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Daily Prelims Test – 30_June 2021

Consider the following Statements regarding General Rules for Flying a Drone in India:

  • Drones cannot be flown more than 400 feet vertically.
  • All drone operators will register their drone and request permission to fly for each flight through India’s Digital Sky Platform.
  • All drones except those in the Nano category must be registered and issued a Unique Identification Number.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) 1 and 2 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Nano, micro, small: The different drone types in India & if Jammu-like strike can be averted

  • From social media vloggers and crop analysts to wedding photographers and disaster relief personnel — drones have become an inseparable asset across a whole range of spheres.    
  • On Sunday, after the drone attack at the Jammu Air Force station, the unmanned aerial vehicles have come to symbolise a new terror challenge for India. 
  • The threat was further emphasised when, between Sunday night and Monday morning, two drones were spotted over the Ratnuchak-Kaluchak military area. The drones escaped after Army personnel fired at them.

Drones in India

  • Based on their weight, drones can be divided into five categories — nano (weighing up to 250 g), micro (250 g to 2 kg), small (2-25 kg), medium (25-150 kg), and large (over 150 kg).
  • All drones except nano require a licensed pilot and permit from the Director General of Civil Aviation (DGCA). Altitude and speed restrictions also vary depending on the category of the drone. Hence statement (3) is correct
  • Drones cannot be flown within a distance of 25 km from international borders, which includes the Line of Control, and in the vicinity of military installations or areas where military activities take place
  • Drone pilots must maintain a direct visual line of sight at all times while flying.
  • Drones cannot be flown more than 400 feet vertically. Hence statement (1) is correct
  • Drones cannot be flown in areas specified as “No Fly Zones”.

India’s No Permission, No Takeoff Policy

  • The drone pilots are required to request permission to fly via a mobile app, which will automatically process the request and grant or reject it.
  • If a drone pilot tries to fly without receiving permission from the Digital Sky Platform, he or she will simply not be able to take off.
  • All drone operators will register their drone and request permission to fly for each flight through India’s Digital Sky Platform. Hence statement (2) is correct

Source: https://theprint.in/defence/nano-micro-small-the-different-drone-types-in-india-if-jammu-like-strike-can-be-averted/686158/

Consider the following statements regarding the National Small Savings Fund:

  1. The objective is to de-link the small saving transactions from the Consolidated Fund of India.
    1. It was established in the Public Account of India in 1999.
    1. It is administered by the Ministry of Finance.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Food subsidy bill peaks as govt clears FCI dues

  • India’s revised food subsidy bill for 2020-21 is now estimated to be a record high of nearly ₹5 lakh crore, not due to enhanced distribution from federally-held food stocks during the pandemic, but because the Union government has paid off a “majority of longstanding debt arrears” of the Food Corporation of India (FCI) amounting to over ₹2 lakh crore

About National Small Savings Fund

  • National Small Savings Fund (NSSF) in the Public Account of India was established in 1999. Hence statement (3) is correct.
  • The Fund is administered by the Government of India, Ministry of Finance (Department of Economic Affairs) under National Small Savings Fund (Custody and Investment) Rules, 2001, framed by the President under Article 283(1) of the Constitution. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The objective of NSSF is to de-link small savings transactions from the Consolidated Fund of India and ensure their operation in a transparent and self-sustaining manner. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • Since NSSF operates in the public account, its transactions do not impact the fiscal deficit of the Centre directly.

Small savings instruments can be classified under three heads:

  • Postal deposits (comprising savings account, recurring deposits, time deposits of varying maturities and monthly income scheme),
  • Savings certificates like: National Small Savings Certificate(NSC) and Kisan Vikas Patra (KVP)
  • Social security schemes like: Public Provident Fund (PPF) and Senior Citizens‘ Savings Scheme(SCSS)

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/food-subsidy-bill-peaks-as-govt-clears-fci-dues-101624818609153.html

Consider the following statements regarding Heat Dome:

  1. Heat dome occurs when the atmosphere traps the air inside it like a lid.
    1. This happens when strong, high-pressure atmospheric conditions combine with influences from La Niña.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Climate Change is real: Temperate North America sizzles under ‘heat dome’

  • The northwestern part of North America, among the most temperate zones in the world, broke all records on June 27 and 28, 2021 when it sizzled under an unprecedented heat wave, in yet another instance of the global climate crisis.

What Is A Heat Dome?

  • A heat dome occurs when the atmosphere traps hot ocean air like a lid or cap
  • Summertime means hot weather — and extreme heat waves have become more frequent in recent decades. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • Sometimes, the scorching heat is ensnared in what is called a heat dome.
  • High-pressure circulation in the atmosphere acts like a dome or cap, trapping heat at the surface and favoring the formation of a heat wave.

Causes

  • This happens when strong, high-pressure atmospheric conditions combine with influences from La Niña. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • This creates vast areas of sweltering heat that gets trapped under the high-pressure “dome“.
  • The main cause is a strong change (or gradient) in ocean temperatures from west to east in the tropical Pacific Ocean 
  • Western Pacific’s temperatures have risen over the past few decades as compared to the eastern Pacific, creating a strong temperature gradient.
  • Alternatively, these pressure differences drive wind across the entire ocean in winter.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/climate-change-is-real-temperate-north-america-sizzles-under-heat-dome–77688

Consider the following statements regarding National Judicial Data Grid:

  1. It is a part of the on-going e-Courts Integrated Mission Mode Project.
    1. It is working as a National data warehouse for case data including the orders and judgments for Courts across the country.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Govt plans to link e-courts with land records to ease property registration

  • As per the Centre, the eCourt- land record linking will reduce dubious transactions, help in dispute containment and also reduce clogging of the court’s system
  • So far, the pilot project on linking of eCourt with land records and registration database has been completed in Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, and Haryana
  • The Department of Justice in the Law Ministry has requested the registrars general of all the high courts to provide clearance to state governments to integrate land records and registration databases with e-Courts and National Judicial Data Grid (NJDG) for speedy disposal of property disputes.

About National Judicial Data Grid (NJDG)

  • The National Judicial Data Grid (NJDG) is a part of the on-going e-Courts Integrated Mission Mode Project. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • It was launched in 2015. The aim is to track judicial performance across different courts in the country.
  • The NJDG is working as a National data warehouse for case data including the orders/judgments for Courts across the country. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • NJDG will work as a monitoring tool to identify, manage & reduce pendency of cases. 
  • The NJDG will cover all categories of cases, including those relating to the juvenile justice system. 
  • It also helps to provide timely inputs for making policy decisions to reduce delay and arrears in the system, facilitate better monitoring of court performance and systemic bottlenecks, and, thus, facilitate better resource management.
  • NJDG has specifically helped India improve its ranking in the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business Report.

Source: https://www.livemint.com/news/india/govt-plans-to-link-e-courts-with-land-records-to-ease-property-registration-11624790885050.html

Consider the following statements regarding Kadaknath Chicken:

  1. It is the black, protein-rich breed of chicken from Odisha.
    1. It is reared mainly by the tribal community of Bhils and Bhilala

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

 a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Farming black Kadaknath brings cheer to Odisha families in dark COVID-19 times

  • The Kadaknath, the black, protein-rich breed of chicken from Jhabua in Madhya Pradesh, is changing lives of people in Odisha for the better in these dark days of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic.
  • The fear of COVID-19 has made many in the state eat the meat of Kadaknath to increase their immunity.

About Kadaknath

  • Kadaknath is the black, protein-rich breed of chicken from Jhabua in Madhya Pradesh. Hence statement (1) is incorrect.
  • This poultry is reared mainly by the tribal community of Bhil & Bhilala in the districts of Jhabua and Dhar. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • It is famous for its delicious black meat (‘kali-masi’), which is supposed to be invigorating and full of medicinal properties.
  • The Black colour stems from the deposition of melanin pigment.
  • The black meat of their is claimed to contain low cholesterol level as compared to the routine table chicken.
  • It contains 25-27% of protein in comparison with other breeds of chickens.
  • It can be used for its medicinal properties, like can be taken as an aphrodisiac.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/economy/farming-black-kadaknath-brings-cheer-to-odisha-families-in-dark-covid-19-times-77677

Consider the following statements regarding One Nation One Ration Card scheme:

  1. It aims to empower all National Food Security Act migrant beneficiaries to access food grains from any Fair Price Shop.
    1. It will identify a beneficiary through biometric authentication on electronic Point of Sale (ePoS) devices installed at the FPSs.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Supreme Court sets July 31 deadline for food for migrant workers

  • The Supreme Court set a deadline of July 31 for States to implement the ‘One Nation One Ration Card’ scheme to allow migrant workers avail of subsidised food from any part of the country.
  • The court directed State governments to introduce a scheme to supply dry rations to migrant workers by July 31 and operate community kitchens so that no one went hungry during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • The court reminded the authorities that right to food was a fundamental right.

About One Nation One Ration Card scheme

  • “One Nation One Ration Card (ONORC) plan aims to empower all National Food Security Act migrant beneficiaries to access food grains from any Fair Price Shop (FPS) of their choice anywhere in the country by using their same/existing ration card with biometric authenticationHence statement (1) is correct.
  • The ONORC, was part of technology reforms in the Targeted Public Distribution System in the country.
  • The new system, based on a technological solution, will identify a beneficiary through biometric authentication on electronic Point of Sale (ePoS) devices installed at the FPSs. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • This would enable that person to purchase the number of foodgrains to which she is entitled under the NFSA.
  • While the Integrated Management of PDS portal provides the technological platform for the inter-state portability of ration cards.
  • It enables a migrant worker to buy foodgrains from any FPS across the country.
  • The Annavitaran portal hosts the data of the distribution of foodgrains through E-PoS devices within a state.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/sc-orders-implementation-of-one-nation-one-ration-card-scheme-by-july-31/article35030657.ece?homepage=true

Consider the following statements regarding Enforcing Contracts Portal:

  1. It provides easy access to latest information on commercial cases in Dedicated Commercial Courts of Delhi, Mumbai, Bengaluru and Kolkata
    1. It aims to promote ease of doing business and is developed by the Justice Department.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Justice Department launches “Enforcing Contracts Portal”

  • The portal aims to promote ease of doing business and improve the ‘Contract Enforcement Regime’ in the country. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • The portal is envisioned to be a comprehensive source of information pertaining to the legislative and policy reforms being undertaken on the “Enforcing Contracts” parameters
  • The portal provides easy access to latest information on commercial cases in Dedicated Commercial Courts of Delhi, Mumbai, Bengaluru and Kolkata. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The portal to also provide access to repository of commercial laws for ready reference
  • Department of Justice, Ministry of Law and Justice, as the nodal department has been monitoring an array of legislative and policy reforms to strengthen the “Enforcing Contracts” regime for Ease of Doing Business in India
  • The portal is envisioned to be a comprehensive source of information pertaining to the legislative and policy reforms being undertaken on the “Enforcing Contracts” parameters.
  • The new portal also hosts online reporting by all High Courts regarding the Mediation and Arbitration centres annexed to the Commercial Courts in order to monitor and promote institutional mediation & arbitration by way of Pre-institution Mediation and Settlement(PIMS) of commercial cases

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1731090

Consider the following statements regarding Special Frontier Force:

  1. It was raised by the Intelligence Bureau in the immediate aftermath of the 1962 China-India war.
    1. It is an Indian security unit that is primarily drawn from Tibetan refugees living in India.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: The intelligence intercepts have revealed that along with Eastern Ladakh, China is raising these units near its borders with Sikkim and Bhutan.

  • The new units named Mimang Cheton are presently undergoing training, and are to be deployed mostly in upper Himalayan ranges, both in the eastern and western sectors of the India-China border.
  • Mimang Cheton units will be used for high-altitude warfare as well for surveillance and for ensuring supplies to PLA troops. 
  • They are being trained for a variety of tasks, including using high-tech equipment such as drones on the one hand, as well as mules and horses to reach regions in the Himalayan range that can’t be accessed by modern means.
  • The deployment of the new Mimang Chetonunits mirrors India’s own elite and decades-old Special Frontier Force(SFF) consisting of persons of Tibetan origin. Hence statement (2) is correct.

About Special Frontier Force(SFF)

  • The SFF was raised by the Intelligence Bureau in the immediate aftermath of the 1962 China-India war. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The SFF has played an important role in multiple military operations — from the 1971 India-Pakistan war to the 1999 Kargil battle — but has largely functioned under the shadows.
  • Its primary goal originally was to conduct covert operations behind Chinese lines in the event of another Sino-Indian War.
  • Throughout its history, SFF has fought in India’s major external wars including the Bangladesh Liberation War and the Kargil War. 
  • Based in Chakrata, Uttarakhand, the force was put under the direct supervision of the IB, and later RAW, India’s external intelligence agency
  • It  is not part of the Indian Army but functions under their operational control with its own rank structure, charter and training infrastructure.
  • It falls under the authority of the Directorate General on Security in the Cabinet Secretariat headed by an Inspector General (SFF)who is selected from the Major General rank of the Indian Army and who reports directly to the Prime Minister’s Office.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/what-is-special-frontier-force-vikas-battalion-6578568/

With reference to Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), consider the following statements:

 

It is a permanent intergovernmental organisation created during the 1973 oil crisis.

It aims to manage the supply of oil in an effort to set the price of oil in the world market.

It is headquartered in Riyadh, South Arabia.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 and 3 only

b) 2 only

c) 2 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer:(b) 2 only

Explanation:

In News: ‘OPEC risks forcing India to tap Iran for oil if prices stay high’

Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

  • The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a permanent, intergovernmental organization, created at the Baghdad Conference in 1960, by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela. Hence statement (1) is incorrect.
  • It aims to manage the supply of oil in an effort to set the price of oil in the world market, in order to avoid fluctuations that might affect the economies of both producing and purchasing countries. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • It is headquartered in Vienna, Austria. Hence statement (3) is incorrect.
  • OPEC membership is open to any country that is a substantial exporter of oil and which shares the ideals of the organization.
  • Gabon terminated its membership in January 1995. However, it rejoined the Organization in July 2016.
  • As of 2019, OPEC has a total of 14 Member Countries viz. Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates(UAE), Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Libya, Nigeria, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Republic of Congo, Angola, Ecuador and Venezuela are members of OPEC.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/business/opec-risks-forcing-india-to-tap-iran-for-oil-if-prices-stay-high/article35045744.ece#:~:text=Ahead%20of%20a%20critical%20 OPEC,import%20 sources%20such%20as%20Iran.

The terms ‘WannaCry, Petya and EternalBlue’ sometimes mentioned in the news recently are related to

a) Exoplanets

b) Cryptocurrency

c) Cyber attacks

d) Mini satellites

Answer: (c) Cyber attacks

Explanation:

  • The WannaCry ransomware attack was a May 2017 worldwide cyberattack by the WannaCry ransomware cryptoworm, which targeted computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system by encrypting data and demanding ransom payments in the Bitcoin cryptocurrency. It propagated through EternalBlue, an exploit in older Windows systems released by The Shadow Brokers a few months prior to the attack.
  • Petya is a family of encrypting ransomware that was first discovered in 2016. The malware targets Microsoft Windows -based systems, infecting the master boot record to execute a payload that encrypts a hard drive’s file system table and prevents Windows from booting. It subsequently demands that the user make a payment in Bitcoin in order to regain access to the system. Hence option(c) is correct.