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Daily Prelims Test – 29_December 2020

Consider the following statements regarding Gram Sabha

  • It is defined in the Constitution of India under Article 243(b)
  • It is a non permanent body
  • Persons those who are above 18 years of age are the members of Gram Sabha

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 ony
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: c) 1 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Tribal ministry panels draft fresh guidelines for community forest, habitat rights

  • Gram Sabhas may get more power in managing community forest, habitat
  • Gram Sabhas will have more power in the management of community forest rights (CFR) and habitat rights, according to new guidelines drafted by the Union Ministry of Tribal Affairs
  • An increased representation of various user groups such as the graziers, minor forest produce collectors, women and other groups dependent on forest including hamlets also find mention in the two drafts.
  • The guidelines for CFR are aimed at creating community forests resource management committee (CFRMC) as an executive arm of the Gram Sabha in managing CFR areas.
  •  Habitat Rights: The committee headed by Panda was assigned drafting of guidelines to manage habitat rights. Habitat rights under the FRA are granted to the particularly vulnerable tribal groups (PVTG).

What is Gram Sabha

  •  The term Gram Sabha is defined in the Constitution of India under Article 243(b). Hence statement 1 is correct.
  •  Gram Sabha is the primary body of the Panchayati Raj system and by far the largest.
  •  It is a permanent body. Hence statement 2 is incorrect.
  •  Gram Sabha is the Sabha of the electorate. All other institutions of the Panchayati Raj like the Gram Panchayat, Block Panchayat and Zilla Parishad are constituted by elected representatives.
  •  The decisions taken by the Gram Sabha cannot be annulled by any other body. The power to annul a decision of the Gram Sabha rests with the Gram Sabha only.

Who are the members of Gram Sabha

  •  Persons, those who are above 18 years of age( Hence statement 3 is correct) and
  •  living in the village and
  •  whose names are included in the electoral rolls for the Panchayatat the village

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/forests/tribal-ministry-panels-draft-fresh-guidelines-for-community-forest-habitat-rights-74793


Consider the following statements regarding Inner Line Permit

  • It has its origin from the Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation Act (BEFR), 1873
  • It is issued by the Ministry of Home affairs

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Inner Line Permit biggest gift to people of Manipur by PM Modi: Amit Shah in Imphal

  •  Amit Shah heralded the recently granted Inner-Line Permit (ILP) system as the best gift for the people of Manipur, one that fulfilled their long standing demand and praised the Prime Minister for his decision.
  •  Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Mizoram are protected by the Inner Line, and lately, Manipur was added (in December last year).

About Inner-Line Permit (ILP)

  •  The ILP is an official travel document issued by the concerned state government to allow travel of an Indian citizen into a protected area for a limited period.
  •  It is obligatory for the citizens from outside those states to obtain a permit for entering into the protected state.
  •  The objective behind this is to prevent settlement of other Indian nationals in ILP states so as to protect the indigenous population and their access to land, jobs, and other facilities.
  •  Besides Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, and Nagaland also come under the ILP system.
  •  It has its origin from the Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation Act (BEFR), 1873. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  •  During the British rule, the BEFR prohibits an outsider’s i.e. “British subject or foreign citizen”, entry into the area beyond the Inner Line without a pass and his purchase of land there.
  •  It is issued by the concerned state governments. Hence statement 2 is incorrect.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/inner-line-permit-biggest-gift-to-people-of-manipur-by-pm-modi-amit-shah-in-imphal/story-Ud89flKymJPNEBBbOoYQnN.html


Consider the following statements regarding Article 356 of the Indian Constitution

  • The provision of President’s Rule was borrowed from the Government of India Act, 1947.
  • The proclamation imposing President’s Rule must be approved by both the Houses of Parliament within two months from the date of its issue
  • The President’s Rule can be extended for a maximum period of three years with the approval of the Parliament, every six months.

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: b) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Supreme Court stays Andhra HC order to study ‘constitutional breakdown’ in State

  •  Recently, the order of the Andhra Pradesh High Court directing the Andhra Pradesh government to argue on the ‘breakdown of constitutional machinery in the state’ is shocking as it opens up the possibility of use or even misuse of Article 356 by the judiciary.

About Article 356

  •  The provision of President’s Rule was borrowed by the Government of India from the Government of India Act, 1935. Hence statement 1 is incorrect.
  • The provision which leaders had opposed during the freedom struggle was incorporated in the Constitution strangely in the name of democracy, federalism and stability.
  •  Article 355 imposes a duty on the Centre to ensure that the government of every state is carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.
  • The proclamation imposing President’s Rule must be approved by both the Houses of Parliament within two months from the date of its issue. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • If the proclamation of President’s Rule is issued at a time when the Lok Sabha has been dissolved or the dissolution of the Lok Sabha takes place during the period of two months without approving the proclamation, then the proclamation survives until 30 days from the first sitting of the Lok Sabha after its reconstitution.
  • The President’s Rule continues for six months when the proclamation is approved by both the houses of Parliament.
  • The President’s Rule can be extended for a maximum period of three years with the approval of the Parliament, every six months. Hence statement 3 is correct.
  • The resolution approving the proclamation of President’s Rule or its continuation can be passed by either House of Parliament only by a simple majority.
  • The 44th Amendment Act of 1978 introduced a new provision to put restraint on the power of Parliament to extend a proclamation of President’s Rule beyond one year.
  •  The 38th Amendment Act of 1975 made the satisfaction of the President in invoking Article 356final and conclusive which could not be challenged in any court on any ground.
  •  The above provision was subsequently deleted by the 44th Amendment Act of 1978implying that the satisfaction of the President is not beyond judicial review.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/sc-stays-andhra-hc-order-to-study-constitutional-breakdown-in-state/article33364452.ece


Androth Island it is a small inhabited island in the:

  • Union Territory of Lakshadweep.
  • Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar
  • Gujarat
  • Maharashtra

Answer: a) Union Territory of Lakshadweep.

Explanation:

In NEWS: Southern Naval Command conducts sailing expedition from Kochi to Lakshadweep’s Androth Island

  •  A sailing expedition from Kochi to Androth Island in Lakshadweep and Minicoy group of islands and back is being undertaken by Offshore Sailing Club, Kochi under the aegis of Southern Naval Command.

About INSV Bulbul:

  •  It is a 40 foot, LC-40 design racing- cruiser capable of independent ocean voyages across the world.
  •  The vessel has been built in India under the ‘Make in India’ project by Ultra Marine Yatch Pvt. Ltd, Puducherry.

About Androth Island

  •  Also known as Androth Island, it is a small inhabited island in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep. Hence option a is correct.
  •  It is among a group of 36 coral islands scattered in the Arabian Sea off the western coast of India.
  •  The climate of Andrott is similar to the climatic conditions of Kerala.
  •  Andrott is the nearest island to the mainland and is the largest island in the Lakshadweep.
  •  It has thick vegetation comprising mainly coconut groves.

Source: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/defence/southern-naval-command-conducts-sailing-expedition-from-kochi-to-lakshadweeps-androth-island/articleshow/79940994.cms


Consider the following statements

  • Zero Coupon Bond is issued at a discount to its face value, at which it will be redeemed.
  • There are no intermittent payments of interest.
  • When such a bond is issued for a very long tenor, the issue price is at a steep discount to the redemption value.

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation

In News: Innovative govt tool to fund PSBs, keep deficit in check

  •  A bond that pays no interest while the investor holds it. It is sold originally at a substantial discount from its eventual maturity value, paying the investor its full face value when it comes due, with the difference between what he paid initially and what he finally collected representing the interest he would have received over the years it was held.
  •  Zero Coupon Bond is thus issued at a discount to its face value, at which it will be redeemed. There are no intermittent payments of interest. When such a bond is issued for a very long tenor, the issue price is at a steep discount to the redemption value. Such a zero coupon bond is also called a deep discount bond. Hence all the above statements are correct.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/zero-coupon-bonds-innovative-govt-tool-to-fund-psbs-keep-deficit-in-check-7122716/


With reference to the Namghars, consider the following statements:

  • They are traditional Vaishnavite monasteries of Assam.
  • Besides forming the primary structure used for worship, they also function as meeting houses for congregations, as well as theatres for dramatic performances.

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: IISER scientists identify the gene that greens plants

  •  Namghars (literally meaning Prayer House) are places for congregational worship associated with the entire Assamese community and the Ekasarana sect of Hinduism, in particular, that is native to Assam. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  •  Besides forming the primary structure used for worship, they also function as meeting houses for congregations, as well as theatres for dramatic performances (bhaona). Hence statement 2 is correct.
  •  The Namghar, also called the kirtanghar, is also the central structure in the Sattras (monasteries of the Ekasarana religion) where the other buildings are positioned around it.
  •  Namghars were introduced in Assam by the Vaishnavite saints Damodaradeva, Madhavadeva and Sankaradeva for Assamese people where they can culture and practice naam (devotional songs) and Bhakti of God (devotion).

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/states/iiser-scientists-identify-the-gene-that-greens-plants/article33420460.ece


Consider the following Statements regarding National Common Mobility Card (NCMC)

  • NCMC will give integrated access to the commuters wherever they travel, whichever public transport they take.
  • The idea of NCMC was floated by the Nandan Nilekani committee set up by the Reserve Bank of India
  • NCMC is an automatic fare collection system which will allow passengers with RuPay debit card to be swiped for travel.

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 ony
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: ‘One nation, one mobility card’: All you need to know about NCMC

  •  This one card will give integrated access to the commuters wherever they travel, whichever public transport they take. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  •  The idea of NCMC was floated by the Nandan Nilekani committee set up by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). hence statement 2 is correct.
  •  NCMC will allow passengers with RuPay debit card, issued in the last 18 months by 23 banks to be swiped for Metro travel. This facility will become available on the entire Delhi Metro network by 2022. Hence statement 3 is correct.
  •  NCMC is an automatic fare collection system. It will turn smartphones into an inter-operable transport card that commuters can use eventually to pay for Metro, bus and suburban railways services.
  •  It will allow entry and exit from Metro stations with the help of a smartphone, known as the automatic fare collection (AFC) system.
  •  Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated fully operational National Common Mobility Card service on the Airport Express Line of Delhi Metro, which was started in Ahmedabad last year.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/one-nation-one-mobility-card-all-you-need-to-know-about-ncmc/story-NafU1DgPbIhScJadOe68EI.html


With reference to Hypothermia, which of the following statement is not correct?

  • Hypothermia is a severe medical condition where the body loses heat before it can generate it, resulting in a dangerously low body temperature.
  • While normal body temperature lies at around 37 degrees Celsius, the body temperature of a person suffering from hypothermia increases to above 35 degrees Celsius.
  • Common signs include shivering, slow rate of breathing, slurred speech, cold skin and fatigue.
  • Heavy alcohol consumption is often linked to an increased risk of hypothermia and other conditions linked to extreme cold weather.

Answer: b) While normal body temperature lies at around 37 degrees Celsius, the body temperature of a person suffering from hypothermia increases to above 35 degrees Celsius.

Explanation:

In NEWS: Why has IMD advised people in north India not to drink alcohol during the cold wave?

  •  Hypothermia is a severe medical condition where the body loses heat before it can generate it, resulting in a dangerously low body temperature.
  •  While normal body temperature lies at around 37 degrees Celsius, the body temperature of a person suffering from hypothermia drops to below 35 degrees Celsius. Hence option (b) is not the correct answer.
  •  Common signs include shivering, slow rate of breathing, slurred speech, cold skin and fatigue.
  •  Heavy alcohol consumption is often linked to an increased risk of hypothermia and other conditions linked to extreme cold weather.

Source https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-why-is-weather-dept-asking-people-in-north-india-not-to-drink-alcohol-during-the-cold-wave-7122361/


Consider the following statements

  • The report, ‘Counting the Cost 2020: A Year of Climate Breakdown’ has been prepared by the UK based non-profit organization Christian Aid.
  • Though hurricanes in the US and central American countries turned out to be the most, expensive floods in India during June-October period caused the loss of highest number of human lives.

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  •  1 only
  •  2 only
  •  Both 1 and 2
  •  Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In News:

  •  The report, ‘Counting the Cost 2020: A Year of Climate Breakdown’ has been prepared by the UK based non-profit organisation Christian Aid. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  •  Though hurricanes in the US and central American countries turned out to be the most expensive ($41 billion), floods in India during June-October period caused the loss of highest number of human lives. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  •  In fact, India’s floods, which killed 2,067, caused loss of more human lives than casualties in all other 14 destructive climate disasters put together.
  •  Floods in Pakistan which claimed 410 lives figured at second spot followed by the US and central American countries (400 lives lost in hurricanes) at the third position in the list of 15.
  •  The cyclone ‘Amphan’, which struck the Bay of Bengal in May, had caused financial losses valued at $13 billion in just a few days in India and Bangladesh and caused loss of 128 human lives.

Source: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/2-of-15-most-destructive-2020-climate-disasters-impacted-india-says-report/articleshow/79984276.cms


The annual range of temperature in the interior of the continents is high as compared to coastal areas. What is/are the reason/reasons?

  • Thermal difference between land and water
  • Variation in altitude between continents and oceans
  • Presence of strong winds in the interior
  • Heavy rains in the interior as compared to coasts

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: a) 1 only

Explanation:

  •  Land heats up and cool down very fast as compared to the water. Areas in the interior of India are far away from the moderating influence of the sea. Such areas have extremes of climate. Statement 2 is wrong as there may or may not be much difference between the altitudes of land and ocean. Statement 3 is wrong as winds do not contribute enough to the variations in temperature. Statement 4 is wrong as coastal region receive more rainfall.

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