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Daily Prelims Test – 29_January 2021

Consider the following Statements regarding Indian Gas Exchange

It is India’s first digital trading platform for gas.

The platform is limited to imported LNG only.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Adani Total, Torrent pay Rs 3.7 cr each for 5% stake in Indian Gas Exchange

  • IGX now has 16 members and over 500 registered clients. With three physical hubs, the exchange has already traded 75,000 million British thermal units since its launch last June
  • Adani Total Gas and Torrent Gas have acquired 5 per cent stake each in the Indian Gas Exchange (IGX). According to officials in the know, both have spent Rs 3.69 crore each for the 5 per cent stake.
  • About Indian Gas Exchange
  • IGX is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Indian Energy Exchange (IEX).
  • It is the first gas exchange in the country to have secured authorisation from Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB) under the Gas Exchange Regulations, 2020.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It will allow buyers and sellers of natural gas to trade both in the spot market and in the forward market for imported natural gas across three hubs —Dahej and Hazira in Gujarat, and Kakinada in Andhra Pradesh.Imported Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) will be re-gasified and sold to buyers through the exchange
  • This platform is limited to imported LNG only.Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/companies/adani-total-torrent-pay-rs-3-7-cr-each-for-5-stake-in-indian-gas-exchange-121012200831_1.html


Consider the following Statements

As per article 217, the Chief Justice of the high court is appointed by the President in consultation with the Chief justice of India as well as the Governor of the state

A person to be appointed as a judge of a high court, he/she should have held a judicial office in the territory of India for ten years

Like in Supreme Court, there is provision for appointment of a distinguished jurist as a judge of a high court.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: HC vacancies: SC questions govt over delay in action on Collegium recommendations

  • EXPRESSING CONCERN over the government delaying action on the recommendations of the Collegium to fill up vacancies in the High Courts, the Supreme Court on Wednesday asked Attorney General K KVenugopal to apprise it of the Centre’s timeline in the matter.
  • Justice Kaul pointed out that in five months, the Collegium cleared nine names of which six are pending with the government.
  • The Attorney General referred to the pendency figures and said the numbers had reduced to 104 from 150 in December 2020.

Appointment of Judges in the High Court

  • Every state in India has a High Court which operates within its territorial jurisdiction
  • The procedure of appointing the Judges of the High Courts in India is slightly different from the appointment of the Judges of the Supreme Court.
  • As per article 217, the chief Justice of the high court is appointed by the President in consultation with the Chief justice of India as well as the Governor of the state in question. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • A collegium system has evolved over the years in which a Collegium headed by the CJI makes recommendation to the government for appointment of judges.
  • The Collegium recommends the names to the law ministry which after scrutinizing send the paper to the president.
  • The president either approves the names or returns the names for reconsideration of the Supreme Court. If still the Supreme Court sends the same names president appoints the persons recommended.
  • Qualification to Become a High Court Judge
  • A person to be appointed as a judge of a high court, should be a citizen of India. Further,
  • He should have held a judicial office in the territory of India for ten years or should have been an advocate of high court(s) for ten years.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • There is no minimum age fixed for high Court judges, and unlike in Supreme Court, there is no provision for appointment of a distinguished jurist as a judge of a high court.Hence statement 3 is incorrect

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/hc-vacancies-sc-questions-govt-over-delay-in-action-on-collegium-recommendations-7164469/


Consider the following Statements regarding DNA Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill, 2019

  • It proposes for DNA Regulatory Board to supervise the DNA Data Banks and DNA laboratories.
  • It aims to create a national DNA database for use by the police in solving crimes and identifying missing persons.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: DNA bill can lead to caste and community-based profiling, say AsaddudinOwaisi and BinoyViswam

  • AIMIM (All India Majlis-e-Ittehad-ul-Muslimeen) president AsaddudinOwaisi and CPI leader BinoyViswam have filed dissent notes to the Parliamentary Standing Committee’s report on DNA Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill 2019, claiming that it does not take into account their concerns over privacy violations and targets Dalit, Muslims and Adivasis by way of DNA sample collection and indefinite storage as per the new legislation.
  • The DNA profiles can reveal extremely sensitive information of an individual such as pedigree, skin colour, behaviour, illness, health status and susceptibility to diseases.
  • These details could be misused for-Specifically target individuals and their families with their own genetic data and Caste or community- based profiling.
  • The bill violates human rights as it could compromise with the privacy of the individuals.
  • It doesn’t guarantee to safeguard the privacy of DNA profiles stored in the databanks.
  • There is also no guidance on the grounds and reasons of when the magistrate can override consent.

About DNA Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill, 2019

  • The Bill provides for the regulation of use of DNA technology for establishing the identity of certain persons.
  • The bill proposes for DNA Regulatory Board to supervise the DNA Data Banks and DNA laboratories.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • DNA laboratories undertake DNA testing and required to follow standards for quality assurance in collection, storing, and analysis of DNA samples. A National DNA Data Bank and Regional DNA Data Banks for every state will be established to maintain the indices of the various categories of data such as Crime scene Index, Missing person Index, etc.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The bill provides guidelines for collection of DNA, Use of DNA Data and Removal of DNA profiles which include DNA sampling and profiling.
  • According to it, those leaking the DNA profile information to people or entities who are not entitled to have it, will be punished with a jail term of up to three years and a fine of up to Rs. 1 lakh. Similar, punishment has also been provided for those who seek the information on DNA profiles illegally.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/hc-vacancies-sc-questions-govt-over-delay-in-action-on-collegium-recommendations-7164469/


Consider the following Statements regardingNew Start Treaty

It is a treaty between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on measures for the further reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms.

It is a successor to the START framework of 1991

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Russian parliament OKs New START nuclear treaty extension

  • The lower house of Russian parliament on Wednesday approved the extension of the last remaining nuclear arms control pact days before it’s due to expire.
  • The State Duma voted unanimously to extend the New START treaty for five years.
  • The vote came a day after a phone call between US President Joe Biden and Russian President Vladimir Putin, in which they voiced satisfaction with the exchange of diplomatic notes about extending the New START treaty.

About New START Treaty

  • The New START Treaty is a treaty between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on measures for the further reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It was signed on 8 April 2010 in Pragueand, after ratification, entered into force on 5 February 2011
  • It is a successor to the START framework of 1991 (at the end of the Cold War) that limited both sides to 1,600 strategic delivery vehicles and 6,000 warheads.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It continues the bipartisan process of verifiably reducing U.S. and Russian strategic nuclear arsenals by limiting both sides to 700 strategic launchers and 1,550 operational warheads.
  • There are two basic types of inspections. Type One inspections focus on sites with deployed and non-deployed strategic systems; Type Two inspections focus on sites with only non-deployed strategic systems.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/world/russian-parliament-new-start-nuclear-treaty-7163940/


Consider the following Statements

Article 87 of the constitution provides two instances when the President specially addresses both Houses of Parliament.

The President address is followed by a motion of thanks moved in each House by ruling party MPs.

In India, the practice of the President addressing Parliament can be traced back to the Government of India Act of 1935.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 1 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (b) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: History & precedent of President’s address in Parliament

  • The first Parliament session of 2021 will begin on Friday with President Ram NathKovind addressing members of both Houses of Parliament. If he does not stand for re-election, it will be his second-last address to Parliament. In his speech, there will be an indication of the government’s plans and focus areas for the year ahead.

History and precedent

  • In the United Kingdom, the history of the monarch addressing the Parliament goes back to the 16th century. In the United States, President Gorge Washington addressed Congress for the first time in 1790. In India, the practice of the President addressing Parliament can be traced back to the Government of India Act of 1919.Hence statement 3 is incorrect
  • There was no address by him to the Constituent Assembly (Legislative) from 1947 to 1950. And after the Constitution came into force, President Rajendra Prasad addressed members of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha for the first time on January 31, 1950.
  • The Constitution gives the President the power to address either House or a joint sitting of the two Houses of Article 87 provides two special occasions on which the President addresses a joint sitting.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • When the Constitution came into force, the President was required to address each session of Parliament. So during the provisional Parliament in 1950, President Prasad gave an address before every session. The First Amendment to the Constitution in 1951 changed this position and made the President’s address once a year.

Procedure & tradition

  • In the days following the President’s address, a motion is moved in the two Houses thanking the President for his address. This is an occasion for MPs in the two Houses to have a broad debate on governance in the country. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The Prime Minister replies to the motion of thanks in both Houses, and responds to the issues raised by MPs. The motion is then put to vote and MPs can express their disagreement by moving amendments to the motion.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/president-address-in-house-ram-nath-kovind-lok-sabha-rajya-sabha-7165832/


Patharughat uprising are belonged to which of the following region?

Madras

West Bengal

Rajasthan

Assam

Answer: (d) Assam

Explanation:

In NEWS: Patharughat Explained: The forgotten peasant uprising of Assam in 1894

  • Twenty five years before the JallianwallahBagh massacre, more than a hundred peasants fell to the bullets of the British on January 28, 1894 in Assam. The unarmed peasants were protesting against the increase in land revenue levied by the colonial administration, when the military opened fire.Hence option (d) is correct
  • After the British annexation of Assam in 1826, surveys of the vast lands of the state began. On the basis of such surveys, the British began to impose land taxes, much to the resentment of the farmers. In 1893, the British government decided to increase agricultural land tax reportedly by 70- 80 per cent
  • On January 28, 1894, many local peasants gathered in a protest meeting at Patharughat (also known as Patharighat), condemning the increasing land tax levied by the British. Thousands of people from various villages came forward to take part in this meeting. The frequently increasing tax rates left the poor farmers in a state of despair. As a result, a rebellion brewed in the hearts of the peasants against the British.
  • At least 140 peasants died in police firing after the protests turned violent in Darrang district’s Patharughat, about 60 km northeast of Guwahati, on January 28, 1894.
  • Every year on January 28, the government and local people pay respects to the martyrs of the incident (KrishakSwahidDiwas) in an official function. On January 29, the Indian Army pays its respects in military style

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/assam-patharughat-1894-peasant-uprising-martyrs-column-7165125/


Global Climate Litigation Report 2021 is released by which of the following international organization?

  • UN-HABITAT
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  • Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services 
  • UN Environment Programme

Answer: (d) UN Environment Programme

Explanation:

In NEWS: Surge in court cases over climate change shows increasing role of litigation in addressing the climate crisis

  • The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has released its “Global Climate Litigation Report 2021”. The report was published by the UNEP in cooperation with the Sabin Center for Climate Change Law at Columbia University. Hence option (d) is correct
  • The report highlights that the Climate litigation cases have increased in recent years. The litigations have made the courtroom increasingly relevant to efforts to address the climate change across the world.

Key Findings of the report

  • As per the report, climate cases have nearly doubled over the last three years.
  • Increasing climates cases are increasingly compelling the governments and corporate actors to implement their climate commitments.
  • The cases are also compelling the government to pursue more ambitious climate change mitigation and adaptation goals.
  • As per the data provided by the report, in 2017 884 cases were brought in 24 countries. While as of 2020, cases have increased to 1,550 filed in 38 countries and the European Union courts.
  • Report finds that the climate litigation continues to be concentrated in high-income countries and the trend might further grow in the global south.
  • The report has also identified the trends in climate litigation like Violations of “climate rights”. That means the cases are increasingly relying on fundamental human rights such as right to life, food, health and water.

Source: https://www.unenvironment.org/news-and-stories/press-release/surge-court-cases-over-climate-change-shows-increasing-role


Consider the following Statements regardingParis Agreement

  • It is a legally binding international treaty on climate change.
  • It aims to limit global warming to well below 2, preferably to 1.5 degrees Celsius as compared to pre-industrial levels.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: India will exceed its Paris Agreement targets, says PM Modi at Climate Adaptation Summit 2021

Prime Minister Narendra Modi pledged that India would exceed its Paris Agreement targets while addressing the Climate Adaptation Summit 2021 and raised the importance of “global climate partnerships” like the International Solar Alliance.

What is the Paris Agreement?

  • The Paris Agreement is a legally binding international treaty on climate ch It was adopted by 196 Parties at COP 21 in Paris, on 12 December 2015 and entered into force on 4 November 2016.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • To achieve this long-term temperature goal, countries aim to reach global peaking of greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible to achieve a climate neutral world by mid-century.
  • The Paris Agreement is a landmark in the multilateral climate change process because, for the first time, a binding agreement brings all nations into a common cause to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects.
  • The aims of Paris Agreement are as below:
  • Keep the global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial level.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
  • Strengthen the ability of countries to deal with the impacts of climate change.

How does the Paris Agreement work?

  • Implementation of the Paris Agreement requires economic and social transformation, based on the best available science. The Paris Agreement works on a 5- year cycle of increasingly ambitious climate action carried out by countries. By 2020, countries submit their plans for climate action known as nationally determined contributions (NDCs)

Source: https://www.livemint.com/news/india/india-will-exceed-its-paris-agreement-targets-says-pm-modi-11611588765869.html


Consider the following Statements regarding Kala Utsav

  • It is an initiative of the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) under RashtriyaMadhyamikShikshaAbhiyan
  • It aims to promote arts in education by nurturing and showcasing the artistic talent of school students at the secondary stage in the country

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Union Education Minister addresses the Valedictory Function of Kala Utsav 2020

  • Union Education Minister Shri Ramesh Pokhriyal ‘Nishank’ today addressed the Valedictory Function of Kala Utsav 2020.
  • Kala Utsav 2020 was launched online on 10 January 2021 through a digital platform. The Indigenous Toys and Games segment was introduced in Kala Utsav 2020.

About Kala Utsav

  • Kala Utsav is an initiative of the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) under RashtriyaMadhyamikShikshaAbhiyan, to promote arts in education by nurturing and showcasing the artistic talent of school students at the secondary stage in the countryHence statements 1 and 2 are correct
  • RashtriyaMadhyamikShikshaAbhiyan (RMSA) recognises the importance of aesthetics and artistic experiences for secondary-level students, which play a major role in creating awareness of India’s rich cultural heritage and its vibrant diversity.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1692938


Which one of the following issues the ‘Global Economic Prospects’s report periodically?

The Asian Development Bank

The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development

The US Federal Reserve Bank

The World Bank

Answer: (d) The World Bank

Explanation:

World Bank publish the ‘Global Economic Prospect’s Report periodically