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Daily Prelims Test – 31_January 2021

Consider the following Statements regarding Joint Sitting of the Parliament

The provision of joint sitting is applicable to ordinary bills or financial bills only

The Speaker of Lok Sabha presides over a joint sitting of the two Houses

The joint sitting of the Parliament is governed by the Rules of Procedure of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: President Kovind addresses joint sitting of Parliament on day 1 of Budget Session

  • The Budget Session of Parliament commences on Friday with President Ram NathKovind’s address. As per the set tradition, the President addressed the joint sitting of Parliament at the Central Hall.
  • The speech highlighted the government’s plan and policy vision for the next financial year. He also highlighted the work carried out by the government in the past years.

About Joint Sitting of the Parliament

  • Joint sitting is an extraordinary machinery provided by the Constitution to resolve a deadlock between the two Houses over the passage of a bill.
  • The deadlock is deemed to have taken place under any one of the following three situations after a bill has been passed by one House and transmitted to the other House:
  • If the bill is rejected by the other House;
  • If the Houses have finally disagreed as to the amendments to be made in the bill; or
  • If more than six months have elapsed from the date of the receipt of the bill by the other House without the bill being passed by it.
  • The president can summon both the Houses to meet in a joint sitting for the purpose of deliberating and voting on the bill in the above three situations.
  • Applicability of Joint Sitting: It must be noted here that the provision of joint sitting is applicable to ordinary bills or financial bills only and not to money bills or Constitutional amendment bills.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Chairman of Joint Sitting: The Speaker of Lok Sabha presides over a joint sitting of the two Houses and the Deputy Speaker, in his absence.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • If the Deputy Speaker is also absent from a joint sitting, the Deputy Chairman of Rajya Sabha presides.
  • It is clear that the Chairman of Rajya Sabha does not preside over a joint sitting as he is not a member of either House of Parliament.
  • Condition for Joint Sitting: The quorum to constitute a joint sitting is one-tenth of the total number of members of the two Houses.
  • Governing of Joint Sitting: The joint sitting of the Parliament is governed by the Rules of Procedure of Lok Sabha and not of Rajya Sabha.Hence statement 3 is incorrect

Source: TH


Consider the following Statements regarding Green hydrogen

It is based on the generation of hydrogen through electrolysis using renewable source

It does not emit polluting gases either during combustion or during production.

It is easy to store and can be transformed into electricity or synthetic gas

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Electricity will be the backbone of energy system, say venu

  • The grid of the future is all about renewable penetration and increased electricity consumption. The Railways has an ambition to electrify their entire network; besides, electric vehicles (EVs) will be one of the biggest growth drivers spurring electrification in the country.
  • In addition, we will see a rise in sustainable energy carriers such as green hydrogen which will transform our energy systems.

About Green hydrogen

  • Hydrogen is a non-toxic colourless gas.
  • The technology for green hydrogen is based on the generation of hydrogen through This method uses an electrical current to separate the hydrogen from the oxygen in water.
  • If renewable energy (e.g., from Solar panels) is used to generate electricity for electrolysis of water then the green hydrogen can be generated without any harmful emissions.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • If this electricity is obtained from renewable sources, therefore, produce energy without emitting carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
  • This method of obtaining green hydrogen would save the 830 million tonnes of CO2 that are emitted annually when this gas is produced using fossil fuels.
  • Green H2 is essentially a clean burning fuel that eliminates emissions by using RE to electrolyse water.
  • In the process it separates the hydrogen atom within it from its molecular twin, oxygen.
  • Hydrogen is being used across the United States, Russia, China, France and Germany. Countries like Japan desire to become a hydrogen economy in future.

ADVANTAGES OF GREEN HYDROGEN

  • 100 % SUSTAINABLE : Green hydrogen does not emit polluting gases either during combustion or during production.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • STORABLE : Hydrogen is easy to store, which allows it to be used subsequently for other purposes.Hence statement 3 is correct
  • VERSATILE : Green hydrogen can be transformed into electricity or synthetic gas and used for domestic, commercial, industrial or mobility purposes.
  • TRANSPORTABLE : It can be mixed with natural gas at ratios of up to 20 % and travel through the same gas pipes and infrastructure .

DISADVANTAGES OF GREEN HYDROGEN

  • HIGH COST : Energy from renewable sources, which are key to generating green hydrogen through electrolysis, is more expensive to generate.
  • HIGH ENERGY CONSUMPTION : The production of hydrogen in general and green hydrogen in particular requires more energy than other fuels.
  • SAFETY ISSUES : Hydrogen is a highly volatile and flammable element and extensive safety measures are therefore required to prevent leakage and explosions.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/business/Industry/electricity-will-be-the-backbone-of-energy-systems-says-venu/article33705709.ece


What is the aim of STARS project?

Improving Indian school education systems

Development to the horticulture sector

Creation of a New Indirect Tax Network

Double the income of farmers by end of 2022.

Answer: (a) Improving Indian school education systems

Explanation:

In NEWS: Govt, World back sign agreement under STARS project to develop education

  • Ministry of Education, Department of Economic Affairs (DEA), and World Bank have signed an agreement for the financial support worth Rs 5718 crore towards the implementation of the Strengthening Teaching-Learning and Results for States (STARS) project.
  • The proposed World Bank support under STARS is primarily in the form of a results-based financing instrument called Program for Results (PforR). This will ensure major reforms at the state-level through a set of disbursement-linked indicators (DLIs).

About STARS project

  • The project aims at improving the overall monitoring and measurement activities in the Indian school education system through interventions in selected states.Hence option (d) is correct
  • The project will cover six states including Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, and Odisha. The identified states will be supported for various interventions for improving the quality of education.
  • The project aims at improving the overall monitoring and measurement activities in the Indian school education system through interventions in selected states.
  • STARS will draw on the existing structure under SamagraShiksha. At the state level, the project will be implemented through the integrated state Implementation Society (SIS) for SamagraShiksha.
  • STARS project will be instrumental in the implementation of various recommendations of National Education Policy 2020 that is strengthening early childhood education and foundational learning, improving learning assessment system, ICT-enabled approaches in education, teachers development and vocational education etc

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/education/govt-world-back-sign-agreement-worth-rs-5718-core-under-stars-project-to-develop-education-7166670/


Corruption Perception Index is released by which of the following organization?

Transparency International

Amnesty International

World Economic Forum

Reporters Without Borders

Answer: (a) Transparency International

Explanation:

In NEWS: India slips six places to rank 86 in Transparency International’s corruption perception index 2020. Hence option (a) is correct

  • India’s rank has slipped six places to 86th among 180 countries in a corruption perception index (CPI) in 2020.The CPI generally defines corruption as “the misuse of public power for private benefit”.
  • The index, which ranks 180 countries and territories by their perceived levels of public sector corruption according to experts and business people, uses a scale of 0 to 100, where 0 is highly corrupt and 100 is very clean.It is published annually by Berlin-based Transparency International since 1995.
  • India’s rank is 86 out of 180 nations with a score of 40.
  • This year, New Zealand and Denmark were ranked at first position with scores of 88. Somalia and South Sudan were ranked lowest at 179th position with scores of 12.
  • Recommendations of the report

Mainstream anti-corruption policies:

  • Conducting corruption risk analyses as part of wider health system strengthening assessments and national health planning exercises.

Increase transparency in public contracting:

  • Timely publication of contracting data in open format and their publication in centralised platforms.
  • Designing explicit rules and protocols for emergencies and ensuring they are enforced.

Strengthen audit and oversight institutions:

  • They need to be independent and properly resourced to be able to perform their duties.
  • Specific methodologies and technological tools that enable real-time auditing in emergencies must be rolled-out and activated when necessary.
  • Setting aside sufficient resources for ex-post audits of emergency funds
  • Communicating the decision to conduct these as a way to deter potentially corrupt behaviour.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/india-slips-six-places-to-rank-86-in-corruption-perception-index-2020-101611842471461.html


Consider the following Statements regardingPrabuddhaBharata

It is a monthly journal of the Ramakrishna order started by Swami Vivekananda in 1896

It has been an important medium for spreading the message of India’s ancient spiritual wisdom.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: PM Modi to address 125th Anniversary celebrations of ‘PrabuddhaBharata’ on Jan 31

  • Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi will address the 125th anniversary celebrations of ‘PrabuddhaBharata’, a monthly journal of the Ramakrishna Order, started by Swami Vivekananda in 1896, at around 3:15 PM on 31st January, 2021. The event is being organized by AdvaitaAshrama, Mayavati.Hence statement 1 is correct

About ‘PrabuddhaBharata’

  • The journal ‘PrabuddhaBharata’ has been an important medium for spreading the message of India’s ancient spiritual wisdom. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Its publication was started from Chennai (erstwhile Madras), where it continued to be published for two years, after which it was published from Almora.
  • Later, in April 1899, the place of publication of the Journal was shifted to AdvaitaAshrama and it has been continuously published from there since then.
  • Some of the greatest personalities have left their imprint on the pages of ‘PrabuddhaBharata’ through their writings on Indian culture, spirituality, philosophy, history, psychology, art, and other social issues.
  • Luminaries like Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, Bal GangadharTilak, Sister Nivedita, Sri Aurobindo, Former President SarvepalliRadhakrishnan, among others, have contributed to the Journal over the years.

Source: http://www.newsonair.com/News?title=PM-Modi-to-address-125th-Anniversary-celebrations-of-%E2%80%98Prabuddha-Bharata%E2%80%99-on-Jan-31&id=408862


Consider the following Statements regardingAadiMahotsav

  • It is a national tribal festival and showcases traditional art, handicrafts and cultural heritage of the country.
  • It is a joint initiative of Ministry of Tribal Affairs & Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Vice President M. Venkaiah Naidu to inaugurate AadiMahotsav, a National Tribal Festival on Monday

  • Vice President M. Venkaiah Naidu will inaugurate AadiMahotsav, a National Tribal Festival on Monday at DilliHaat.
  • The festival was an attempt to familiarise the people with the rich and diverse craft, culture of the tribal communities across the country, in one place

About AadiMahotsav

  • AadiMahotsav is a national tribal festival and a joint initiative of Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Government of India & Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India (TRIFED).Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The festival showcases traditional art and handicrafts and cultural heritage of the country. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The concept of organisingAadiMahotsav in major cities has proved to be a boon for tribal artisans by eliminating the middle man and providing direct access to large markets, otherwise impossible to reach for them.
  • The AadiMahotsav is an effort to take tribal commerce to the next level of digital and electronic transactions. The Mahotsav apart from exotic handicrafts is also showcasing the electronic and digital skills of the tribals as a special attraction.
  • The Mahotsav is displaying the rich digital commerce and e-commerce being promoted by Tribes India
  • It was started in the year 2017 and since then it is organized every year.
  • The purpose of this festival is to make the common people familiar with the rich and varied crafts and culture of the tribal communities at one place.

Source: http://www.newsonair.com/News?title=Vice-President-M.-Venkaiah-Naidu-to-inaugurate-Aadi-Mahotsav%2c-a-National-Tribal-Festival-on-Monday&id=408945


Consider the following Statements regarding Ordinance Making Power of Governor

  • Article 213 deals with the power of Governor to legislate through ordinances.
  • His/ Her power to promulgate ordinance is a discretionary power
  • No instructions are needed by governors when he/she promulgates an ordinance

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1 and 3 only

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Union Home Ministry yet to receive U.P. ordinance on conversions

  • The ordinance on unlawful religious conversions, promulgated by the Uttar Pradesh government last year, has not been sent to the Centre for examination, according to a reply from the Union Home Ministry to a query under the Right to Information Act (RTI).
  • The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) examines bills passed by States that are repugnant to Central laws before they get the President’s assent to become a law.
  • Article 213 of the Constitution, under which U.P. Governor AnandibenPatelb promulgated the ordinance, says the Governor shall not, without instructions from the President, promulgate any such Ordinance if a Bill would have “required the previous sanction of the President” for introduction in the State Legislature.
  • A similar legislation passed by the Rajasthan Assembly in 2008 under the then BJP government is still pending with the MHA.

About Ordinance Making Power of Governor

  • Article 213 deals with the power of Governor to legislate through ordinances. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • He/she can promulgate ordinance when the Legislative Assembly is not in session in case of the unicameral legislature or when both Legislative assembly and council are not in session in case of a bicameral legislature
  • He/she can roll-out an ordinance for only those matters on which state legislature can make laws
  • His/ Her ordinances have the same effect on policies as state’s acts will have. If his ordinance legislates on matters which state government has no power on, the ordinance stands null and void
  • The ordinance introduced by him can be withdrawn anytime
  • His/ Her power to promulgate ordinance is not a discretionary power. Council of Ministers’ (headed by CM) advice is a pre-requisite. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • The Governor is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action, he may promulgate such Ordinance as the circumstances appear to him to require: Provided that the Governor shall not, without instructions from the President, promulgate any such Ordinance if: Hence statement 3 is incorrect
  • If a bill containing the same provisions would have required the previous sanction of the President for its introduction into the state legislature
  • If he would have deemed it necessary to reserve a bill containing the same provisions for the consideration of the President
  • If an act of the state legislature containing the same provisions would have been invalid without receiving the President’s assent

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/mha-yet-to-receive-examine-up-ordinance-on-conversions/article33704410.ece


Consider the following Statements

  • Supernovais the explosion of a star
  • Type I supernova occurs when there is a sudden re-ignition of nuclear fusion on the surface of a degenerate white dwarf in a binary system
  • Type II supernova occurs by the gravitational collapse of the core of a massive star

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: How neutrinos aid in the death of massive stars

  • Many stars, towards the end of their lifetimes, form supernovas – massive explosions that send their outer layers shooting into the surrounding space. Most of the energy of the supernova is carried away by neutrinos – tiny particles with no charge and which interact weakly with matter.
  • Researching the mechanisms of the so called Type II supernovas, a team from IIT Guwahati has come up with new insights into the part played by neutrinos in this dramatic death of massive stars.
  • All stars burn nuclear fuel in their cores to produce energy. The heat generates internal pressure which pushes outwards and prevents the star from collapsing inward due to the action of gravity on its own mass. But when the star ages and runs out of fuel to burn, it starts to cool inside.
  • This causes a lowering of its internal pressure and therefore the force of gravity wins; the star starts to collapse inwards. This builds up shock waves because it happens very suddenly, and the shock wave sends the outer material of the star flying. This is what is perceived as a supernova. This happens in very massive stars.
  • In stars that are more than eight times as massive as the Sun, the supernova is accompanied by a collapsing of the inner material of the dying star – this is also known as core collapse supernova or Type II supernova. The collapsing core may form a black hole or a neutron star. Hence statement 3 is correct
  • Neutrinos come in three ‘flavours’, another name for ‘types’, and each flavour is associated with a light elementary particle. For instance, the electron-neutrino is associated with the electron; the muon-neutrino with the muon and the tau-neutrino with the tau particle.
  • As they spew out of the raging supernova, the neutrinos can change from one flavour to another in a process known as neutrino oscillations
  • Due to the high density and energy of the supernova, several interesting features emerge as this is a nonlinear phenomenon: “This [phenomenon] may generate neutrino oscillations happening simultaneously over different energies (unlike normal neutrino oscillation), termed collective neutrino oscillation.

Type I supernova or Type Ia supernova (read as one-a)

  • Occurs when there is a sudden re-ignition of nuclear fusion on the surface of a degenerate white dwarfin a binary system.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • A degenerate white dwarf may accumulate sufficient material from a companion star to raise its core temperature, ignite carbon fusion, and triggerrunaway nuclear fusioncompletely disrupting the star.
  • Supernova – A supernova is the explosion of a star. It is the largest explosion that takes place in space. Supernovas are difficult to see in our own Milky Way galaxy because dust blocks our view.Hence statement 1 is correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/how-neutrinos-aid-in-the-death-of-massive-stars/article33705191.ece#:~:text=Many%20stars%2C%20towards%20the%20end,which%20interact%20weakly%20with%20matter.


Consider the following Statements regarding Green tax

  • It is an excise duty on goods that cause environmental pollutants.
  • Under the Green Tax norms, the transport vehicles older than eight years will be charged with the green tax at the time of renewal of fitness certificateat the rate of 10% to 25% of road tax.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: What does ‘green tax’ mean for vehicle owners?

  • Union Transport Minister Nitin Gadkari has announced his Ministry’s approval of a ‘green tax’ on vehicles of specified vintage, as a means of dissuading people from using polluting vehicles.

Among the major features of:

  • Green tax, or pollution tax or environmental tax is an excise dutyon goods that cause environmental pollutants.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Aim:To closely monitor and regulate the production and use of non-environment friendly products and services so that their negative impact can be offset.
  • The measure is a 10%­- 25% additional green tax on the road tax payable by commercial transport vehicles that are older than eight years at the time of fitness certification renewal, and for personal vehicles after 15 years. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • A lower green tax for public transport vehicles such as buses
  • A higher additional 50% of road tax is proposed for vehicles in highly polluted cities, as well as differential tax based on fuel and vehicle type, such as diesel.
  • Vehicles of government departments and public sector units that are older than 15 years are to be deregistered and scrapped. Green tax funds are to be kept in a separate account to help States measure pollution and tackle it.
  • The policy provides exemptions for tractors, harvesters and tillers used in farms, hybrid, electric, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG)­ powered vehicles.

Does scrapping old vehicles carry big benefits?

  • India has been working on a scrappage policy for years that could, on the one hand, give a boost to the automobile industry and related businesses by stimulating demand, and lead to recovery of steel, aluminium, plastic and so on for recycling, on the other.
  • In 2016, India notified the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standard for passenger vehicles to boost effi Those with not more than nine seats and weighing less than 3,500 kg were covered from April 1, 2017.
  • The average fuel consumption standard is given by the Power Ministry’s Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) as less than 5.49 litres per 100 km
  • The benefits from vehicle replacements can be gauged from Transport Ministry data: commercial vehicles making up 5% of the vehicle fleet but contribute an estimated 65­-70% of total vehicular pollution
  • For a clean­up, commercial transport vehicles are of highest concern: on fuel efficiency, emissions and safety. The Centre could offer a green new deal with financial options such as loans and grants to smaller operators to scrap their junk vehicles, while escalating the green tax annually to achieve the nudge eff A second stimulus to bus companies could help green the fleet and cut pollution.
  • Small operators such as autorickshaws could be offered low­interest loans, particularly to move to electric vehicles

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/the-hindu-explains-what-does-green-tax-mean-for-vehicle-owners/article33705692.ece#:~:text=The%20story%20so%20far%3A%20Union,people%20from%20using%20polluting%20vehicles.&text=Green%20tax%20funds%20are%20to,measure%20pollution%20and%20tackle%20it.


There is a Parliamentary System of Government in India because the

Lok Sabha is elected directly by the people

Parliament can amend the Constitution

Rajya Sabha cannot be dissolved

Council of Ministers is responsible to the Lok Sabha

Answer: (d) Council of Ministers is responsible to the Lok Sabha

Explanation:

This is the bedrock principle of parliamentary government. The ministers are collectively responsible to the Parliament in general and to the Lok Sabha in particular (Article 75).