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Daily Prelims Test – 30_November 2020

Which of the following statement is correct regarding Siberian Primrose?

  • It is a herbivorous marine animal
  • It is a technique of growing dense plantations in a short time.
  • It is a geological submarine fracture zone
  • It is a plant endemic to the Nordic countries

Answer: (d) It is a plant endemic to the Nordic countries

Explanation:

In NEWS: Siberian primrose could become extinct due to global warming

  • Researchers at the University of Helsinki in Finland have found that the Siberian primrose, a plant endemic to the Nordic countries, could become extinct due to global warmingHence option (d) is correct
  • The plant originated in southern Finland. From there, it spread northwards to the Gulf of Bothnia, an arm of the Baltic Sea and even farther north, to Norway on the Arctic Circle during the last Ice Age
  • The primrose specialized in growing on seashore meadows with low vegetation, which in Finland, were formed by the post-glacial isostatic rebound
  • Global warming already affects Siberian primrose, a plant species that is threatened in Finland and Norway.
  • The results indicate that the species may not be able to adapt to quickly progressing climate change, which could potentially lead to its extinction.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/global-eco-watch-siberian-primrose-could-become-extinct-due-to-global-warming-74445


Consider the following statements

  • Peatlands are formed due to the accumulation of partially decomposed plant remains over thousands of years under conditions of water-logging.
  • Currently, Peatlands covering 30% of the global land surface.
  • Peatlands are having a risk of spreading zoonotic disease.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 and 3 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 1,2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Sustainable peatland management can prevent future pandemics: Study

  • Sustainably managing peatlands — peat-swamp forests found around the tropics — can protect humans from future pandemicsaccording to a new study. Hence statement 3 is correct
  • Peatlands were rich in biodiversity, including many potential vertebrate and invertebrate vectors, or carriers of disease, the study said.
  • These included numerous vertebrates known to represent a risk of spreading zoonotic disease, such as bats, rodents, pangolins and primates. Zoonotic diseases are those that jump from animals to humans.
  • These areas also faced high levels of habitat disruption such as wild or human-made fires and wildlife harvesting that were perfect conditions for potential zoonotic emerging infectious diseases
  • High densities of domestic and semi-wild animals reared on peatlands could also serve as a direct or indirect zoonotic EID vector to humans
  • Sustainably managing tropical peatlands and their wildlife was important for mitigating the impacts of the ongoing novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic
  • The move would also help in reducing the potential for future zoonotic EID emergence and severity

About Peatlands

  • Peatlands are a type of wetlands. It refers to the peat soil and the wetland habitat growing on its surface.
  • They are critical for preserving global biodiversity, provide safe drinking water, minimise flood risk and help address climate change.
  • Peatlands are formed due to the accumulation of partially decomposed plant remains over thousands of years under conditions of water-logging. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Peatlands occur in almost every country on Earth, currently covering 3% of the global land surface. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • Peatlands are the largest natural terrestrial carbon store; the area covered by near natural peatland worldwide (>3 million km2) sequesters 0.37 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) a year – storing more carbon than all other vegetation types in the world combined.
  • Damaged peatlands are a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, annually releasing almost 6% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Peatland restoration can therefore bring significant emissions reductions.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/global-eco-watch-siberian-primrose-could-become-extinct-due-to-global-warming-74445


Recently, the term Sphaerotheca Bengaluru is seen in news, What is it?

  • It is a type of burrowing frog
  • It is a new drug discovered for COVID 19 Treatment
  • It is a species of diurnal, rock-dwelling and an insectivorous gecko
  • It is a new antibiotic discovered in the soil of a tropical rainforest

Answer: (a) It is a type of burrowing frog

Explanation:

In NEWS: New species of burrowing frog named after Bengaluru

  • Sphaerotheca Bengaluru is being named after the city to highlight the lacunae in documentation of amphibians from non-forested areas and to restore frog habitats in Bengaluru.
  • A group of researchers documenting “Amphibians in the Deccan Plateau parts of Karnataka” encountered a new species of frog and published the findings in a journal.
  • This new species — Sphaerotheca Bengaluru — is being named after the city to highlight the lacunae in documentation of amphibians from non-forested areas and to restore frog habitats in Bengaluru. Hence option (a) is correct
  • The new species was described based on the morphological differences and molecular approach with the known species of the burrowing frogs.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/karnataka/new-species-of-burrowing-frog-named-after-bengaluru/article33198999.ece


Consider the following statements regarding the Mission COVID Suraksha

  • It is an Indian COVID-19 Vaccine Development Mission with end-to-end focus from preclinical development through clinical development, manufacturing and regulatory facilitation.
  • Under the mission, the grant will be provided to the Department of Biotechnology and is supporting the development of 10 vaccines

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Government Launches Mission COVID Suraksha to accelerate Indian COVID-19 Vaccine Development

  • The Government of India (GOI) has announced the third stimulus package of Rs. 900 Crore for the Mission COVID Suraksha- the Indian COVID-19 Vaccine Development Mission.
  • This grant will be provided to the Department of Biotechnology (DBT) for Research & Development of Indian COVID-19 vaccines. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The COVID-19 Vaccine development Mission with end-to-end focus from preclinical development through clinical development and manufacturing and regulatory facilitation for deployment, would consolidate all available and funded resources towards an accelerated product development. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • This will help accelerate development of approx. 5-6 vaccine candidates and ensure that these are brought closer to licensure and introduction in market for consideration of regulatory authorities for introduction in public health systems, to combat further spread of COVID infection.
  • The important objectives of the fund will be accelerating pre-clinical& clinical development; licensure of COVID-19 vaccine candidates that are currently in clinical stages or ready to enter clinical stage of development, establishing clinical trial sites, and strengthening the existing immunoassay laboratories, central laboratories and suitable facilities for animal studies, production facilities and other testing facilities to support COVID-19 vaccine development
  • Led by Department of Biotechnology and implemented by a dedicated Mission Implementation Unit at Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council (BIRAC),the existing activities under National Bio Pharma Mission (NBM) and Ind-CEPI Mission will provide complementary strengths to this Mission.

Source:https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1676998#:~:text=The%20Government%20of%20India%20(GOI,of%20Indian%20COVID%2D19%20vaccines.


Consider the following statements regarding the Target Olympic Podium (TOP) Scheme

  • It is a flagship program of the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports which is an attempt to provide assistance to India’s top athletes excluding Para-athletes
  • Presently, nine sports disciplines have been categorized as ‘High Priority’.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Eight para-athletes in four different sports included in TOPS scheme

Eight para-athletes in four different sports have been included into the Target Olympic Podium Scheme, the Sports Authority of India (SAI) informed

About Target Olympic Podium Scheme

  • The Target Olympic Podium Scheme is a flagship program of the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports which is an attempt to provide assistance to India’s top athletes. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • The Scheme looks to add a premium to the preparations of these athletes so that they can win Olympic medals in 2020 and 2024 Olympics.
  • Under the Scheme, the Department of Sports shall identify athletes who are potential medal winners in 2020 / 2024 Olympics.
  • The idea of the Scheme is to also keep an eye in the future and fund a Developmental Group of Athletes who are medal prospects for the Olympic Games in Paris in 2024 and Los Angeles Games in 2028.
  • High priority category has been created to put focus on and incentivize those sports disciplines played in the Olympics in which India has won medals in the last conducted Asian Games as well as Commonwealth Games or in which India has good chance of winning medals in Olympics.
  • Presently, nine sports disciplines viz., (i) Athletics, (ii) Badminton (iii) Hockey (iv) Shooting (v) Tennis (vi) Weightlifting (vii) Wrestling, (viii) Archery and (ix) Boxing have been categorised as ‘High Priority’. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The Mission Olympic Cell is a dedicated body created to assist the athletes who are selected under the TOP Scheme.

Source: https://www.newindianexpress.com/sport/other/2020/nov/27/eight-para-athletes-in-four-different-sports-included-in-tops-scheme-2228840.html


Which of the following statement is correct regarding judicial overreach?

  • It is when the judiciary starts interfering with the proper functioning of the legislative or executive organs of the government
  • It is a theory of judicial interpretation that encourages judges to limit the exercise of their own power.
  • It is use of judicial power to articulate and enforce what is beneficial for the society in general and people at large.
  • It is the process by which a court reviews the constitutionality of a statue or the application of a statute, and rules either for it or against it on that basis.

Answer: (a) It is when the judiciary starts interfering with the proper functioning of the legislative or executive organs of the government

Explanation:

In NEWS: Few judicial pronouncements gave distinct impression of overreach: VP Naidu

  • Underlining that none of the three organs of the State can claim to be supreme as only the Constitution is paramount, Vice President M Venkaiah Naidu on Wednesday said some court verdicts gave a distinct impression of the judiciary’s overreach.
  • He said the legislature, the executive and the judiciary are bound to work within their respective domains as defined in the Constitution.

About Judicial Overreach

  • Judicial Overreach refers to an extreme form of judicial activism where arbitrary, unreasonable and frequent interventions are made by judiciary into the legislature’s domain, often with the intention of disrupting the balance of powers between executive, legislature and judiciary. Hence option (a) is corrrect
  • Judicial Activism is the view that courts make political rather than legal decisions to further some agenda, rather than strictly reviewing the legality of a law under the letter of the law and prior precedent. It refers to the process in which judiciary steps into the shoes of legislature and comes up with new rules and regulations, which the legislature ought to have done earlier.
  • Judicial activism gives jurists the right to strike down any legislation or rule against the precedent if it goes against the Constitution. The Golak Nath case is an example of judicial activism.

Issues with judicial overreach:

  • Dilutes ‘separation of powers’
  • Limited experience
  • No external regulation
  • Conflict of interest
  • Undermines trust in Parliament

Source: https://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/2020/nov/25/few-judicial-pronouncements-gave-distinct-impression-of-overreach-vp-naidu-2227902.html


Who among the following is the founder of an organisation called ‘Vishva Vidya’ in Brazil?

  • Madhan Mohan Malviya
  • Jonas Masetti
  • Helena Blavetsky
  • Henry Vivian derozio

Answer: b) Jonas Masetti

Explanation:

In News: Who is Jonas Masetti?

  •  Addressing the nation in his monthly radio programme ‘Mann Ki Baat’, Prime Minister Narendra Modi highlighted the work and accomplishments of Jonas Masetti, a Brazilian man who has been giving lessons on Vedanta and the Bhagavad Gita near Rio de Janeiro.
  •  Masetti, a mechanical engineer, is the founder of an organisation called ‘Vishva Vidya’, located in the hills of Petrópolis, about an hour away from Rio de Janeiro.
  •  It is here that he teaches hundreds of his students about ancient Indian sacred texts, including the Bhagavad Gita and Vedanta. He also teaches Sanskrit, mantras and Vedic culture. Hence option (b) is the correct answer.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/who-is/modi-mann-ki-baat-jonas-masetti-7072856/


Consider the following statements

  • Yarlung Zangbo river flows into Arunachal Pradesh where it is called Siang and then to Assam as Brahmaputra before flowing into Bangladesh.
  •  Dibang, Lohit, Siang, Burhi Dihing, Tista, and Dhansari are the tributaries of Brahmaputra

Which of the statement(s) is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: China to build a super dam on its part of Brahmaputra river

  •  It originates under the name of Siang or Dihang, from the Chemayungdung glacier of the Kailash range near the Mansarovar lake. It enters India west of Sadiya town in Arunachal Pradesh.
    •  Tributaries: Dibang, Lohit, Siang, Burhi Dihing, Tista, and Dhansari. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  •  It is a perennial river and has several peculiar characteristics due to its geography and prevailing climatic conditions.
  •  It is a perennial river and has several peculiar characteristics due to its geography and prevailing climatic conditions.
  •  China has already built several smaller dams on the Yarlung Zangbo river.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/world-news/china-to-build-a-super-dam-on-its-part-of-brahmaputra-river/story-i4No1OJ9JuxMEJEwCtNrTO.html


Consider the following statements regarding Guru Nanak

  • He was the founder of Sikhism and is the first of the ten Sikh Gurus.
  • He preached the message of ik onkar (‘one God’), who dwells in every one of his creations and constitutes the eternal Truth. With this concept, he would set up a unique spiritual, social, and political platform based on equality, fraternal love, goodness, and virtue.
  • Nanak’s words are registered in the form of poetic hymns, or shabda which is compiled in the holy text of Sikhism, the Guru Granth Sahib.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 and 2 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Guru Nanak Jayanti being celebrated across the country & abroad

Guru Nanak Jayanti or Gurpurab is being celebrated with religious fervour across India and the world today. It marks the birth of the first Sikh Guru, Guru Nanak, who laid the foundation of Sikhism. This year marks the 551st birth anniversary of Guru Nanak Dev.

  •  Guru Nanak (1469 – 1539), also referred to as Baba Nanak was the founder of Sikhism and is the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. Hence statement 1 is correct
  •  His birth is celebrated worldwide as Guru Nanak Gurpurab on Katak Pooranmashi (‘full-moon of the Katak’)
  •  Journeys (Udasis): During first quarter of the 16th century, Nanak went on long udasiya (‘journeys’) for spiritual pursuits. He visited several places in “nau-khand” (‘the nine regions of the earth’), presumably the major Hindu and Muslim pilgrimage centres.
  •  He preached the message of ik onkar (‘one God’), who dwells in every one of his creations and constitutes the eternal Truth. With this concept, he would set up a unique spiritual, social, and political platform based on equality, fraternal love, goodness, and virtue. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  •  Nanak’s words are registered in the form of 974 poetic hymns, or shabda, in the holy text of Sikhism, the Guru Granth Sahib, with some of the major prayers being the Japji Sahib; the Asa di Var; and the Sidh Gohst. Hence statement 3 is correct.

Source:http://newsonair.com/News?title=Guru-Nanak-Jayanti-being-celebrated-with-traditional-fervour-across-the-country-%26-abroad&id=405231


Consider the following statements:

  • 36% of India’s districts are classified as “overexploited” or “critical” by the Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA).
  • CGWA was formed under the Environment (Protection) Act.
  • India has the largest area under groundwater irrigation in the world.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 2 only
  • 1 and 3 only

Answer: (b) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

  • To effectively regulate the groundwater extraction, the Centre, following the NGT’s directions, has divided areas with declining water tables in three categories: Overexploited, Critical, Semi-critical. Areas with an extraction rate of 70-100% of groundwater recharge. Two hundred and fifty six of our approximately 700 districts have groundwater levels which are “critical” or “over-exploited” as per the latest data from the Central Ground Water Board (2017).
  • (Approx 36%) Statement 2 is correct: Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA) was constituted under sub-section (3) of Section 3 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 for the purposes of regulation and control of ground water development and management in the country.
  • Statement 3 is correct: At 39 million hectares (67% of its total irrigation), India has the world’s largest groundwater well equipped irrigation system (China with 19 mha is second, USA with 17 mha is third). India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh are, respectively, the first, fourth and sixth largest users of groundwater globally. India pumps more than the US and China combined – the second and third-largest users, respectively.