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Daily Prelims Test – 29_July 2021

onsider the following statements:

  • Organ donation in India is regulated by the Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissues Act, 1994.
  • The National Organ Transplant Programme aims to promote organ donation and transplantation across all States.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: National Organ Transplant Programme

  • Under the National Organ Transplant Programme (NOTP) a National Level Tissue Bank (Biomaterial Centre) for storing tissues has been established at National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation (NOTTO), New Delhi.
  • Further, under the NOTP, a provision has also been made for providing financial support to the States for setting up of Bio- material centres.
  • As of now a Regional Bio-material centre has been established at Regional Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation (ROTTO), Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
  • Funds have also been released to the States of Bihar and Maharashtra for establishment of Biomaterial Centre under NOTP.
  • The Government of India is implementing the National Organ Transplant Programme (NOTP) to promote organ donation and transplantation across all States/Union Territories (UTs)including Karnataka. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • Transplantation of Human Organs Act was passed in 1994 and subsequently amended in 2011 thus bringing in form Transplantation of Human Organs (Amendment) Act 2011. It provides various regulations for the removal of human organs and its storage. Hence statement (1) is correct.

About NOTTO:

National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization (NOTTO) is a national level organization set up under the Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

  • National Human Organ and Tissue Removal and Storage Network
  • National Biomaterial Centre (National Tissue Bank)
  • Types of Organ Donations
  • The law allows both deceased and living donors to donate their organs.
  • It also identifies brain death as a form of death.
  • Living donors must be over 18 years of age and are limited to donating only to their immediate blood relatives or, in some special cases, out of affection and attachment towards the recipient.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1739456

Consider the following statements regarding Nano Urea Liquid:

  • Nano Urea Liquid was first developed by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).
  • India is the first country globally to start commercial production of Nano Urea.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: NFL, RCF to get nano urea technology from IFFCO

  • National Fertilisers Limited (NFL) and Rashtriya Chemicals and Fertilisers Ltd (RCF) signed Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative Limited (IFFCO) for ‘transfer of technology’ of a revolutionary and game changer fertiliser Nano Urea Liquid.
  • To enhance the adaptability of Nano Urea by farmers, technology transfer from IFFCO to public sector fertiliser companies will be achieved through these MOUs.
  • This technology transfer will ramp up the production leading towards consistent supply resulting in faster adoption and would also result in more savings to farmers and government subsidies.
  • Under these agreements, IFFCO will transfer the technology of Liquid Nano Urea to NFL and RCF. In the near future, NFL and RCF will establish new Nano Urea production plants to increase the supply of Nano Urea to farmers of the country.

What is Nano Liquid Urea?

  • Nano Urea Liquid is a nutrient to provide nitrogen to plants as an alternative to conventional urea.
  • Developed by: Nano Urea Liquid has been developed indigenously through proprietary technology at IFFCO”s Nano Biotechnology Research Centre(NBRC) in Gujarat. Hence statement (1) is incorrect.
  • Efficacy Trials: IFFCO had conducted around 11,000 farmer field trials (FFT’s) on more than 94 crops across India to test the efficacy of nano urea. The trials had shown an average 8% increase in yield.
  • India has become the first country globally to start commercial production of Nano UreaHence statement (2) is correct.

What are the benefits of Nano Liquid Urea?

  • Firstly, Nano Liquid Urea can curtail the requirement of urea by at least 50%. This will in turn reduce India’s dependence on urea imports.
  • During 2019-20, the production of urea was 244.55 LMT. On the other hand, the consumption volume of urea was 336 lakh metric tonnes. This leaves a gap of over 91 LMT. India imported 91.99 LMT urea fertiliser in 2019-20 to fill this gap.
  • Secondly, nano urea liquid is significant as its use by farmers will boost balanced nutrition programs by reducing the excess use of Urea application in the soil. This will help make the crops stronger, healthier and protect them from the lodging effect.
  • Thirdly, the conventional urea is 30-40% effective in delivering nitrogen to plants while the effectiveness of the Nano Urea Liquid is over 80%.
  • Fourthly, the Nano Urea Liquid will be cost-effective as it will be cheaper. This will help in increasing farmers’ income.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1739624

The Malegam Committee Report was sometimes seen in the news. Which of the following sectors does the report cater to?

  1. a) Green Economy Sector
  2. b) Defence sector
  3. c) Pharmaceutical sector
  4. d) Micro- finance

Answer: (d) Micro Finance

Explanation:

In NEWS:

  • Almost to mark 10 years of the Malegam Committee Report of 2011 that helped establish micro- finance as a legitimate asset class, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) released its Consultative Document on Regulation of Microfinance
  • Its big strengths are the light-touch approach and the level regulatory playing field it seeks to establish for the sector.
  • Public policy would take a huge leap forward if other policy institutions adopt a similar approach on archaic laws and rules.

Malegam Committee Report:

  • The Reserve Bank of India formed a sub-committee in order to study the Microfinance sector regulated by the bank. The Sub-Committee was under the chairmanship of Y.H. Malegam. Hence option (d) is correct.
  • The committee recommended certain conditions to be satisfied for NBFCs to be classified as NBFC-MFI:
  • Not less than 90% of NBFCs total assets (other than cash, money market instruments and bank balances) are in the nature of “qualifying assets.”
  • The income NBFC derives from other services is in accordance with the regulation specified on that behalf.

Source: https://www.livemint.com/opinion/online-views/a-framework-for-microfinance-regulation-that-would-suit-india-11627317048710.html

Consider the following statements regarding NISHTHA Programme:

  • It is a capacity building programme for improving the quality of manufacturing in the MSME
  • Training is being organized by constituting National Resource Groups (NRGs) and State Resource Groups (SRGs) at the National and the State level.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Government launched NISHTHA for continuous professional development of the teachers during Covid

  • Due to COVID-19 challenges and in order to provide continuous professional development opportunities to the teachers at the elementary level, this Department has launched NISHTHA online using DIKSHA platform in October 2020.
  • Around 24 lakh teachers have completed NISHTHA online training at elementary level by June, 2021.

‘National Initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement’:

  • NISHTHA is the largest teachers’ training programme of its kind in the worldHence statement (1) is incorrect.
  • Training will be conducted directly by 33120 Key Resource Persons (KRPs) and State Resource Persons (SRP) identified by the State and UTs, who will in turn be trained by 120 National Resource Persons identified from National Council of Educational Research. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • To motivate and equip teachers to encourage and foster critical thinking in students.
  • Teachers will get awareness and develop their skills on various aspects related to:
  • Learning Outcomes,
  • Competency-Based learning and Testing,
  • Learner-centered Pedagogy,
  • School Safety and Security,
  • Personal-social qualities,
  • Inclusive Education,
  • ICT in teaching-learning including Artificial Intelligence,
  • Health and well-being including yoga,
  • Initiatives in School Education including library, eco-club, youth club, kitchen garden,
  • School Leadership qualities,
  • Environmental Concerns,
  • Pre-school, Pre-vocational Education and School-Based assessment.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1739155

Consider the following statements regarding Dholavira:

  • It is an archaeological site of a Harappan
  • The site was discovered in 1968 by archaeologist Jagat Pati Joshi.
  • It has been listed in the UNESCO’s World Heritage list.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 and 3 only
  3. c) 1 and 2 only
  4. d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (c) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Harappan city of Dholavira listed among UNESCO World Heritage sites

  • India had submitted the nomination dossier for ‘Dholavira: A Harappan City to the World Heritage Centre’ in January, 2020. The site was on the UNESCO’s tentative list since 2014
  • The Harappan city of Dholavira in Gujarat’s Rann of Kutch has found a place in UNESCO’s World Heritage list, making it the 40th world heritage property in the countryHence statement (3) is incorrect.
  • Dholavira is the first site of the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) in India to get the World Heritage tag.

Dholavira:

  • Dholavira is an archaeological site of a Harappan-era city. It is located in the Kutch district, Gujarat. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The site is one of the very fewwell-preserved urban settlements in South Asia, dating from the 3rd to mid-2nd millennium BCE.
  • The site is the 6th largestof more than 1,000 Harappan sites discovered so far.
  • The site was discoveredin 1968 by archaeologist Jagat Pati Joshi. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • The site was a commercial and manufacturing hub for about 1,500 years before its decline and eventual ruin in 1500 BC.
  • The walled city consists of a fortified Castle with attached fortified Bailey and Ceremonial Ground, and a fortified MiddleTown, and Lower Town. A series of reservoirs are also found to the east and south of the Citadel.
  • The great majority of the burials in the Cemetery are memorial in nature. Unlike graves at other IVC sites, no mortal remains of humans have been discovered at Dholavira.
  • Unique Features of Dholavira:
  • Cascading series of water reservoirs
  • outer fortification
  • two multi-purpose grounds — one of which was used for festivities and as a marketplace — nine gates with unique designs
  • extensive use of stone as a building material
  • an expansive water management system designed to store every drop of water available shows the creativity of the people to survive against the rapid geo-climatic transformations and
  • the funerary architecture featuring tumulus — hemispherical structures like the Buddhist Stupas

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/art-and-culture/harappan-era-city-dholavira-inscribed-on-unesco-world-heritage-list-7424926/

Consider the following statements regarding National Farmers Database:

  • It aims to create a National Farmer’s Database using digitized land records to offer proactive and personalised services to farmers.
  • The database will initially only include land owning farmers.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: No landless farmers in new database

  • A data policy was being prepared specifically for the agriculture sector in collaboration with the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology
  • The Centre’s new National Farmers Database will only include land-owning farmers for now as it will be linked to digitised land records, Agriculture Minister Narendra Singh Tomar

National Farmers Database:

  • Government of India aims to create a National Farmer’s Database using digitized land records to offer proactive and personalised services to farmersHence statement (1) is correct.
  • The database will initially only include land owning farmers. The landless and tenant farmers will be excluded from the database. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • The database can be used by the Government for targeted service delivery with higher efficiency and in a focussed and time-bound manner.
  • It will also be used to offer personalised services to farmers such as direct benefit transfer, soil and plant health advisories, weather advisories, irrigation facilities, market access information among others.
  • The National Farmer’s database would serve as the core of the Agristack.
  • The database would be linked to the digital land record management system and would thus only include farmers who were legal owners of agricultural land

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/parliament-proceedings-no-landless-farmers-in-new-database/article35571996.ece

Consider the following statements regarding James Webb Space Telescope:

  • It is an international collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Canadian Space Agency.
  • It will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Key NASA telescope in the centre of LGBT debate

  • Before the infrared James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) launches, NASA has an important decision to make — whether to rename the $8.8-billion telescope.
  • NASA is set to launch the large infrared James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) touted as the “premier observatory” of the coming decade
  • But before it launches, NASA has to decide whether to rename the telescope. This is because James Webb after whom the telescope is named was alleged to have persecuted homosexuals when he had worked for the government.

James Webb Space Telescope:

  • The James Webb Space Telescope (also called JWST or Webb) will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror. The telescope will be launched on an Ariane 5 rocket from French Guiana in 2021. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • It will study every phase in the history of our Universe, ranging from the first luminous glows after the Big Bang, to the formation of solar systems capable of supporting life on planets like Earth, to the evolution of our own Solar System.
  • Webb is an international collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). Hence statement (1) is correct.

Mission objectives:

  • observe farther into the universe than ever before
  • Search for the first stars and galaxies created after the big bang
  • better understand how planets, stars, and galaxies are born and evolve over time
  • explore distant worlds and study our solar system
  • determine the potential for life on planets around other stars.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/key-nasa-telescope-in-centre-of-lgbt-debate-7425601/

Consider the following statements with reference to Marine Aids to Navigation Bill 2021:

  • It aims to replace the Lighthouse Act 1927.
  • It applies to the whole of India including various maritime zones including territorial waters, continental shelf, and exclusive economic zone.
  • The central government can appoint the Director General to advise the central government on matters related to aids to navigation.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 and 3 only
  3. c) 1 and 3 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Parliament passed Marine Aids to Navigation Bill 2021 to repeal and replace Lighthouse Act 1927

  • The Marine Aids to Navigation Bill 2021 has been passed by the Parliament, which aims to replace the over 90-year-old Lighthouse Act of 1927. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • At the time of the enactment of the Lighthouse Act 1927, there were only 32 Lighthouses in the British India.
  • Presently, there are 195 Lighthouses and a number of advanced radio and digital aids to navigation administered under the said Act.
  • The new Act has been enacted to provide an appropriate statutory framework that reflects the modern role of marine aids in navigation. Further, to be in compliance with India’s obligations under International Conventions.
  • Key Features of the Marine Aids to Navigation Bill 2021: The bill seeks to provide a framework for the development, maintenance, and management of aids to navigation in India. The key features include:
  • Application: The Bill applies to the whole of India including various maritime zones including territorial waters, continental shelf, and exclusive economic Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • Aid to navigation:The Bill defines aid to navigation as a device, system or external to the vessels designed and operated to enhance the safety and efficiency of navigation of vessels and vessel traffic.
  • Director General of Aids to Navigation:The central government can appoint the Director General to advise the central government on matters related to aids to navigation, among others. Hence statement (3) is correct.
  • Central Advisory Committee: The central government may appoint a Central Advisory Committee(CAC) having special knowledge of the sector.
  • Management of Vessel Traffic: The central government will be responsible for the development, maintenance and management of all general aids to navigation and vessel traffic services.
  • Levy of marine aids to navigation dues: The Central Government can prescribe rates for marine aids to navigation dues. These dues will be levied and collected for every ship arriving at or departing from any port in India. Proceeds thereof shall be credited to the Consolidated Fund of India.
  • Heritage Lighthouse: The Central Government can designate any aid to navigation under its control as a “heritage lighthouse”. In addition to their function as aids to navigation, such lighthouses will be developed for educational, cultural, and tourism purposes.
  • Penalties: The Bill provides certain offences and penalties for intentionally causing obstruction of reduction or damage to any aid to navigation or vessel traffic services.

Source: https://www.financialexpress.com/infrastructure/parliament-passed-marine-aids-to-navigation-bill-2021-to-repeal-and-replace-lighthouse-act-1927-see-benefits/2299255/

Consider the following statements regarding Earth System Model:

  • It is an indigenous climate model developed to predict the impact of climate change on the monsoon in the country.
  • It has been developed under the Minister of Science and Technology.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Government developed indigenous climate model to predict the impact of climate change on monsoon in the country

  • Dr Jitendra Singh said that Government has developed an indigenous climate model to predict the impact of climate change on monsoon in the country.
  • In a written reply to a question in the Rajya Sabha , he said, a state-of-the-art Earth System Model (ESM) has been developed at the Centre for Climate Change Research (CCCR), Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) under the Ministry of Earth Sciences

Earth System Model(ESM) named IITM-ESM:

  • IITM-ESM is an indigenous climate model developed to predict the impact of climate change on the monsoon in the country. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The model has been developed at the Centre for Climate Change Research(CCCR), Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology(IITM) under the Ministry of Earth Sciences(MoES). Hence statement (2) is incorrect.
  • IITM-ESM is a state-of-the-art climate model with components of the atmosphere, ocean including deep ocean circulation, Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice and ocean biogeochemistry.
  • The model can address key questions concerning the science of climate change including reliable projections of the global and regional climate, Indian monsoon, hydrological cycle, sea-level changes and tropical ocean-atmosphere processes in a changing climate.
  • IITM-ESM is the first climate model from South Asia that has contributed to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) sixth assessment report(AR6) and participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project –Phase 6(CMIP6) experiments.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1739511

The staple commodities of export by the English East Indian Company from Bengal in the middle of the 18th century were

  1. a) Raw cotton, oil-seeds and opium
  2. b) Sugar, salt, zinc and lead
  3. c) Copper, silver, gold, spices and tea
  4. d )Cotton, silk, saltpetre and opium

Answer: (d) Cotton, silk, saltpetre and opium

Explanation:

Cotton, raw silk, saltpetre, opium were the major commodities exported from Bengal by the English East India Company. Hence option (d) is correct.