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Daily Prelims Test – 29_November 2020

Consider the following statements regarding the Brain Electrical Oscillation Signature Profiling

  • It is a neuro-psychological method of interrogation in which the accuser’s participation in the crime is investigated by studying their brain’s response.
  • The BEOSP procedure involves a question-answer session with the accused person

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: The accused in Hathras rape case will undergo brain fingerprinting. What is it?

  • The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), which is probing the alleged gang-rape and murder of a 19-year-old Dalit woman in Hathras of Uttar Pradesh, has brought all the four accused in the case from Aligarh jail to the Foreinsic Science Laboratory (FSL) lab in Gandhinagar for their brain electrical oscillation signature profiling (BEOSP) test.

What is the BEOSP test?

  •  BEOSP also known as brain fingerprinting is a neuro-psychological method of interrogation in which the accuser’s participation in the crime is investigated by studying their brain’s response. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The BEOSP test is carried out via a process known as an electroencephalogram, conducted to study the electrical behaviour of the human brain.
  •  The methodology was developed by CR Mukundan, a neuroscientist at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences at Bangalore.
  • Under this test, the consent of the accused is first taken and they are then made to wear caps with dozens of electrodes attached to them.
  • The accused are then shown visuals or played audio clips related to the crime to check if there is any triggering of neurons in their brains which then generate brainwaves.
  • The test results are then studied to determine the participation of the accused in a crime.

How is it different from the ‘lie detector’ or the polygraph test?

  •  A BEOSP procedure ideally requires no question-answer session to be conducted during the test, as opposed to the polygraph “lie detector” test that maps physiological outputs of the individual in question – like perspiration, blood pressure, pulse rate, and pupil response. Hence statement 2 is incorrect

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/hathras-rape-case-brain-fingerprinting-7070587/


Consider the following statements regarding the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT)

  • It is an ISRO mission which is an array of thirty fully steerable parabolic radio telescopes of 45-metre diameter, observing at metre wavelengths
  • It is operated by the National Centre for Radio Astrophysics

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Pune’s GMRT third country-based facility to bag IEEE milestone

  • Pune-based Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) has become the third Indian scientific facility to be awarded the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) milestone for its novel engineering, advanced technology and scientific contributions made in the field of radio astronomy
  • The GMRT is the third IEEE Milestone in India. It not only recognises contributions of scientists and engineers of India, but also helps attract young talent towards fundamental science and engineering
  • The previous two Indian IEEE milestones (recognized in 2012) were for pioneering work by Sir JC Bose in 1895 to demonstrate the generation and reception of radio waves, and for the Nobel prize-winning discovery by Sir CV Raman in 1928, Mysore informed.

About Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT)

  •  The GMRT located near Pune is an array of thirty fully steerable parabolic radio telescopes of 45-metre diameter, observing at metre wavelengths.
  • It is operated by the National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA), a part of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai. Hence statement 2 is correct
  •  It was conceived and built under the direction of Late Prof. Govind Swarup from 1984 to 1996. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • At the time it was built, it was the world’s largest interferometric array offering a baseline of up to 25 kilometres (16 mi).
  • Astronomers from all over the world regularly use this telescope to observe many different astronomical objects such as HII regions (interstellar atomic hydrogen that is ionized), galaxies, pulsars, supernovae, and Sun and solar winds.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/pune/punes-gmrt-third-country-based-facility-to-bag-ieee-milestone-7071284/


Consider the following statements regarding the India Climate Change Knowledge Portal

  • India’s NDC goals shall not be a component of this knowledge portal.
  • It will help in disseminating knowledge among citizens about all the major steps Government is taking at both national and international levels to address climate change issues.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Single point information source on Climate Action “India Climate Change Knowledge Portal” launched

  • Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Shri Prakash Javadekartoday launchedthe “India Climate Change Knowledge Portal”.
  • Expressing happiness over the web portal launch, Shri Javadekar said portal will be a “single point Information resource” which provides information on the different climate initiatives taken by various Line Ministries enabling users to access updated status on these initiatives.
  • Shri Javadekar informed at the virtual event that India has practically achieved its Pre-2020 Climate Action targets
  • The portal captures sector-wise adaptation and mitigation actions that are being taken by the various line Ministries in one place including updated information on their implementation.The knowledge portal will help in disseminating knowledge among citizens about all the major steps Government is taking at both national and international levels to address climate change issuesHence statement 2 is correct

The eight major components included in the knowledge portal are:

  • India’s Climate Profile
  • National Policy Framework
  •  India’s NDC goals. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • Adaptation Actions
  • Mitigation Actions
  • Bilateral and Multilateral Cooperation
  • International Climate Negotiations
  • Reports & Publications

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1676538#:~:text=The%20portal%20captures%20sector%2Dwise,Government%20is%20taking%20at%20both


Consider the following statements regarding the IMD’s criteria for a cold wave

  • For the plains, a cold wave is declared when the minimum temperature is 10 degrees Celsius or below and is 4.5 degrees Celsius (C) less than normal for two consecutive days.
  • For coastal stations, the threshold value of minimum temperature of 10 degree Celsius is rarely reached.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Delhi and other parts of north India are bracing for near cold wave conditions, here is why

  •  Due to likely fall in minimum temperatures over northwest India, cold wave condition is expected to prevail at isolated places over Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh and Delhi, north Rajasthan and west Uttar Pradesh between November 27 and November 29.
  • One of the main reasons is snowfall in high altitude areas north of Delhi, including places in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttarakhand. Cold winds blowing from these areas lower temperature across northwest India every winter, including Delhi

Cold Wave: 

  • rapid fall in temperature within 24 hoursto a level requiring substantially increased protection to agriculture, industry, commerce, and social activities.

Cold Wave Conditions:

  •  For the plains,a cold wave is declared when the minimum temperature is 10 degrees Celsius or below and is 5 degrees Celsius (C) less than normal for two consecutive days. Hence statement 1 is correct
  •  For coastal stations,the threshold value of minimum temperature of 10 degree Celsius is rarely reached. However, the local people feel discomfort due to the wind chill factor which reduces the minimum temperature by a few degrees depending upon the wind speed. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • wind chill factoris a measure of the cooling effect of the wind on the temperature of the air.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-delhi-and-other-parts-of-north-india-are-bracing-for-near-cold-wave-conditions-here-is-why-7070284/


Global Tuberculosis report 2020 which is released by

  • World Health Organization
  • Doctors without Borders
  • World Medical Association
  • International Medical Corps

Answer: a) World Health Organization

Explanation:

In NEWS: President of India’s message on the Eve of World Tuberculosis Day

  • The “Step Up for TB 2020” report by the Stop TB Partnership and Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders (MSF) has highlighted India’s conservative approach regarding the new medicines for Drug Resistant TB, putting lives of patients including children in danger. WHO has published a global TB report every year since 1997. Hence option (a) is the correct answer.
  • The current Pandemic has further aggravated the sufferings of TB patients in the country in terms of disease diagnosis, surveillance and treatment.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetail.aspx?PRID=1607802


Consider the following statements regarding Project 75

  •  It is a programme by the Indian Navy that entails building six Scorpene Class attack submarines.
  •  It is given support by the Department of Defence Production (Ministry of Defence) and Indian Navy throughout its various phases of construction.

Which of the statement(s) is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: The fifth Scorpene submarine of Project-75 – ‘Vagir’ launched at Mazagon Dock today

  •  Project 75 is a programme by the Indian Navy that entails building six Scorpene Class attack submarines. Hence statement 1 is correct.
    •  Scorpene is a conventional powered submarine weighing 1,500 tonnes and can go up to depths of 300m.
  •  It is given support by the Department of Defence Production (Ministry of Defence) and Indian Navy throughout its various phases of construction. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  •  The MDL is manufacturing six Scorpene submarines with technology assistance from Naval Group of France under a USD 3.75 bn deal signed in October 2005.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1672314


Consider the following statements

  •  Vulture numbers saw a decline as much as 90% in some species in India since the 1990s in one of the most drastic declines in bird populations in the world.
  •  The number of red-headed vultures, also critically-endangered now, declined by 91% while the Egyptian vultures by 80%.
  •  Recently, the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) launched a Vulture Action Plan 2020-25 for the conservation of vultures in the country.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 and 2 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Vulture numbers ‘stabilising’, MoEF launches action plan to increase population

  •  Vulture numbers saw a decline as much as 90% in some species in India since the 1990s in one of the most drastic declines in bird populations in the world. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  •  The number of red-headed vultures, also critically-endangered now, declined by 91% while the Egyptian vultures by 80%. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  •  The cause of the decline was established as diclofenac, a veterinary nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in 2004, which is used to treat pain and inflammatory diseases such as gout in carcasses that vultures would feed off.
  •  Just 0.4-0.7% of animal carcasses contaminated with diclofenac was sufficient to decimate 99% of vulture populations.
  •  Recently, the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) launched a Vulture Action Plan 2020-25 for the conservation of vultures in the country. Hence statement 3 is correct.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/vulture-numbers-stabilising-moef-launches-action-plan-to-increase-population-7053910/


Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct regarding Inflation

  •  It refers to the rise in the prices of most goods and services of daily or common use, such as food, clothing, housing, recreation, transport, consumer staples
  •  It measures the average price change in a basket of commodities and services over time.
  •  It is indicative of the decrease in the purchasing power of a unit of a country’s currency

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  • 1 and 3 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: WPI quickens to 8-month high

  •  Inflation refers to the rise in the prices of most goods and services of daily or common use, such as food, clothing, housing, recreation, transport, consumer staples. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  •  It measures the average price change in a basket of commodities and services over time. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  •  It is indicative of the decrease in the purchasing power of a unit of a country’s currency. Hence statement 3 is correct.
  •  However, a moderate level of inflation is required in the economy to ensure that production is promoted.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/business/Economy/wpi-inflation-at-8-month-high-of-148-in-oct-on-costlier-manufactured-items/article33106555.ece#:~:text=India’s%20wholesale%20price%20inflation%20quickened,1.32%25%20in%20September%20this%20year.&text=Inflation%20in%20potato%20prices%20touched,registered%208.5%25%20inflation%20in%20October.


Recently, which of the following state has approved the issuance of a 10-year golden card visa for more professionals, including PhD holders, physicians, engineers as well as graduates from certain universities.

  •  United Arab Emirate
  •  United Kingdom
  •  United States of America
  •  South America

Answer: (a) United Arab Emirate

Explanation:

In News: UAE to extend ‘golden’ visa’s eligibility criteria

  •  Recently, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has approved the issuance of a 10-year golden card visa for more professionals, including PhD holders, physicians, engineers as well as graduates from certain universities.Golden Visa is citizenship by investment or residency by investment program. Hence option (a) is the correct answer.
  •  It is directed to wealthy foreign nationals who want to acquire residency in a certain country by investing a substantial amount of money or by purchasing a property.
  •  UAE’s Golden Card Visa:
    •  It grants 10-year residency to these visa holders and their families.

Eligibility:

  •  All holders of doctorate degrees, medical doctors and computer, electronics, programming, electrical and biotechnology engineers.
  •  Those with specialised degrees in artificial intelligence (AI), big data and epidemiology, as well as high school students living in the UAE who rank top in the country and students from certain universities with a Grade Point Average (GPA) of 3.8 or higher.
    •  The changes will take place from 1st December 2020.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/arunachal-records-best-sex-ratio-manipur-the-worst/article33102441.ece


Which of the following statements are correct regarding the general difference between plant and animal cells?

  • Plant cells have cellulose cell walls whilst animal cells do not.
  • Plant cells do not have plasma membrane unlike animal cells which do.
  • Mature plant cell has one large vacuole whilst animal cell has many small vacuoles.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  • 1 and 2 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 3 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (c) 1 and 3 only

Explanation:

The most important difference between a plant cell and an animal cell is that the former has a cell wall. A cell wall gives mechanical support to a plant cell. Animal cells do not have cell walls. Plants have both a cell wall that is made up of cell membrane (plasma membrane) and cellulose. The cell wall is, a rigid membrane matrix found on the surface of all plant cells whose primary role is to protect the cell and its content. Hence statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is not correct. Plant cells have a large central vacuole that can occupy up to 90% of the cell’s volume. Animal cells may have many small vacuoles, a lot smaller than the plant cell. Hence statement 3 is correct.