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Daily Prelims Test – 30_June_2022

1. Which of the following is not a left bank tributary of the river Krishna?

a) Bhima

b) Dindi

c) Tunghabhadra

d) Peddavagu

Answer: (c) Tunghabhadra

In News: ‘No place to store water’: TN asks A.P. to suspend supply of Krishna water to Chennai from July 1

Explanation:

The measure has been initiated since all reservoirs in TN have been filled up.

Krishna River System

  • The Krishna is the second-largest east-flowing river of the Peninsula.
  • Krishna river rises at Mahabaleshwar at an altitude of I336 m near the Jor village in the extreme north of district Satara, Maharashtra in the west, and meets the Bay of Bengal in Andhra Pradesh, on the east coast.
  • Ecologically, this is one of the disastrous rivers in the world, in that it causes heavy soil erosion during the monsoon season.
  • It is bounded by the Balaghat range on the north, by the Eastern Ghats on the south and the east, and by the Western Ghats on the west.
  • The total length of the river from origin to its outfall into the Bay of Bengal is 1,400 km.
  • The major part of the basin is covered with agricultural land accounting to 75.86% of the total area.
  • The Krishna forms a large delta with a shoreline of about 120 km.
  • Almatti Dam, Srisailam Dam, Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, and Prakasham Barrage are some of the major dams constructed on the river.

Tributaries of Krishna River

  • Right bank: Venna, Koyna, Panchganga, Dudhganga, Ghataprabha, Malaprabha and Tungabhadra are the major right-bank tributaries
  • Left Bank: Bhima, Dindi, Peddavagu, Halia, Musi, Paleru, and Munneru are the major left-bank tributaries
  • The Koyna is a small tributary but is known for Koyna Dam. This dam was perhaps the main cause of the devastating earthquake (6.4 on Richter scale) in 1967 that killed 150 people.
  • The Bhima originates from the Matheron Hills and joins the Krishna near Raichur after for a distance of 861 km.
  • The Tungabhadra is formed by the unification of the Tunga and the Bhadra originating from Gangamula in the Central Sahyadri. Its total length is 531 km.
  • At Wazirabad, it receives its last important tributary, the Musi, on whose banks the city of Hyderabad is located.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/chennai/tamil-nadu-asks-ap-to-suspend-supply-of-krishna-water-to-chennai-from-july-1/article65572147.ece

2. Consider the following statements regarding Inter-state water dispute:

1. Parliament by law provides for its manner of resolution.

2. The Parliament has not enacted any laws in this regard till now.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

In News: ‘No place to store water’: TN asks A.P. to suspend supply of Krishna water to Chennai from July 1

Explanation:

  • Article 262 of the Constitution provides for the adjudication of inter-state water disputes.
  • Under this, Parliament may by law provide for the adjudication of any dispute or complaint with respect to the use, distribution and control of waters of any inter-state river and river valley.
  • Parliament may also provide that neither the Supreme Court nor any other court is to exercise jurisdiction in respect of any such dispute or complaint.
  • The Parliament has enacted the two laws, the River Boards Act (1956) and the Inter-State Water Disputes Act (1956).

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/chennai/tamil-nadu-asks-ap-to-suspend-supply-of-krishna-water-to-chennai-from-july-1/article65572147.ece

3. Consider the following statements regarding Marine heatwaves:

1. Western Indian Ocean witnessed the largest increase in Marine heatwaves.

2. High ocean temperatures may lead to picking up of the pace of the ocean currents.

3. Intense marine heatwaves in Indian ocean will result in increase in rainfall in Central Indian region and decrease in rainfall in peninsular region.

Which of the above statements are correct?

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only

In News: As the globe warms up to unprecedented level, it boils the oceans as well. Being a climate moderator for the planet, the warming up of the oceans fundamentally disrupts the climate cycle, as scientists have found.

Explanation:

  • A marine heat wave is often characterised as a coherent region of extremely warm sea surface temperature that lasts for days to months. Marine heat waves occur when sea temperatures are higher than usual for a lengthy period of time. (+) 5*C for 3 consecutive days.
  • Also, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Sixth Assessment Report (AR6), the sea surface temperature over the Indian ocean is likely to increase by 1 to 2 °C when there is 1.5°C to 2°C global warming.
  • The Western Indian Ocean region experienced the largest increase in marine heatwaves at a rate of about 1.5 events per decade, followed by the north Bay of Bengal at a rate of 0.5 events per decade.
  • The marine heatwaves in the Western Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal increased drying conditions over the central Indian subcontinent.
  • Correspondingly, there is a significant increase in the rainfall over south peninsular India in response to the heatwaves in the north Bay of Bengal.
  • High ocean temperatures are changing ocean currents. They seem to have picked up the pace by 15 per cent per decade from 1990 to 2013 due to human-driven activities.

Source: https://www..downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/oceans-great-dying-2-0-earth-s-climate-moderator-is-warming-faster-83461

4. The term ‘Ecotron’ recently seen in news refers to which of the following?

a) Solar powered pump controller

b) e-Vehicle to be launched in India by Honda

c) Biodegradable Plastic

d) A Satellite launched for climate resilience

Answer: (a) Solar powered pump controller

In News: Pune Inc: A startup on a mission to make people ‘climate smart’

National Innovations in Climate Resilient Agriculture

Explanation:

Pune-based Ecozen, a climate-smart deep tech startup, announced earlier this month that it had raised Rs 54 crore and is in talks for the remaining amount of its planned Rs 200 crore funding. Founded by IIT Kharagpur alumni Devendra Gupta, Prateek Singhal and Vivek Pandey, Ecozen’s technologies are deployed in the agricultural sector for irrigation and cooling. The products are solar pump controllers called Ecotron, which occupy almost 20 per cent of the Indian market, and solar cold storage rooms called Ecofrost, which make up 50 per cent.

Climate-resilient agriculture (CRA) is an approach that includes sustainbly using existing natural resources through crop and livestock production systems to achieve long-term higher productivity and farm incomes under climate variabilities.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/pune/pune-inc-a-startup-on-a-mission-to-make-people-climate-smart-7995276/

5. The recent government developmental initiative of GOAL 2.0 Program is launched by which of the following Agency?

a) Ministry of Sports

b) Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship

c) Ministry of Human Resource Development

d) Ministry of Tribal Affairs

Answer: (d) Ministry of Tribal Affairs

In News: Meta, Tribal Affairs Ministry launches second phase of GOAL 2.0 to digitally skill tribal youth

GOAL 2.0 will look to digitally upskill, connect and empower 10 lakh youth and women from the tribal communities of the country.

Explanation:

  • Social media giant Meta and Ministry of Tribal Affairs has announced to extend their collaboration to launch the second phase of Going Online As Leaders (GOAL) programme.
  • GOAL 2.0 will look to digitally upskill, connect and empower 10 lakh youth and women from the tribal communities of the country. It aims to serve as a bridge for the socially marginalised youth to leverage opportunities using technology. Tribal population constitutes about 8.6% of the total population in India.
  • Through this programme, the identified GOAL participants will have access to Meta Business Coach – a WhatsApp-based learning bot – which will give the participants an opportunity to learn skills on how to build and expand their business using Facebook, Instagram and WhatsApp.
  • The programme will also involve Facebook Live sessions in nine languages by master trainers on topics like anti-scamming education, staying safe online, combating misinformation and being a good digital citizen.

Source: https://www.financialexpress.com/education-2/meta-tribal-affairs-ministry-launches-second-phase-of-goal-2-0-to-digitally-skill-tribal-youth/2576239/

6. Consider the following statements regarding CAPSTONE

1) It is a microwave oven–sized CubeSat will serve as the first spacecraft to test a unique, elliptical lunar orbit

2) It has launched by the NASA

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What is CAPSTONE, NASA’s new satellite?

  • NASA launched CAPSTONE, a microwave oven-sized CubeSat weighing just 55 pounds (25 kg).
  • CAPSTONE, short for Cislunar Autonomous Positioning System Technology Operations and Navigation Experiment, is designed to test a unique, elliptical lunar orbit.
  • CAPSTONE will insert itself into a near rectilinear halo orbit (NRHO) of the moon.
  • CAPSTONE will enter NRHO, where it will fly within 1,600 km of the Moon’s North Pole on its near pass and 70,000 km from the South Pole at its farthest.
  • The spacecraft will repeat the cycle every six-and-a-half days and maintain this orbit for at least six months to study dynamics.
  • It aims to help reduce risk for future spacecraft by validating innovative navigation technologies, and by verifying the dynamics of the halo-shaped orbit.
  • It is heading toward an orbit intended in the future for Gateway, a Moon-orbiting outpost that is part of NASA’s Artemis program.
  • The orbit is known as a near-rectilinear halo orbit (NRHO).
  • It is significantly elongated, and is located at a precise balance point in the gravities of Earth and the Moon.
  • This offers stability for long-term missions like Gateway

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/capstone-nasas-satellite-newly-launched-7999605/

7. With respect to Office of the Vice-President, consider the following statements

1) He/she is the second highest constitutional office in the country.

2) He/she serves for a five-year term.

3) He/she may resign his office by submitting his resignation to the President of India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 and 3 only

b) 2 only

c) 3 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Election for new Vice President of India to be held on August 6, 2022

  • The schedule for the vice presidential election was finalised at a meeting of Chief Election Commissioner Rajiv Kumar and Election Commissioner Anup Chandra Pandey.

The Office of the Vice-President Article 63.

  • The Vice-President of India is the second highest constitutional office in the country. He serves for a five-year term, but can continue to be in office, irrespective of the expiry of the term, until the successor assumes office.
  • The Constitution is silent on who performs the duties of the Vice-President, when a vacancy occurs in the office of the Vice-President of India, before the expiry of his term, or when the Vice-President acts as the President of India.
  • The only provision in the Constitution is with regard to the Vice-President’s function as the Chairperson of the Council of States (Rajya Sabha), which is performed, during the period of such vacancy, by the Deputy Chairperson of the Rajya Sabha, or any other member of the Rajya Sabha authorised by the President of India.
  • The Vice-President may resign his office by submitting his resignation to the President of India. The resignation becomes effective from the day it is accepted.
  • The Vice-President can be removed from office by a resolution of the Council of States (Rajya Sabha), passed by a majority of its members at that time and agreed to by the House of the People (Lok Sabha).
  • A resolution for this purpose may be moved only after a notice of at least a minimum of 14 days has been given of such an intention.

Source: https://www.indiatvnews.com/news/india/vice-president-of-india-election-on-august-6-2022-result-date-election-commission-latest-news-2022-06-29-788304

8. Consider the following statements

1) India is the third largest Salt producing Country in the World after China and USA

2) Salt is come under the Union List of the 7th Schedule of the Constitution

3) Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan are surplus Salt producing States accounting for about 96 per cent of the Country’s production.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 and 3 only

b) 2 only

c) 3 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Crisis in salt sector hits 5 lakh people in Gujarat

  • The salt industry in India is facing several challenges to produce salt and meet the market demand.
  • Salt farmers are also in distress as they are not getting MSP like other food crops produced by farmers. The farmers are demanding proper wage system along with social security.
  • In Gujarat, the salt harvesting season starts in March, but due to the extended monsoon in the coastal areas, it was started quite late.

Salt production in India

  • India is the third-largest producer of salt in the world after the USA and China.
  • In India, nearly 30 million tonne of salt is produced every year.
  • India exports nearly 10 million tonne of salt from its total production while industries consume about 12.5 million tonne and retail customers consume the rest.
  • Over 55 countries export salt from India.
  • Average Annual Production of Salt in India is 215.80 lakh tones whereas ever high production of 240 lakh tones was recorded during 2009-10 followed by 221 lakh tonnes during 2012-13 (Upto 2/13). Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan are surplus Salt producing States accounting for about  96 per cent of the Country’s production. 
  • Gujarat contributes 76.7 per cent  to the total production, followed by Tamil Nadu (11.16 %) and Rajasthan (9.86%).
  • Salt is a Central subject in the Constitution of India and appears as item No.58 of the Union List of the 7 th Schedule

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/crisis-in-salt-sector-hits-five-lakh-people-in-gujarat/article65565093.ece

9. Which of the following countries are come under Lithium Triangle?

1) Chile

2) Bolivia

3) Argentina

4) Paraguay

5) Uruguay

Select the correct options from the given below codes

a) 1, 2 and 4 only

b) 2,3 and 5 only

c) 3,4 and 5only

d) 1,2 and 3 only

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS:

  • Greenbushes mine in Western Australia is the largest hard-rock lithium mine in the world. Tantalum is also mined there.
  • Australia (40,000 tonnes), Chile (20,600 tonnes) and China (14,000 tonnes) mine about 86 per cent of the world’s lithium.
  • High-grade lithium has been discovered in Nigeria. In 2019 the total production volume of lithium, not high grade, in Nigeria reached 50 metric tonnes This is small compared to Zimbabwe which produced 1,200 metric tonnes the same year.
  • In Nigeria, lithium minerals (spodumene and lepidolite) are known to be associated with cassiterite, columbite-tantalite (coltan) and others in the extensive belt of rare metal-bearing rock types called pegmatite.

Lithium Triangle

  • The intersection of Chile, Bolivia, and Argentina make up the region known as the Lithium Triangle.
  • The Lithium Triangle is known for its high quality salt flats including Bolivia’s Salar de Uyuni, Chile’s Salar de Atacama, and Argentina’s Salar de Arizaro.
  • The Lithium Triangle is believed to contain over 75% of existing known lithium reserves.
  • Half the world’s known reserves are located in Bolivia along the central eastern slope of the Andes range.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/blog/africa/nigeria-s-latest-lithium-find-some-key-questions-answered-83457#:~:text=Published%3A%20Monday%2027%20June%202022,metric%20tonnes%20the%20same%20year.

10.  Consider the following:

1) Foreign currency convertible bonds

2) Foreign institutional investment with certain conditions

3) Global depository receipts

4) Non-resident external deposits

Which of the above can be included in Foreign Direct Investments?

a) 1, 2 and 3

b) 3 only

c) 2 and 4

d) 1 and 4

Answer: (a) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

  • In Capital Account of Balance of Payment, we can classify into Investment, Borrowings and External Assistance.
  • Investment includes Equity flow in the economy. Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds (FCCB), Foreign Institutional Investment with certain conditions (subject to the overall limit of 24%), and Global Depository Receipts (GDR) are the instruments for the foreign investment in India. Hence options 1, 2 and 3 are correct.
  • Non-Resident external deposits are a ‘debt creating’ flow in balance of payments accounts and therefore, not part of Foreign Direct investments. Hence options 4 is not correct.