KingMakers IAS Academy logo

Daily Prelims Test – 31_October 2020

Consider the following statements regarding Meri Saheli initiative

  1. It is an initiative of Railway Protection Force
  2. It aims to provide safety and security to lady passengers travelling by trains for their entire journey from starting station to destination station.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Indian Railways launches ‘Meri Saheli’ for security of women in trains

The “Meri Saheli” initiative was started as a pilot project in South Eastern Railway in September 2020 and after getting encouraging response from lady passengers, it was extended to all zones and KRCL

About Meri Saheli initiative

  • It is an initiative of Railway Protection Force (RPF). Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The objective is to provide safety and security to lady passengers travelling by trains for their entire journey from starting station to destination station. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It entails interaction with lady passengers especially those travelling alone by a team of young lady RPF personnel at the originating station. 
  • These lady passengers are told to dial 182 in case they face or see any problem in the coach. 
  • The platform duty RPF personnel at the stopping stations en-route keep unobtrusive watch over the concerned coaches and berths.
  • RPF teams at the destination collect the feedback from the identified lady passengers. 
  • If some distress call comes from a train covered under “Meri Saheli” initiative, the disposal of the call is monitored at the level of senior officers.

Source: https://www.timesnownews.com/business-economy/industry/article/indian-railways-launches-meri-saheli-for-security-of-women-in-trains-details-here/674915


Consider the following statements regarding Science and Engineering Research Board

  1. It is a non statutory body
  2. It was set up for promoting basic research in science and engineering and to provide financial assistance to scientists, academic institutions, R&D laboratories, industrial concerns

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Dr Harsh Vardhan Launches DST initiative SERB – POWER (Promoting Opportunities for Women in Exploratory Research)

Union Ministry for Science & Technology has launched a Scheme titled SERB-POWER (Promoting Opportunities for Women in Exploratory Research), designed exclusively for women scientists.

SERB – POWER Scheme will have two components namely (i) SERB-POWER Fellowship (ii) SERB- POWER Research Grants.

Salient features of the SERB-POWER Fellowship:

  • Target: Women researchers in 35-55 years of age. Up-to 25 Fellowships per year and not more than 75 at any point in time.
  • Components of support: Fellowship of Rs. 15,000/- per month in addition to regular income; Research grant of Rs. 10 lakh per annum; and Overhead of Rs. 90,000/- per annum.
  • Duration: Three years, without the possibility of extension. Once in a career.

Salient features of the SERB – POWER Research Grants:

  • POWER Grants will empower women researchers by funding them under following two categories:
  • Level I (Applicants from IITs, IISERs, IISc, NITs, Central Universities, and National Labs of Central Government Institutions): The scale of funding is up to 60 lakhs for three years.
  • Level II (Applicants from State Universities / Colleges and Private Academic Institutions): The scale of funding is up to 30 lakhs for three years.
  • About Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB)
  • SERB was established under the Science and Engineering Research Board Act, 2008.
  • It is a statutory body with requisite financial and administrative autonomy for performing its mandated functions. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • It was set up for promoting basic research in science and engineering and to provide financial assistance to scientists, academic institutions, R&D laboratories, industrial concerns and other agencies for such research. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Chaired by Secretary, Department Of Science And Technology (DST)

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1668565


Consider the following statements

  1. In India, La Nina means the country will receive more rainfall than normal, leading to floods.
  2. La Nina causes drought in the South American countries of Peru and Ecuador

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: La Nina is back; what does that mean for Africa, Asia

  • The La Niña weather phenomenon is back in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean after nearly a decade’s absence, the World Meteorological Organization
  • The La Niña of 2020 is expected to be moderate to strong. The last time there was a a strong La Niña event, was in 2010-2011, followed by a moderate event in 2011-2012.
  • It has the opposite impacts on weather and climate as El Niño, which is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

About La Nina

  • Literally translated as ‘the boy’ and ‘the girl’ in the Spanish language, El Nino and La Nina are the exact opposite phases of a climatic phenomenon called the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle, which takes place in the Pacific Ocean
  • La Nina causes drought in the South American countries of Peru and Ecuador, heavy floods in Australia, high temperatures in Western Pacific, Indian Ocean, off the Somalian coast and a comparatively better monsoon rains in India.
  • Also known as ‘El Viejo’ or cold event, El Nina is observed when the water temperature in the Eastern Pacific gets comparatively colder than normal, as a consequence of which, there is a strong high pressure over the eastern equatorial Pacif The difference in pressure between Eastern Pacific and Western Pacific/Asia causes a moisture-laden wind movement from East to West Pacific and Asia. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • As a result, La Nina causes drought in the South American countries of Peru and Ecuador, heavy floods in Australia, high temperatures in Western Pacific, Indian Ocean, off the Somalian coast and a comparatively better monsoon rains in India. Generally, El Nino and La Nina occur every 4 -5 years. El Nino is more frequent than La Nina.

Africa and Asia

  • The Horn of Africa and central Asia will see below average rainfall due to La Niña
  • East Africa is forecast to see drier-than-usual conditions, which together with the existing impacts of the desert locust invasion, may add to regional food insecurity
  • La Niña could also lead to increased rainfall in southern Africa, WMO said. This was indicated by some recent seasonal forecast models
  • La Niña could also affect the South West Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone season, reducing the intensity. 
  • Southeast Asia, some Pacific Islands and the northern region of South America are expected to receive above-average rainfall.
  • In India, La Niña means the country will receive more rainfall than normal, leading to floodsHence statement 1 is correct

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/la-nina-is-back-what-does-that-mean-for-africa-asia-74021


Consider the following statements regarding Earth observation satellite (EOS-01)

  1. It will be launched in PSLV on sun-synchronous orbit.
  2. It aims to support applications in Forestry, agriculture and disaster management and is employed on sun-synchronous orbi

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Isro to launch earth observation, nine commercial satellites in November

  • This will be the first launch of 2020 from India’s only spaceport in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh
  • India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle in its 51st mission, will launch EOS-01 as a primary satellite along with nine international customer satellites from Satish Dhawan Space Centre. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is an earth observation satelliteand is intended for applications in agriculture, forestry and disaster management support.
  • Earth observation satellites are the satellites equipped with remote sensing technology. Earth observation is the gathering of information about Earth’s physical, chemical and biological systems. Many earth observation satellites have been employed on sun-synchronous orbit. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Other earth observation satelliteslaunched by ISRO include RESOURCESAT- 2, 2A, CARTOSAT-1, 2, 2A, 2B, RISAT-1 and 2, OCEANSAT-2, Megha-Tropiques, SARAL and SCATSAT-1, INSAT-3DR, 3D, etc.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/isro-to-launch-earth-observation-nine-commercial-satellites-in-november/story-BRz1cBgawpQxMTaP6F0SLI.html


Consider the following statements regarding National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India (NAFED)

  1. NAFED is registered under the Companies Act.
  2. NAFED was setup with the object to promote Co-operative marketing of agricultural produce to benefit the farmers.
  3. Agricultural farmers are the main members of NAFED, who have the authority to say in the form of members of the General Body in the working of NAFED.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (b) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: As prices soar, NAFED to import onions

  • National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Ltd.(NAFED) was established on the auspicious day of Gandhi Jayanti on 2nd October 1958. NAFED is registered under the Multi State Co-operative Societies Act. NAFED was setup with the object to promote Cooperative marketing of agricultural produce to benefit the farmers. Agricultural farmers are the main members of NAFED, who have the authority to say in the form of members of the General Body in the working of NAFED. Hence statement 1 is incorrect, statement 2 and 3 are correct.
  • The central cooperative, NAFED, will soon begin importing onions in a bid to tame soaring prices.
  • The provision of the newly amended Essential Commodities Act, the all India average retail price of onions has continued to rise, increasing by 10rs to almost 66rs per kg.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/as-prices-soar-nafed-to-import-onions


Consider the following statements regarding Inter Parliamentary Union (IPU)

  1. The Inter-Parliamentary Union is an international organization of national parliaments.
  2. Its primary purpose is to promote democratic governance, accountability, and cooperation among its members.
  3. It’s headquarter is in Geneva, Switzerland.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: 206th session of Governing Council of IPU to be held from Nov 1.

  • The Inter-Parliamentary Union is an international organization of national parliaments. Its primary purpose is to promote democratic governance, accountability, and cooperation among its membersHence statement 1 and statement 2 is correct.
  • As of 2020, the national parliaments of 179 countries are members of the IPU, while 13 regional parliamentary assemblies are associate members.
  • Headquarters: Geneva, SwitzerlandHence statement 3 is correct.
  • The 206th Session of the Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, IPU will be held from 1st to 4th November this year. It will be an Extraordinary Virtual Session, which is being organized in place of a full-fledged in-person Statutory Assembly of IPU due to the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic.

Source: http://newsonair.com/News?title=206th-Session-of-Governing-Council-of-the-Inter-Parliamentary-Union-to-be-held-from-Nov-1&id=403386


Malabar Naval Exercise is a joint exercise between India and which of the following countries?

a) Japan

b) Australia

c) United States of America

d) All the above countries

Answer: (d) All the above countries

Explanation:

In NEWS: Malabar Naval Exercise to kick off next week

  • The first phase of the Malabar Naval exercise with Australia, Japan and the U.S. is scheduled to be held next week off the Visakhapatnam coast. Hence option (d) is the correct answer.
  • This is the first time Australia will be joining the exercise after 2007 and it will bring all four countries of the Quadrilateral grouping together for military games.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/malabar-exercise-first-phase-to-take-place-from-nov-3-6-in-bay-of-bengal/article32983918.ece#:~:text=%E2%80%9CPhase%201%20of%20the%20Exercise,defence%20official%20said%20on%20Friday.


With reference to the constitution of India, Article 162 states which one of the following is correct?

a) The decision taken by the Election Commission of India while discharging its duties cannot be challenged in any court of law.

b) The Supreme Court of India is not constrained in the exercise of its powers by laws made by the parliament.

c) State Legislatures cannot make laws on certain matters without the concurrence of Union Legislature.

d) the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of the State has power to make laws Provided that in any matter with respect to which the Legislature of a State and Parliament have power to make laws

Answer: (d) the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of the State has power to make laws Provided that in any matter with respect to which the Legislature of a State and Parliament have power to make laws

Explanation:

In NEWS: Governor Grants assent to horizontal quota Bill

  • Article 162: Extent of executive power of State Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of the State has power to make laws Provided that in any matter with respect to which the Legislature of a State and Parliament have power to make laws, the executive power of the State shall be subject to, and limited by, the executive power expressly conferred by the Constitution or by any law made by Parliament upon the Union or authorities thereof Council of Ministers. Hence option (d) is the correct answer.
  • Tamil Nadu Governor Banwarilal Purohit granted assent to the Bill providing for 7.5% horizontal quota for students who have studied in State government schools and qualified in NEET for admissions to undergraduate medical courses, after the Solicitor General of India opined that the Bill was in consonance with the Constitution of India.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/tn-governor-grants-assent-for-horizontal-quota-in-medical-admissions/article32981110.ece


Sardar Patel Zoological Park which was recently inaugurated by the Prime Minister of India. The park is located in which one of the following states?

a) Maharashtra

b) Rajasthan

c) Gujarat

d) Delhi

Answer: (c) Gujarat

Explanation:

  • The Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated Sardar Patel Zoological Park and Geodesic Aviary Dome in Kevadia, Gujarat. Hence option (c) is the correct answer.
  • The Jungle Safari is in the state of the art zoological park spread over an area of 375 acres at seven different levels ranging from 29 to 180 meters. It has more than 1100 Birds & Animals and 5 lakh plants. It is the fastest ever built Jungle Safari.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/pm-modi-arrives-on-two-day-gujarat-visit/article32979314.ece


Consider the following statements:

  1. Most of the world’s coral reefs are in tropical waters.
  2. More than one-third of the world’s coral reefs are located in the territories of Australia, Indonesia and the Philippines.
  3. Coral reefs host far more number of animal phyla than those hosted by tropical rainforests.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

  • Most coral reefs are located in tropical shallow waters less than 50 meters deep, in the western regions of the Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean and Greater Caribbean. Global distribution of coralsAustralia-17% Indonesia-16% Philippines-9% So, Australia, Indonesia and Philippines together host more than one-third of world’s corals. 32 of the 34 recognized animal Phyla are found on coral reefs compared to only 9 Phyla in tropical rainforests.