KingMakers IAS Academy logo

Daily Prelims Test – 30_September_2021

  1. With respect to Ordnance Factory Board, Consider the following statements
  2.  It is an umbrella body for the ordnance factories and related institutions and is currently a subordinate office of the Ministry of Defence
  3.  It is headquarter at Kolkata

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Centre dissolves ordnance factory board, transfers assets to seven DPSUs

  •  Union government has ordered the dissolution of the four-decade-old Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) with effect from October 1, 2021.
  •  The Union government has ordered the dissolution of the four-decade-old Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) and amalgamated 41 factories under seven new state-owned companies to manufacture defence hardware ranging from munitions to heavy weapons and vehicles

About Ordnance Factory Board (OFB)

  •  It is an umbrella body for the ordnance factories and related institutions and is currently a subordinate office of the Ministry of Defence (MoD).Hence statement 1 is correct
  •  It consists of41 factories, 9 Training Institutes, 3 regional marketing centres and 5 regional controllers of safety.
  •  HeadquartersHence statement 2 is correct
  •  A major chunk of the weapon, ammunition and supplies for not just armed forces but also paramilitary and police forces comes from the OFB-run factories.
  •  Production includesCivilian and military-grade arms and ammunition, explosives, propellants and chemicals for missile systems, military vehicles, armoured vehicles, optical devices, parachutes, support equipment, troop clothing and general store items.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/govt-orders-dissolution-of-ofb-transfers-assets-to-seven-dpsus-101632854349241.html

  • Consider the following statements regarding AstroSat
  •  It was launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation in 2015
  •  It is the first dedicated Indian astronomy mission aimed at studying celestial sources in X-ray, optical and UV spectral bands simultaneously.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Astrosat, India’s maiden space-based observatory, turns six

  •  This multi-wavelength observatory, conceived in the 1990s, saw the collaboration of scientists from the ISRO, Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Raman Research Institute, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and the Physical Research Laboratory
  •  Launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) on September 28, 2015, Astrosat has not only outperformed expectations of a five-year mission but also continues to remain operational till date

About AstroSat 

  •  It was launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in 2015. Hence statement 1 is correct
  •  It is the first dedicated Indian astronomy missionaimed at studying celestial sources in X-ray, optical and UV spectral bands simultaneously.Hence statement 2 is correct
  •  The payloads cover the energy bands of Ultraviolet (Near and Far), limited optical and X-ray regimes (0.3 keV to 100keV). 
  •  The minimum useful life of the AstroSat mission is expected to be 5 years.
  •  The scientific objectives of AstroSat mission are:
    •  To understand high energy processes in binary star systems containing neutron stars and black holes
    •  Estimate magnetic fields of neutron stars
    •  Study star birth regions and high energy processes in star systems lying beyond our galaxy
    •  Detect new briefly bright X-ray sources in the sky
    •  Perform a limited deep field survey of the Universe in the Ultraviolet region.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/pune/astrosat-indias-maiden-space-based-observatory-six-7539198/

  • World Happiness Index, recently released published by which of the following organization?
  • World Economic Forum
  • UN sustainable development solutions network
  • International Labour Organization
  • World Bank

Answer: (b) UN sustainable development solutions network

Explanation:

In NEWS: The pursuit of happiness through justice

  •  Until the beginning of the publication of the United Nations World Happiness Report in 2012, happiness was not considered an objective of governance. But it has now emerged as a new measure of the quality of governance. The connection between law, governance and happiness has been gaining considerable attention over the years.
  •  The United Nations World Happiness Report of 2021 ranks India 139 out of 149 countries.
  •  Happiness was measured by also taking into consideration the effects of COVID-19 on the people and their evaluation of the performance of governance systems.
  •  The report shows that COVID-19-induced social distancing had a severe impact on happiness as sharing and community life were hugely affected during the pandemic.

About World Happiness Index

  •  The World Happiness Report ranks 149 countries by how happy their citizens perceive themselves to be.
  •  The report has been published by UN Sustainable Development Solution Network . Hence option (b) is correct
  •  The rankings are based on polling (Gallup World Poll) which looks at six variables: Gross Domestic Product Per Capita (Purchasing Power Parity), Social Support, Healthy life expectancy at birth, Freedom to make life choices, Generosity, Perceptions of corruption.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/the-pursuit-of-happiness-through-justice/article36724456.ece

4.Consider the following statements regarding Rabies

  •  It is a fatal but preventable protozoic disease
  •  It is not a zoonotic disease
  •  It infects the central nervous system

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:National Action Plan for dog Mediated Rabies Elimination by 2030

  •  Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare along with the Minister of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying has launched NAPRE on World Rabies Day.
  •  The Rabies is also known as “Hadakwa”, “mad dog disease” or “Hydrophobia”.

About Rabies

  •  Rabies is a fatal but preventable viral disease. It can spread to people and pets if they are bitten or scratched by a rabid animal. Hence statement 1 is correct
  •  The rabies virus infects the central nervous system. If a person does not receive the appropriate medical care after a potential rabies exposure, the virus can cause disease in the brain, ultimately resulting in death.Hence statement 3 is correct
  •  Rabies virus is transmitted through direct contact (such as through broken skin or mucous membranes in the eyes, nose, or mouth) with saliva or brain/nervous system tissue from an infected animal.Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  •  People usually get rabies from the bite of a rabid animal. 
  •  Rabies is 100% fatal but 100% vaccine preventable.
  •  33% of global rabies deaths are recorded in India.
  •  More than 99% of human deaths due to rabies are caused by dog-mediated rabies.
  •  In developed nations like the USA, animals that transmit rabies are bats, foxes, raccoons, and skunks.
  •  Most mammals can carry the virus and hence can cause the disease.
  •  It spreads by bite of a rabid animal that leads to deposition of the saliva and the virus in the wound.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1758965

  • With respect to Atlantic Niño, Consider the following statements
  •  It causes a reduction in the number of low-pressure systems
  •  The biggest rainfall deficits from the Atlantic Niño tend to occur over the western Ghats and the core monsoon zone.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:The Atlantic Niño’s role in India’s erratic monsoon

  •  Last month, farmers from Madhya Pradesh threatened to take IMD to court for the inaccurate monsoon forecast this year. A question was also raised in Parliament about whether the Arctic warming had led to an erratic monsoon this year.
  •  There is no El Niño brewing in the Pacific. Instead, a return of the La Niña is forecasted by most models for later this year. Considering that 2020 was also a La Niña year, one would expect monsoon 2021 to be above normal. The Arctic can affect late-season rainfall and September has seen slightly above normal rain across India.

About Atlantic Niño

  •  It is El Niño’s little cousin in the Atlantic, known as the Atlantic Niño, or the Atlantic Zonal Mode.
  •  Every few years, from June to August, there is a warming in the eastern equatorial Atlantic, which does not get as much attention as its big brother El Niño.
  •  In 2021, Atlantic Niño has made an appearance. Sea surface temperatures in the eastern Atlantic have remained more than a degree higher than normal this summer.
  •  Its impact on the monsoon has been known since 2014 when a study led by INCOIS showed that the number of low-pressure systems is greatly reduced by the Atlantic Niño, leading to deficit monsoonsHence statement 1 is correct
  •  IITM Pune researchers have shown that the IMD prediction system is deficient in predicting the Atlantic Niño and, therefore, its effect on the Indian monsoon.
  •  This year has seen a sharply lower number of low-pressure systems, which contribute up to 60 per cent of the seasonal total rainfall over the core monsoon zone.
  •  The biggest rainfall deficits from the Atlantic Niño tend to occur over the Eastern Ghats and the core monsoon zone.Hence statement 2 is incorrect

Why monsoon prediction is a challenge in India?

  •  Forecast models rely heavily on El Niño: But only about 50 per cent of the dry years are explained by El Niño. How can monsoons be predicted during non-El Niño years? Clearly, Atlantic Niño is a significant player in monsoon evolution and models and forecasters must pay attention to this Atlantic teleconnection.
  •  Low-pressure systems or LPSs originate in the northern Bay of Bengal and are three-10 times more in number during the active period of the monsoon.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/atlantic-nino-imd-prediction-monsoon-forecast-7540320/

  • Which of the following options are the components of Human Capital Index?
  •  Survival
  •  Expected years of Quality-Adjusted School
  •  Health environment

Select the correct options from the given below codes

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS:Human capital: Need for State-level approach


  • There is need for micro-level studies that can create evidence based policy interventions to improve human development
  •  At the height of the Covid-19 pandemic, the World Bank released the 2020 report of the Human Capital Index (HCI).
  •  The HCI is an attempt to measure investments and improvements required in health, schooling, and nutrition around the world.
  •  The report itself focuses on the fallout of the pandemic on key human capital indicators such as mortality, years of schooling, and nutritional outcomes.
  •  Development scholars and experts around the world have emphasised that one of the critical ways out of poverty is through freedom from illness and receiving education.

About Human Capital Index

  •  The HCI is an attempt to measure investments and improvements required in health, schooling, and nutrition around the world.
  •  Human Capital is the productive capacity generated by an individual due to better education and health.
  •  Better productive capacity results in higher earning potential for individuals and also higher earnings for the nation.
  •  The HCI therefore measures the average shortfall in human capital for an individual worker in a country if they were exposed to full (i.e., optimal) education and health.

The HCI has three components:

  •  Survival: as measured by under-5 mortality rates
  •  Expected years of Quality-Adjusted School: which combines information on the quantity and quality of education
  •  Health environment: Using two proxies of (a) adult survival rates and (b) the rate of stunting for children under age 5.Hence option (d) is correct

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/opinion/human-capital-need-for-state-level-approach/article36718968.ece

7.Consider the following statements

  •  Green crackers don’t contain banned chemicals such as lithium, antimony, arsenic, barium and lead.
  •  Green crackers release water vapour and don’t allow the dust particles to rise.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Probe shows use of toxic material in firecrackers: Supreme Court

  •  The Supreme Court said a preliminary enquiry by the CBI into the firecracker industry, including in Tamil Nadu, revealed rampant violation of its ban on use of toxic ingredients like Barium and its salts.
  •  In an order in March 2020, the court ordered the CBI Joint Director in Chennai to conduct a “detailed” probe . The CBI was directed to examine the allegations of violation of the court ban in 2018.
  •  A Bench led by Justice M.R. Shah, referring to the contents of the report, observed that a chemical analysis of the samples of finished and semi-finished firecrackers and raw materials taken from the manufacturers showed Barium content.
  •  The court stated that loose quantities of Barium were purchased from the market. Firecracker covers did not show the manufacture or expiry dates.
  •  Green crackers don’t contain banned chemicals such as lithium, arsenic, barium and lead. They are called Safe Water Releaser (SWAS), Safe Thermite Cracker (STAR) and Safe Minimal Aluminium (SAFAL) crackers.Hence statement 1 is correct
  •  Green crackers release water vapour and don’t allow the dust particles to rise. They are designed to have 30% less particulate matter pollution.Hence statement 2 is correct
  •  QR codes on green cracker packages will help consumers scan and identify counterfeits.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/supreme-court-notice-to-cracker-makers-over-report-on-use-of-banned-chemicals-7542827/

  • With respect to Indian Council for Cultural Relations, Consider the following statements
  •  It was founded in 1950 by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
  •  Its objectives are to actively participate in the formulation and implementation of policies and programmes pertaining to India’s external cultural relations

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Afghan graduates worried about ICCR stipends ending

  •  Students from Afghanistan who have recently graduated are facing a dilemma as the Indian Council for Cultural Relations scholarships, of which these students were beneficiaries, have come to and end.
  •  ICCR’s special scholarship scheme for Afghan nationals provides for stipends of up to ₹25,000, and house rent allowance of up to ₹6,500 per student per month, to those pursuing undergraduate degrees and are post-doctoral fellows.

About Indian Council for Cultural Relations

  •  The Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR), is an autonomous organisation of the Government of India, involved in India’s external cultural relations (cultural diplomacy), through cultural exchange with other countries and their peoples.
  •  It was founded in 1950 by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, independent India’s first Education Minister.Hence statement 1 is correct
  •  ICCR has been assigned the responsibility of facilitating the celebration of the International Day of Yoga by Indian Missions/Posts abroad since 2015.
  •  ICCR has instituted several awards, which are conferred upon the foreign nationals for their contributions in different fields, under its mandate of promoting India’s cultural relations.

Its objectives are to actively participate in the formulation and implementation of policies and programmes pertaining

  •  to India’s external cultural relations. Hence statement 2 is correct
  •  to foster and strengthen cultural relations and mutual understanding between India and other countries
  •  to promote cultural exchanges with other countries and people,
  •  to develop relations with nations.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Hyderabad/afghan-graduates-worried-about-iccr-stipends-ending/article36744526.ece

9.Consider the following statements

  •  Meghalaya has the highest ratio of female workers to total workers employed in senior & middle management positions.
  •  The Annual Bulletin of the Periodic Labour Force Survey is released by the Labour Ministry.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Women managers: Meghalaya tops list; Assam, Haryana last

  •  Sikkim, Andhra Pradesh and Punjab had the highest ratio of female workers as against male workers employed as legislators, senior officials and managers in 2019-20, the annual bulletin of the Periodic Labour Force Survey 2019-20 showed.
  •  The report released by the National Statistical Office also showed that the ratio of female workers at senior- and middle-level management positions in rural areas was higher than urban areas in 2019-20, with some Northeastern states leading among all states and Union Territories (UTs) in the country.Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  •  States/UTs with the lowest ratio of female workers to total workers in managerial positions included Jammu & Kashmir (9.2 per cent), Andaman and Nicobar Island (9 per cent), Delhi (7.9 per cent), Haryana (7.5 per cent) and Assam (6.9 per cent). These states also ranked lower for the senior and middle management roles.
  •  Meghalaya topped the list among all states/UTs in 2019-20 with 34.1 per cent ratio of female workers to total workers employed in senior and middle management positions. Hence statement 1 is correct
  •  Sikkim followed next with a ratio of 33.5 per cent, Mizoram with 33.3 per cent, Andhra Pradesh with 32.3 per cent and Punjab with 32.1 per cent, the PLFS bulletin showed.
  •  The ratio of female workers to total workers employed in senior and middle managerial positions stood at 21.5 per cent in 2019-20, which was higher than 16.5 per cent in urban areas.
  •  Overall (rural and urban) ratio of female workers in senior and middle management positions stood at 18.8 per cent in 2019-20.
  •  Among the ratio of female workers to male workers working as legislators, senior officials, and managers, Sikkim had the highest share with 50.4 per cent, followed by 47.9 per cent in Andhra Pradesh and 47.3 per cent in Punjab.
  •  The ratio of female workers of 15-64 years to persons of age 15-64 years in the labour force, as per the usual status approach, was also higher at 30.1 per cent in rural areas in 2019-20 than 23.6 per cent in urban areas.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/business/women-managers-meghalaya-tops-list-assam-haryana-last-7542702/

  1. Consider the following statements:
  2.  The quantity of imported edible oils is more than the domestic production of edible oils in the last five years.
  3.  The Government does not impose any customs duty on all the imported edible oils as a special case.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

  •  Statement 1 is correct. India occupies a prominent position in the world oilseeds industry with contribution of around 10% in worldwide But the demand of edible oils (extracted from oilseeds in addition to palm oil) is significantly higher than the domestic production, leading to dependence on imports (60% of requirement).
  •  Statement 2 is not correct. Government imposes customs duty on edible oils to safeguard the interests of domestic oil crushing industry. The duty on two major edible oils, namely crude sunflower seed oil and crude canola/rapeseed/mustard is 25 per cent, while crude soyabean oil attracts 30 per cent duty