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Daily Prelims Test – 30_October 2020

Consider the following statements regarding Commission to manage NCR Air Quality

  1. It will be chaired by the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change.
  2. It will replace the Environment Pollution and Prevention Control Authority as the top body for monitoring air quality.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: President Signs ordinance for setting up commission to manage NCR air quality

  • The Commission is to have exclusive jurisdiction over NCR, including areas in Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan, in matters of air pollution.
  • The President Wednesday signed an ordinance brought in by the Centre for a Commission to manage air quality in the National Capital Region.
  • As per the ‘Commission for Air Quality Management in National Capital Region and Adjoining Areas Ordinance 2020’, the body will be chaired by a government official of the rank of Secretary or Chief Secretary, and will include the Secretary Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change and five other Secretary/Chief Secretary level officials as ex-officio members. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Commission is to have exclusive jurisdiction over the NCR, including areas in Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan, in matters of air pollution
  • It will be working along with CPCB and ISRO, apart from the respective state governments.
  • According to a government notification, this commission for air quality management will replace the EPCA (environment pollution and prevention control authority) which was formed by the Supreme Court as the apex monitoring body in matters of pollution in the country. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The commission will monitor stubble burning, dust pollution and vehicular emissions.
  • It will submit its annual reports to the Parliament.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/president-signs-ordinance-for-setting-up-commission-to-manage-ncr-air-quality-6907806/


Which of the following pairs is/are correctly matched?

Chemical use in crackers              colour

  • Strontium salts                Red
  • Calcium salts               Orange
  • Copper salts                Blue

Select the correct options from the given below codes

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: ‘Green’ crackers to make full-fledged Delhi debut

  • A ban on fireworks was imposed in 2018 and in 2019 and only green crackers were allowed, but the permission had come too late for manufacturers to ensure their availability on time.
  • Traditionally, firecrackers have been made with barium nitrate, antimony and a range of metals that have been linked to respiratory diseases and even cancer.
  • Delhi is set for its first full-fledged date with ‘green’ crackers this Deepavali amid growing sentiment against not deepening the air pollution crisis
  • The Delhi government scheduled to launch an anti-firecracker campaignon November 3.

Green Crackers:

  • It has been developed by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)
  • Components in firecrackers are replaced with others that are “less dangerous” and “less harmful” to the atmosphere
  • The commonly used pollution-causing chemicals – aluminium, barium, potassium nitrate and carbon – have either been removed or sharply reduced in the green crackers
  • They include environment-friendly fireworks such as sound emitting crackers, flowerpots, pencils, chakkar and sparklers.
  • It would reduce particulate matter pollution by 30%.
  • On explosion, they reduce the dust and smoke typically associated with crackers by 30% and also decrease Sulphur oxide and nitrous oxide emissions by 20%.
  • What gives colour to the firecrackers? Hence option (d) is correct.
  • Red: Strontium salts (Nitrates, carbonates and sulphates of strontium).
  • Orange: Calcium salts (Carbonates, chlorides and sulphates of calcium).
  • Yellow: Sodium salts (Nitrates and oxalates of sodium).
  • Green: Barium salts (Nitrates, carbonates, chlorides and chlorates of barium).
  • Blue: Copper salts (Carbonates and oxides of copper).
  • Purple: A combination of copper and strontium compounds.
  • White: The burning of metals like magnesium, aluminum and titanium).

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/after-sc-order-focus-on-chemicals-in-firecrackers/article19440256.ece


Consider the following statements regarding National Program and Project Management Policy Framework

  1. It is developed by the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises
  2. It is envisaged to bring radical reforms in the way infrastructure projects are executed in India.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: NITI Aayog, QCI launch ‘National Program and Project Management Policy Framework’ for infrastructure sector

  • NITI Aayog and Quality Council of India (QCI) on Wednesday launched the ‘National Program and Project Management Policy Framework’ (NPMPF), with the aim of bringing radical reforms in the way infrastructure projects are executed in India.
  • Union Minister for Road Transport & Highways and MSMEs unveiled the Indian Infrastructure Body of Knowledge (InBoK), a book on the practice of program and project management in India
  • India will require an investment of around $4.5 trillion by 2040 to develop the infrastructure for sustaining its economic growth

    About National Program and Project Management Policy Framework (NPMPF)
  • It is developed by NITI Aayog and the Quality Council of India which proposed a four-level certification system for project managers linked to project scale. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • It is envisaged to bring radical reforms in the way infrastructure projects are executed in IndiaHence statement 2 is correct
  • It will help in realizing the Prime Minister’s vision of an Aatmanirbhar Bharat by building a stronger India.
  • The framework stressed on accountability, monitoring, transparency and a corruption-free system, along with a fast-track decision-making process.
  • The framework aims to formulate radical reforms in the way large and mega infrastructure projects are managed in India, with an action plan to:
  • Adopt a program and project management approach to infra development
  • Institutionalize and promote the profession of program and project management and build a workforce of such professionals,
  • Enhance institutional capacity and capability of professionals

Source: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/small-biz/sme-sector/niti-aayog-qci-launch-national-program-and-project-management-policy-framework-for-infrastructure-sector/articleshow/78924997.cms


Consider the following statements regarding Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

  1. It is a United Nations body.
  2. All States Members of the United Nations are eligible for IPBES membership.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: 0.85 million viruses in birds and mammals can infect people: IPBES paper

  • Land use change is prime trigger for COVID-19 pandemic and responsible for 30 per cent of new diseases since 1960, it adds
  • The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), in an extraordinary research paper, has warned that pandemics like novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) would hit us more frequently and also kill more than the current one.
  • The IPBES report has been authored by 22 experts from across the world. The report has analyzed the contribution of human-induced environmental damages in the emergence of new diseases.
  • Land use change is a globally significant driver of pandemics and caused the emergence of more than 30 per cent of new diseases reported since 1960,” says the report released October 29, 2020.
  • We are yet to identify some 1.7 million viruses that exist in mammals and birds. Out of these, 50 per cent have the potential or ability to infect humans.
  • The same human activities that drive climate change and biodiversity loss also drive pandemic risk through their impacts on our environment. Changes in the way we use land; the expansion and intensification of agriculture; and unsustainable trade, production and consumption disrupt nature and increase contact between wildlife, livestock, pathogens and people. This is the path to pandemics
  • The current pandemic would have cost around $16 trillion globally by July 2020. The report’s authors say that the cost to reduce the risks of future pandemics would be at least 100 times less than the cost to deal with these pandemics.

About Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)

  • It is an independent intergovernmental body established by States to strengthen the science-policy interface for biodiversity and ecosystem services.
  • It was established in Panama City in 2012by 94 Governments. 
  • All States Members of the United Nations are eligible for IPBES membership. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It is not a United Nations bodyHence statement 1 is incorrect
  • But the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) provides secretariat services to IPBES. 
  • IPBES focuses on assessments, building capacity and knowledge, policy support on Biodiversity.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/health/0-85-million-viruses-in-birds-and-mammals-can-infect-people-ipbes-paper-74017


With reference to National Productivity Council (NPC), consider the following statement

  1. NPC is a national level organization to promote productivity culture in India.
  2. NPC has been registered as a Society under the Societies Registration Act XXI of 1860.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: National Productivity Council gets Accreditation conforming to ISO 17020:2012

  • NPC is a national level organization to promote productivity culture in India. Established by the Ministry of Industry, Government of India in 1958, it is an autonomous, multipartitenon-profit organization and has been registered as a Society under the Societies Registration Act XXI of 1860. NPC is a constituent of the Tokyo-based Asian Productivity Organization (APO), an Intergovernmental Body, of which the Government of India is a founding memberHence statement 1 and statement 2 is correct.
  • National Productivity Council (NPC) has been granted accreditation conforming to ISO 17020:2012 by National Accreditation Board for Certification Body (NABCB), Quality Council of India (QCI) for undertaking inspection and audit work in the area of Food Safety Audit and Scientific Storage of Agricultural Products.
  • NPC has been conducting inspections/audit for different statutory bodies such as Warehousing Development and Regulatory Authority (WDRA) and Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI), and is already having high credentials in the area of inspections and audits.
  • Present accreditation of NPC by NABCB conforming to ISO 17020:2012 will enable it to undertake Independent Third-Party Audits of Food Business Operators including Food Storage Warehouses as per Food Safety and Standards (Food Safety Auditing) Regulations, 2018 of FSSAI as well as inspections of Warehouses as per WDRA Rules, 2017.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1668427


Consider the following statements regarding Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement Project (DRIP)

  1. Its main Objective is to improve the safety and operational performance of all the major dams across the whole country.
  2. The Project will be implemented over a period of 5 years duration in two Phases

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are incorrect?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Cabinet approves Externally Aided Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement Project – Phase II and Phase III

  • Objective is to improve the safety and operational performance of selected dams across the whole country, along with institutional strengthening with system wide management approach. Hence statement 1 is incorrect.
  • The Scheme envisages comprehensive rehabilitation of 736 existing dams located across the country.
  • The Project will be implemented over a period of 10 years duration in two Phases, each of six years duration with two years overlapping from April, 2021 to March, 2031. Hence statement 2 is incorrect.
  • To achieve the objective, DRIP Phase II & Phase III has following components
  • Rehabilitation and improvement of dams and associated appurtenances,
  • Dam safety institutional strengthening in participating States and Central agencies,
  • Exploration of alternative incidental means a few of selected dams to generate the incidental revenue for sustainable operation and maintenance of dams, and
  • Project management.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1668405


GREEN initiative (Global Action for Reconciling Economic growth and Environment preservation) is initiated by

1.Japan Bank for International Cooperation

2.New Development Bank

3.World Bank

4.None of the above

Answer: (a) Japan Bank for International Cooperation

Explanation:

In NEWS: NTPC Ltd. enters into foreign currency loan agreement with Japanese Government’s financial institution for JPY 50 billion under GREEN initiative

  • In the first funding for NTPC Ltd under Japan Bank for International Co-operation (JBIC)’s GREEN initiative, India’s largest power producer today entered into foreign currency loan agreement with Japanese Government’s financial institution for JPY 50 billion (approx. USD 482 million). Hence option (a) is correct.
  • GREEN initiative stands for Global Action for Reconciling Economic growth and Environment preservation initiative. The facility is extended under JBIC’s outreach for projects, which ensure conservation of global environment.
  • The loan proceeds will be utilized by NTPC Ltd, the PSU under Ministry of Power, for funding its capex for Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD) & Renewable Energy projects.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1668137


With reference to Kaleshwaram project, consider the following statements

  1. It is a Lift Irrigation System is considered to be one of the world’s largest multi-purpose projects constructed in river Krishna.
  2. It is designed to provide water for irrigation and drinking purposes in all the district of Andra Pradesh.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Why the NGT wants a relook at Kaleshwaram project

  • The Kaleshwaram Lift Irrigation System is considered to be one of the world’s largest multi-purpose projects on river Godavari. Hence statement 1 is incorrect.
  • It is designed to provide water for irrigation and drinking purposes to about 45 lakh acres in 20 of the 31 districts in Telangana, apart from Hyderabad and Secunderabad. Hence statement 2 is not correct.
  • Telangana will harness water at the confluence of two rivers with Godavari by constructing a barrage at Medigadda in Jayashankar Bhupalpally district and reverse pump the water into the main Godavari River.
  • The project has set many records with the world’s longest water tunnels, aqueducts, underground surge pools, and biggest pumps.
  • The cost of the project is Rs 80,000 crore, but is expected to rise to Rs 1 lakh crore by the time it is completely constructed by the end of 2020.
  • On October 12, the National Green Tribunal, New Delhi, ruled that the Environmental Clearance given to the Kaleshwaram project in December 2017 was void as the Telangana government subsequently changed the design of the project to increase its capacity.

Source:https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-why-ngt-wants-a-relook-at-kaleshwaram-project-6821482/


Consider the following statements:

  1. Depository Receipt is a foreign currency denominated instrument, listed on an international exchange, issued by a foreign depository to a domestic custodian and includes global depository receipts.
  2. The recent framework enables eligible companies having depository Receipt listed on exchanges in a non-FATF compliant jurisdiction to list and trade such DRs on the stock exchange

    Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
  3. 1 only
  4. 2 only
  5. Both 1 and 2
  6. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

The International Financial Services Centres Authority (IFSCA), with an objective to develop the financial products and financial services in the Gujarat International Finance Tec-City International Financial Services Centre (GIFT IFSC) has prescribed the regulatory framework for listing of Depository Receipts (DRs).

  • The framework provides for listing of DRs by companies that are listed in FATF compliant jurisdictions (including India). The framework enables the eligible listed companies to raise capital through issuance and listing of DRs on the stock exchanges in GIFT IFSC. . Hence statement 2 is incorrect.
  • Additionally, the framework enables eligible companies having DRs listed on any exchange in a FATF compliant jurisdiction to list and trade such DRs on the stock exchange(s) in GIFT IFSC as an additional venue for trading, without any fresh public offering.
  • Depository Receipt is a foreign currency denominated instrument, listed on an international exchange, issued by a foreign depository to a domestic custodian and includes global depository receipts. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • The new regulatory framework for listing of Depository Receipts will provide Indian companies increased access to foreign funds through American Depository Receipt

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1668142


Which of the following are the reasons for the occurrence of multi-drug resistance in microbial pathogens in India?

  1. Genetic predisposition of some people
  2. Taking incorrect doses of antibiotics to cure diseases
  3. Using antibiotics in livestock farming
  4. Multiple chronic diseases in some peopl

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1, 3 and 4
  4. 2, 3 and 4

Answer: (b) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

  • Antimicrobial resistance occurs naturally over time, usually through genetic changes. However, the misuse and overuse of antimicrobials is accelerating this process.
  • In many places, antibiotics are overused and misused in people and animals, and often given without professional oversight. Examples of misuse include when they are taken by people with viral infections like colds and flu, and when they are given as growth promoters in animals or used to prevent diseases in healthy animals. Hence option (b) is correct.