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Daily Prelims Test – 6_April 2021

Which one of the following mission is aimed at studying the deep interiors of Mars in the first time?

MAVEN Mission

Opportunity rover Mission

Curiosity Mission

Insight Mission

Answer: (d) Insight Mission

Explanation:

In NEWS: NASA’s InSight lander detects two medium marsquakes on the Red Planet

  • The mission identified more than 500 quakes in its first Martian year but lately, heavy winds have prevented the clear signal that scientists need to detect small rumbles in the Red Planet. Now, the weather has turned and in March, mission personnel detected two quakes stronger than magnitude 3.0.
  • The two new marsquakes, which InSight detected on March 7 and March 18, both occurred in a region called Cerberus Fossae. That’s the same area where the two biggest quakes InSight detected in  its first Martian year also took place, suggesting that the area is particularly active, seismically speaking.
  • About Insight Mission
  • The Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport mission is a robotic lander designed to study the deep interior of the planet Mars. Hence Option  (d) is correct
  • It is a robotic lander designed to study the deep interior of Mars to learn how all celestial bodies with rocky surfaces, including Earth and the Moon, formed.
  • It is the first mission dedicated to looking deep beneath the Martian surface.
  • Among its science tools are a seismometer for detecting quakes, sensors for gauging wind and air pressure, a magnetometer, and a heat flow probe designed to take the planet’s temperature.
  • The InSight mission is part of NASA’s Discovery Program.
  • It is being supported by a number of European partners, which include France’s Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES), the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA).
  • Source: https://www.space.com/mars-insight-lander-detects-two-sizable-marsquakes

·        


Consider the following Statements with respect to Emergency Credit Line Guarantee Scheme

It aims to provide collateral-free loans to micro, small and medium enterprises

It was launched as part of the Covid-19 relief package called the Atma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan.

National Credit Guarantee Trustee Company (NCGTC) is the guarantee provider under the ECLGS scheme.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

1 only

2 and 3 only

1 and 2 only

1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Govt. extends emergency credit line guarantee scheme till June

The government extended the ₹3-lakh-crore emergency credit line guarantee scheme by another three months till June 30

Under ECLGS 3.0, business enterprises in the hospitality, travel and tourism, leisure and sporting sectors would be able to avail credit.

It involves the extension of credit of up to 40% of the total credit outstanding from 20% earlier.

The tenor of loans granted under ECLGS 3.0 is six years, including a moratorium period of two years.

About Emergency Credit Line Guarantee Scheme

Emergency Credit Line Guarantee Scheme(ECLGS) was launched as part of the Covid-19 relief package called the Atma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan. Hence, statement 2 is correct.

Under the Scheme, 100% guarantee coverage to be provided by National Credit Guarantee Trustee Company Limited (NCGTC) for additional funding of up to Rs. 3 lakh crore to eligible MSMEs and interested MUDRA borrowers. Hence, statement 1 is correct and statement 3 is correct.

The credit will be provided in the form of a Guaranteed Emergency Credit Line (GECL) facility.

The Scheme would be applicable to all loans sanctioned under GECL Facility

The Scheme aims at mitigating the economic distress faced by MSMEs by providing them additional funding in the form of a fully guaranteed emergency credit line.

The main objective is to provide an incentive to Member Lending Institutions (MLIs), i.e., Banks, Financial Institutions (FIs) and NBFCs to increase access to, and enable the availability of additional funding facility to MSME borrowers.

It aims to provide a 100 per cent guarantee for any losses suffered by them due to non-repayment of the GECL funding by borrowers.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/business/Economy/govt-extends-emergency-credit-line-guarantee-scheme-till-june/article34209105.ece

·        


  • With respect to millet production, Consider the following Statements
  • India, Nigeria and China are the largest producers of millets in the world
  • In India, pearl millet is the fourth-most widely cultivated food crop after rice, wheat and maize
  • Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 
  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2
  • Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2
  • Explanation:
  • In NEWS: ‘Millet-based products set to gain increasing acceptance’
  • The United Nations has declared 2023 as the International Year of Millets. India is fast catching up with the western world in millet consumption
  • Millet-based products are fast gaining acceptance in the West. 
  • How is the scenario in India?
  • India, Nigeria and China are the largest producers of millets in the world, accounting for more than 55% of the global production. For many years, India was a major producer of millets. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
  • However, in recent years, millet production has increased dramatically in Africa.
  • In India, pearl millet is the fourth-most widely cultivated food crop after rice, wheat and maize. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • It occupies an area of 6.93 million hectare with an average production of 8.61 million tonnes and productivity of 1,243 kg/ha during 2018-19.
  • Why is India slow in adopting millet-based products?
  • Millets are available almost across India. They need very little water for growing.
  • The awareness of the benefits of millets is still low and this is the reason for lesser number of players working on value-added millet products in India.
  • However, we see this increasing in the coming years as many States will start supporting millet cultivation both on account of the benefits and the fact that they need less water.
  • So, we see a slow expansion of millet-based products in the next few years and a big explosion in these products after that.
  • Benefits
  • Millets help in tackling health challenges such as obesity, diabetes and lifestyle problems as they are gluten-free, have a low glycemic index and are high in dietary fibre and antioxidants.
  • Millets are Nutri-cereals that are highly nutritious and known to have high nutrient content which includes protein, essential fatty acids, dietary fibre, B-Vitamins and minerals such as calcium, iron, zinc, potassium and magnesium.
  • It can provide nutritional security and protect against nutritional deficiency, especially among children and women.
  • It will also be critical for climate change measures in drylands and important for smallholder and marginal farmers.
  • Source: https://www.thehindu.com/business/Industry/millet-based-products-set-to-gain-increasing-acceptance/article34226369.ece

·        


  • 4.Consider the following Statements with respect to Integrated Health Information Platform
  • It aims to operate under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme.
  • It will provide near-real-time data to policy makers for detecting outbreaks, reducing the morbidity and mortality and lessening disease burden in the populations and better health systems.
  • Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 
  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2
  • Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2
  • Explanation:
  • In NEWS: Union health minister Harsh Vardhan launches Integrated Health Information Platform
  • Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare Dr Harsh Vardhan virtually launched the Integrated Health Information Platform
  • The new version of IHIP will house the data entry and management for India’s disease surveillance program
  • In addition to tracking 33 diseases now as compared to the earlier 18 diseases, it shall ensure near-real-time data in digital mode, having done away with the paper-mode of working
  • Terming this as the world’s biggest online disease surveillance platform, he stated that it is in sync with the National Digital Health Mission and fully compatible with the other digital information systems presently being used in India.
  • According to the health ministry, India is the first country to adopt such an advanced surveillance system
  • About Integrated Health Information Platform
  • The Integrated Health Information Platform is to operate under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
  • It is real time, village wise, case based electronic health information system with GIS tagging which will help in prompt prevention and control of epidemic prone diseases.
  • It will provide near-real-time data to policy makers for detecting outbreaks, reducing the morbidity and mortality and lessening disease burden in the populations and better health systems. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • The objective behind setting up IHIP was to enable creation of interoperable Electronic Health Records (EHRs) which can be made available and accessible throughout the country.
  • Information from other branches like tuberculosis control programme, maternal and child health programme and non-communicable disease programme also will be included in this platform.
  • Benefits from Integrated Health Information Platform (IHIP) 
  • Reducing Medical Errors – It provides a vehicle for improving quality and safety of patient care by reducing medication and medical errors.
  • Patient Involvement– It stimulates consumer education and patients’ involvement in their own health care.
  • Increases efficiency – by eliminating unnecessary paperwork and provides caregivers with clinical decision support tools for more effective care and treatment
  • Improves public health reporting and monitoring – by creating a potential loop for feedback between health-related research and actual practice. Further, it provides a basic level of interoperability among electronic health records (EHRs) maintained by individual physicians and organizations.
  • Technology in Healthcare – It facilitates efficient deployment of emerging technology and health care services and provides the backbone of technical infrastructure for leverage by national and State level initiatives
  • About Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) 
  • Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme is a disease surveillance scheme under National Health Mission, under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in India, assisted by the World Bank.
  • The scheme seeks to set up a Central Disease Surveillance Unit and a State Surveillance Unit in each State where data is collected and analyzed.
  • The IDSP portal is a one stop portal which has facilities for data entry, view reports, outbreak reporting, data analysis, training modules and resources related to disease surveillance.
  • Source: https://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/2021/apr/06/union-health-minister-harsh-vardhan-launches-integrated-health-information-platform-2286270.html

·        


  • 5.Consider the following Statements with respect to Narcotics Control Bureau
  • It is a statutory organisation formed under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (NDPS) Act, 1985
  • It is based on the Directive Principles contained in Article 47 of the Indian Constitution
  • India is not a signatory of the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, 1988.
  • Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 
  • 1 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 1,2 and 3
  • Answer: (c) 1 and 2 only
  • Explanation:
  • In NEWS: India, Qatar join hands to ward off narco challenge
  • India and Qatar are initiating the process of signing an memorandum of understanding for better coordination and cooperation in crackdown on international narco cartels.
  • Reasons:
  • Promote a faster mechanism for coordination and information sharing between the two countries.
  • Appointing nodal officers for direct communication on narcotics-related issues.
  • Ensuring admissibility of evidence collected in India and exonerate innocent Indians currently in Qatar jails on false charges.
  • About Narcotics Control Bureau
  • The National Policy on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances is based on the Directive Principles, contained in Article 47 of the Indian Constitution, which direct the State to endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption, except for medicinal purposes, of intoxicating drugs injurious to health. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • India is a signatory to the single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961, as amended by the 1972 Protocol,the Conventions on Psychotropic Substances, 1971 and the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, 1988. Hence, statement 3 is incorrect.
  • The broad legislative policy is contained in the three Central Acts, viz. Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940, The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985, and The Prevention of Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1988. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
  • It is headquartered in New Delhi.
  • The Narcotics Control Bureau is also represented on the Economic Intelligence Council.
  • The Bureau, subject to the supervision and control of the Central Government, is to exercise the powers and functions of the Central Government for taking measures with respect to:
  • Co-ordination of actions by various offices, State Governments and other authorities under the N.D.P.S. Act, Customs Act, Drugs and Cosmetics Act and any other law for the time being in force in connection with the enforcement provisions of the NDPS Act, 1985.
  • Implementation of the obligation in respect of counter measures against illicit traffic under the various international conventions and protocols that are in force at present or which may be ratified or acceded to by India in future.
  • Assistance to concerned authorities in foreign countries and concerned international organisations to facilitate coordination and universal action for prevention and suppression of illicit traffic in these drugs and substances.
  • Coordination of actions taken by the other concerned Ministries, Departments and Organizations in respect of matters relating to drug abuse.

Source: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/india-qatar-join-hands-to-ward-off-narco-challenge/articleshow/81902139.cms


  • 6.The following characteristics are related to which of the following rivers?
  • It originates from near the Bara Lacha Pass in the Lahul-Spiti part of the Zaskar Range.
  • It flows through the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir into the plains of Punjab, Pakistan, before flowing into the Indus River.
  • The river is formed by the confluence of two rivers, Chandra and Bhaga

Select the correct code from the options given below

  1. Satluj River
  2. Beas River
  3. Ravi river
  4. Chenab River

Answer: (d) Chenab River

Explanation:

In NEWS: Arch of world’s highest railway bridge on Chenab completed

  • The construction of the arch of the world’s highest railway bridge that soars 359 metres above the bed of the Chenab river in Jammu and Kashmir was completed
  • The Railways joined the two arms of the arch that currently stretch towards each other from both banks of the river.
  • The 1.3km-long bridge aims to boost connectivity to the Valley and is being built at a cost of ₹1,486 crore as a part of the Udhampur-Srinagar-Baramulla Railway Link (USBRL) project.
  • The bridge, which is 35 metres higher than the Eiffel Tower, is expected to be completed within a year
  • About Chenab river 
  • The Chenab originates from near the Bara Lacha Pass in the Lahul-Spiti part of the Zaskar Range. Hence Option  (d) is correct
  • Two small streams on opposite sides of the pass, namely Chandra and Bhaga, form its headwaters at an altitude of 4,900 m.
  • The united stream Chandrabhaga flows in the north-west direction through the Pangi valley, parallel to the Pir Panjal range.
  • Near Kistwar, it cuts a deep gorge.
  • It enters the plain area near Akhnur in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • From here it through the plains of Pakistani Punjab to reach Panchnad where it joins the Satluj after receiving the waters of Jhelum and Ravi rivers.
  • The Bhaga river originates from Surya taal lake, which is situated a few kilometers west of the Bara-lacha la pass in Himachal Pradesh.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/cities/chandigarh-news/arch-of-world-s-highest-railway-bridge-on-chenab-completed-101617653356338.html


  • 7.With respect to Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) Programme, Consider the following Statements
  • It has been extended to all States and UTs.
  • Under this programme, Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) sell petrol blended with 10% ethanol.
  • The price of Ethanol is fixed by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs chaired by the Prime Minister

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3.  1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (b) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: At 7.2%, India blends record ethanol with petrol in first 4 months

  • Ethanol blending in India has reached more than 7.2 per cent — the first time it has reached this level — in the first four months of the ethanol supply year 2020-21 (December to November), putting the country on course to meet the target of 10 per cent blending by 2022.
  • The best ever ethanol blend with petrol has been around 5.2 per cent at all-India level.
  • In states of Karnataka, Gujarat, Goa, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Delhi, Daman and Diu, Himachal Pradesh, 9.5% to 10% ethanol is being blended with petrol. These states and union territories are so close to achieving 2022 target.

 About Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) Programme

  • The Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) programme was launched by the Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas (MoP&NG). The EBP seeks to achieve blending of Ethanol with Petrol with a view to reducing pollution, conserving foreign exchange and increasing value addition in the sugar industry enabling them to clear cane price arrears of farmers.
  • The Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) are to procure ethanol from domestic sources at remunerative prices fixed by the government.
  • Government has been implementing Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) Programme throughout the country except Union Territories of Andaman Nicobar and Lakshadweep islands, wherein OMCs sell petrol blended with 10% ethanol. Hence, statement 1 is incorrect. And Hence, statement 2 is correct.
    • The government has set targets of 10% bioethanol blending of petrol by 2022 and to raise it to 20% by 2030 under the Ethanol Blended Programme (EBP).
    • Government has notified administered price of ethanol since 2014. For the first time during 2018, the differential price of ethanol-based on raw material utilized for ethanol production was announced by the Government.
  • The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs chaired by the Prime Minister has approved higher ethanol price derived from different sugarcane-based raw materials under the Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) Programme for the forthcoming sugar season 2020-21. Hence, statement 3 is correct.

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/economy-policy/at-7-2-india-blends-record-ethanol-with-petrol-in-first-4-months-121040500016_1.html#:~:text=Ethanol%20blending%20in%20India%20has,per%20cent%20blending%20by%202022.


  • 8.Consider the following
  • Sugarcane 
  • B heavy molasses 
  • C heavy molasses
  • Damaged Food grains

From the above options, which of the materials are advised by the Oil Marketing Companies to acquire ethanol under EBP Programme?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 4 only
  4. 1,2,3 and 4

Answer: (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Explanation:

  • In NEWS: At 7.2%, India blends record ethanol with petrol in first 4 months
  • The data from industry sources says till March 29, OMCs have asked for 4.57 billion litres for 2020-21. Of this, sugar companies have finalised bids for 3.25 billion litres. 
  • Around 770 million litres has been produced from B-heavy molasses and sugarcane juice, which will lead to a shortfall of 800,000 tonnes of surplus sugar.
  • Industry players say in 2020-21 there will be a decline in production of around 2 million tonnes of sugar because of this diversion of sugarcane for ethanol.
  • According to the ethanol policy, sugar companies are under obligation to deliver the contracted ethanol to the nearest OMC depot, for which OMCs are supposed to pay the transportation charges
  • The problem of reimbursement has also become acute because in several cases OMCs have changed the ethanol delivery depot early in the season because the ones preferred by sugar companies near their plants aren’t empty.

Procurement of ethanol

  • The OMCs are to procure ethanol from domestic sources. Government has notified administered  price of ethanol since 2014. For the previous ethanol supply year 2019-20, the ethanol procurement by OMCs is estimated to be 195 crore litres.
  • Government has reduced the GST rate on ethanol meant for EBP Programme from 18% to 5%.

The OMCs are advised to acquire ethanol on the following priority order under the programme: Hence Option (d) is correct

  • Sugarcane
  • B-Heavy molasses
  • C-Heavy molasses
  • Damaged food grains

About Ethanol

  • Ethanol can be produced from maize, sugarcane, wheat, etc. In India, ethanol is mainly produced by fermentation process.
  • Ethanol is considered as a renewable fuel as ethanol is produced from plants that use the power of sun.
  • The major disadvantage is using ethanol is that as ethanol can absorb moisture from atmosphere it can cause issues with vehicle engines.

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/economy-policy/at-7-2-india-blends-record-ethanol-with-petrol-in-first-4-months-121040500016_1.html#:~:text=Ethanol%20blending%20in%20India%20has,per%20cent%20blending%20by%202022.


9.Recently the term E9 initiative is seen in news, is related to which of the following area?

  1. Inflation Targeting
  2. Fisheries Subsidy at WTO
  3. Education for All
  4. Women & Child’s Health

Answer: (c) Education for All

Explanation:

In NEWS: MoS for Education Sanjay Dhotre to attend consultation meeting of Education Ministers of E9 countries

  • Minister of State for Education Sanjay Dhotre will attend a consultation meeting of Education Ministers of E9 countries today. The meeting will be held on the theme, E9 initiative: Scaling up digital learning to accelerate progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 4.
  • During the meet, the leaders are to create an initiative on digital learning and skills. The initiative is to target marginalised children and youth. The initiative will mainly accelerate three of the 2020 Global Education Meeting objectives.
  • The 2020 Global Education Meeting was organised by UNESCO. It acted as a unique platform for exchange among high-level political leaders and policy makers.

About E9 initiative

  • E9 is a forum of nine countries. It was created to achieve the goals of “Education for All” initiative of UNESCO. Hence Option  (c) is correct
  • In E9, E stands for Education and 9 represents nine member countries. The member countries of E9 initiative are Brazil, Bangladesh, China, Egypt, Indonesia, India, Pakistan, Mexico and Nigeria. These countries represent half of the world population. 70% of the world’s literate adults are from these countries.
  • The E9 initiative was launched at the EFA Summit in New Delhi. The E9 initiative has become a forum for countries to discuss their experiences related to exchange of best practices, education, etc.
  • In 1993, the E9 countries accounted only to 16.5% of the world GDP. However, today they account to 30% of the world GDP.

Source: http://newsonair.com/Main-News-Details.aspx?id=413609#:~:text=Minister%20of%20State%20for%20Education,towards%20Sustainable%20Development%20Goal%204.


  1. 10.If another global financial crisis happens in the near future, which of the following action/policies are most likely to give some immunity to India? 
  2. Not depending on short – term foreign borrowings 
  3. Opening up to more foreign banks 
  4. Maintaining full capital account convertibility 

Select the correct answer using the code given below: 

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 3 only 
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

  • If a global financial crisis happens in the future, lesser exposure to the foreign financial markets is likely to give some immunity to India. 
    • Option 1 is correct: Short -term borrowings would lead to the burden of paying back the debt, and could result in stressful conditions for the borrowing economy/ India. 
  • Option 2 is not correct: Opening up to more foreign banks would lead to an enhanced exposure to the global economy, and hence an increased risk. 
  • Option 3 is not correct: Currency convertibility refers to a situation in which a currency can be converted into a foreign currency, and vice -versa at the prevailing exchange rate without any government intervention