countries, including the UK and France, have already enacted laws promising to achieve a net-zero emission scenario by the middle of the century. 
  • The European Union is working a similar Europe-wide law, while many other countries including Canada, South Korea, Japan and Germany have expressed their intention to commit themselves to a net-zero future. 
  • Even China has promised to go net-zero by 2060

About the net-zero goal

  • Net-zero, which is also referred to as carbon-neutrality, does not mean that a country would bring down its emissions to zero. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The “net zero” idea is inspired by an IPCC report that calls for global net emissions – GHG emissions minus removal of GHGs through various means to reach zero by mid-century. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Rather, net-zero is a state in which a country’s emissions are compensated by absorption and removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. Absorption of the emissions can be increased by creating more carbon sinks such as forests, while removal of gases from the atmosphere requires futuristic technologies such as carbon capture and storage.
  • A good example is Bhutan which is often described as carbon-negative because it absorbs more than it emits.
  • It is being argued that global carbon neutrality by 2050 is the only way to achieve the Paris Agreement target of keeping the planet’s temperature from rising beyond 2°C compared to pre-industrial times.

India’s objections

  • India is the only one opposing this target because it is likely to be the most impacted by it. India’s position is unique. 
  • Over the next two to three decades, India’s emissions are likely to grow at the fastest pace in the world, as it presses for higher growth to pull hundreds of millions of people out of poverty. 
  • No amount of afforestation or reforestation would be able to compensate for the increased emissions. Most of the carbon removal technologies right now are either unreliable or very expensive.
  • The net-zero goal does not figure in the 2015 Paris Agreement, the new global architecture to fight climate change. The Paris Agreement only requires every signatory to take the best climate action it can.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/why-india-opposes-net-zero-7263422/


  • 8.Consider the following Statements with respect to Consumer Confidence Survey
  • It is conducted every two months by the NITI Aayog
  • It measures consumer perception on five economic variables such as employment, economic situation, price level, spending and income

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Survey shows a dip in consumer confidence

  • The consumer confidence index fell to 53.1 in March 2021 from 55.5 in January 2021, the RBI survey released
  • Consumer confidence and future expectations in India fell in March, a Reserve Bank of India (RBI) survey found, as rising coronavirus cases cast a cloud over the economy.
  • When the index measure is above 100, it signals optimism and while it is below 100, it represents pessimism.
  • Most of the consumers reported higher overall expenditure. According to the survey, this scenario is to continue in the coming year despite the moderation in discretionary spending.
  • The consumer’s expectation on the general economic situation and employment situation for the year ahead was also pessimistic.

About Consumer Confidence Survey

  • The Survey measures consumer perception on five economic variables such as employment, economic situation, price level, spending and income. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The Consumer Confidence Survey has two main indices namely current situation index and future expectations index. 
  • The future expectations index measures what consumers think about the change in an economic issue one year ahead. 
  • The current situation index measures the change in consumer perception over an economic issue in the last year.
  • The Consumer Confidence Survey is conducted every two months by the Reserve Bank of India. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • The survey is conducted to measure how pessimistic or optimistic the consumers are regarding their financial situation.
  • The survey was conducted through telephonic interviews.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/business/survey-shows-a-dip-in-consumer-confidence-101617847998959.html


9.Consider the following Statements with respect to INS Sarvekshak

  1. It is a hydrographic survey ship in the Indian Navy under the Southern Naval Command.
  2. It is fitted with survey equipment such as Side Scan Sonars, Deep Sea Multi Beam Echo Sounder and a completely automated digital surveying and processing system.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: INS SARVEKSHAK IN MAURITIUS

  • INS Sarvekshak, a hydrographic survey ship, is on a deployment to Mauritius for undertaking joint hydrographic surveys along with their Mauritian counterpartsHence statement 1 is correct
  • During the deployment, training of Mauritian personnel on advanced hydrographic equipment and practices will also be undertaken. 
  • The ship visited Port Louis, Mauritius and commenced the hydrographic survey of ‘Deep sea area off Port Louis’.
  • INS Sarvekshak has undertaken various foreign cooperation surveys over the last few years in Mauritius, Seychelles, Tanzania and Kenya.
  • The Hydrographic surveys help in the measurement of ocean features that affect marine dredging, maritime navigation, offshore oil exploration and drilling and other related activities.

About INS Sarvekshak

  • The INS Sarvekshak is fitted with survey equipment such as Side Scan Sonars, Deep Sea Multi Beam Echo Sounder and a completely automated digital surveying and processing system.
  • It operates under the Southern Naval Command. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • INS Sarvekshak had earlier been deployed in Mauritius for surveys in 2006, 2011, 2015. It has conducted Survey of Rodrigues for delineation of continental shelf, survey of passes off Mauritian coast, survey of Port Harbour.
  • The survey works of INS Sarvekshak are of immense help to the Mauritius Government in the field of fishing, establishment of artificial reefs, ecosystem preservation and management.
  • In 2007, INS Sarvekshak surveyed Port Mathurin located in Rodrigues of Mauritius that was last surveyed more than hundred years ago.
  • The INS Sarvekshak carries an integral Chetak helicopter. The helicopter is deployed during the survey.
  • It has also undertaken various foreign surveys along the coasts of Tanzania, Seychelles and Kenya.
  • INS Sarvekshak was the first ship of Indian Navy to deploy solar power.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1710075


10.Which of the following factors/policies were affecting the price of rice in India in the recent past?

  1. Minimum Support Price
  2. Government’s trading 
  3. Government’s stockpiling
  4. Consumer subsidies 

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1, 2 and 4 only 
  2. 1, 3 and 4 only
  3. 2 and 3 only 
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Explanation:

  • Option 1 is correct: MSP results in a diversion of stocks from the open market, thus, driving up the price for the ultimate consumers. Further, MSP prevents the prices from going down (directly). Price will not go below the MSP- The farmer can sell the produce to the government at the MSP. It will also prevent the price from going up (indirectly)- The price will shoot up only when the production is less, but if the production will increase, then the prices will not be too high. 
  • Option 2 is correct: Though factors like climatic shocks determine rice production and prices in the short run, the future scenario of rice prices must be based on long-term projections of rice demand and supply. Trading results in an increased demand in the international markets, which affects the price of rice in India. 
  • Option 3 is correct: Low stock levels constrain the ability to buffer the price rise resulting from other factors.
  • Option 4 is correct: Subsidies lower the prices for the ultimate consumer. Hence all the given factors affect/ have affected the price of rice in the country

  • ets, which affects the price of rice in India. 
  • Option 3 is correct: Low stock levels constrain the ability to buffer the price rise resulting from other factors.
  • Option 4 is correct: Subsidies lower the prices for the ultimate consumer. Hence all the given factors affect/ have affected the price of rice in the country