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Daily Prelims Test – 29 August 2020

Consider the following statements regarding Edakkal Caves

  • It is located on the Ambukuthi Hills on the Mysore Plateau
  • It has engravings from the late Neolithic period.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Greens hail steps to conserve Edakkal caves

  • Environmentalists in Wayanad have welcomed the decision of the Sate government to adopt measures to conserve the Neolithic petroglyphs on the walls of the Edakkal caves on Ambukuthi hills in the district.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Edakkal caves are famous for its pictorial paintings (cave paintings), which are considered to be of 6000 B C.
  • Edakkal is the only known place in India with Stone Age carvings.
  • These caves are located 1,200 m above the sea level on Ambukutty Mala. The name ‘Edakkal’ literally means ‘a stone in between’.
  • It has engravings from the late Neolithic period.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It is the only evidence for the existence of true Neolithic Culture in Kerala.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/greens-hail-steps-to-conserve-eakkal-caves/article32451101.ece

What is the aim of UDAN scheme?

It aims to develop smaller regional airports to allow common citizens easier access to aviation services.

It aims to bring together entire aviation industry

It is an initiative to expand airport capacity by more than fivetimes to handle a billion trips a year.

It is a web-based system for redressal of consumers‘ grievances relating to pricing and availability of medicines

Answer: (a) It aims to develop smaller regional airports to allow common citizens easier access to aviation services.

Explanation:

In NEWS:78 New Routes Approved Under UDAN 4.0

78 new routes under the 4th round of Regional Connectivity Scheme (RCS)- Ude Desh Ka Aam Nagrik (UDAN) have been approved following the three successful rounds of bidding by the Ministry of Civil Aviation.

About Regional Connectivity Scheme –Ude Desh Ka Aam Naagrik (UDAN)

  • UDAN was launched as a Regional Connectivity Scheme (RCS) under the Ministry of Civil Aviation in 2016.
  • The scheme duration is for 10 years.
  • The objective of scheme is to create affordable and economically viable and profitable flights on regional routes so that flying becomes affordable to the common man even in small towns.
  • The scheme envisages providing connectivity to un-served and underserved airports of the country through the revival of existing air-strips and airports.
  • The Airports Authority of India (AAI)is the Implementing Agency under this Scheme.
  • A Regional Connectivity Fund (RCF) will be created to fund the scheme via a levy on certain flights. States are expected to contribute 20 per cent to the fund.
  • The regional connectivity scheme will be applicable on route length between 200 to 800 km with no lower limit set for hilly, remote, island and security sensitive regions.
  • The Central government will provide concessions to the tune of 2 per cent excise on Value Added Tax (VAT) and service tax at 1/10th the rate and liberal code sharing for regional connectivity scheme airports.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1648927

Consider the following statements regarding Eklavya Model Residential School Scheme

  • It is an initiative to provide quality middle and high-level education to Scheduled Tribe (ST) students in remote areas.
  • It is being implemented by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Eklavya Model Residential School teacher selected for National Award to Teachers 2020

  • This year’s National Award to Teachers 2020 holds special significance for Eklavya Model Residential Schools (EMRS) established under Ministry of Tribal Affairs as it witnessed its first NAT Awardee, Ms. Sudha Painuli, Vice Principal, EMRS-Kalsi, Dehradun, Uttarakhand since its establishment.

About Eklavya Model Residential Schools (EMRSs):

  • Eklavya Model Residential School Scheme is an initiative to provide quality middle and high level (class 6th to 12th) education to Scheduled Tribe (ST) students in remote areas.Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • It was started in 1998 and the first school was started in the year 2000 in Maharashtra.
  • EMRSs have been functioning as institutions of excellence for tribal students.
  • EMRS are set up in States/UTs with grants under Article 275(1) of the Constitution of India.
  • The scheme is being implemented by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Government of India.Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • The schools focus not only on academic education but on the all-round development of the students.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1649146

Consider the following statements regarding Bureau of Police Research and Development

  • It was raised through a resolution of the Ministry of Home Affairs.
  • It aims to promote excellence in policing, promote speedy and systematic study of police problems apply science and technology in the method and techniques by the Police.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPR&D) celebrating its Golden Jubilee Anniversary today

  • Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi greets BPR&D says “Over the last 50 years, BPR&D has been unwavering in its commitment in the service of the nation”

About Bureau of Police Research and Development

  • The Bureau of Police Research and Development was raised on 28th August, 1970, through a resolution of Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, with a mandate to promote excellence in policing, promote speedy and systematic study of police problems, apply science and technology in the method and techniques by the Police.Hence statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is correct.
  • The Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPR&D), was set up in furtherance of the objective of the Government of India for the modernisation of police forces.
  • It has evolved as a multifaceted, consultancy organisation, and at present it has 4 divisions – Research, Development, Training and Correctional Administration.
  • In 2008, the Government of India further decided to create a National Police Mission under the administrative control of BPR&D.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1649240

Consider the following statements

  • Hurricanes form over warm ocean waters.
  • A storm becomes a hurricane if its winds reach 119 km/hr.
  • Hurricanes are name given to tropical cyclones occurring in the Atlantic Ocean

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS:Are hurricanes strengthening more rapidly?

  • Hurricane Laura blew up quickly as it headed for the Louisiana coast, intensifying from a tropical storm to a major hurricane in less than 24 hours. By the time it made it landfall, it was a powerful Category 4 hurricane with 150 mile-per-hour winds.
  • The Atlantic has seen several hurricanes rapidly intensify like this in recent years.

Three key ingredients help a hurricane rapidly intensify:

  • Warm ocean waters. Hurricanes draw energy from warm surface water, particularly when it’s at least 80 degrees Fahrenheit or warmer.
  • Ample moisture, or water content in the atmosphere, to maintain clouds.
  • Low vertical wind shear. This is a measure of how the wind changes speed and direction with height in the atmosphere. High wind shear will disrupt the clouds, making it hard for the storm to stay together.

About Hurricanes

  • Hurricanes are large, swirling storms. They produce winds of 119 kilometers per hour (74 mph) or higher. That’s faster than a cheetah, the fastest animal on land. Winds from a hurricane can damage buildings and trees.
  • Hurricanes form over warm ocean waters.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Hurricanes are name given to tropical cyclones occurring in the Atlantic Ocean.Hence statement 3 is correct

How Does a Storm Become a Hurricane?

  • A hurricane starts out as a tropical disturbance. This is an area over warm ocean waters where rain clouds are building.
  • A tropical disturbance sometimes grows into a tropical depression. This is an area of rotating thunderstorms with winds of 62 km/hr (38 mph) or less.
  • A tropical depression becomes a tropical storm if its winds reach 63 km/hr (39 mph).
  • tropical storm becomes a hurricane if its winds reach 119 km/hr (74 mph).Hence statement 2 is correct.

What Are the Parts of a Hurricane?

  • Eye: The eye is the “hole” at the center of the storm. Winds are light in this area. Skies are partly cloudy, and sometimes even clear.
  • Eye wall: The eye wall is a ring of thunderstorms. These storms swirl around the eye. The wall is where winds are strongest and rain is heaviest.
  • Rain bands: Bands of clouds and rain go far out from a hurricane’s eye wall. These bands stretch for hundreds of miles. They contain thunderstorms and sometimes tornadoes.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/blog/environment/are-hurricanes-strengthening-more-rapidly–73102

Consider the following statements regarding Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC)

  • It functions in the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change
  • Presently, it has 24 members sanctioned in the council.
  • It is not a statutory body.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (c) 1and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Experts slam move for approving new Bt brinjal variety, cite regulatory lapses

  • Experts have slammed a recent move of the Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) — a government-appointed committee responsible for appraisal of proposals of genetically engineered organisms — giving its greenlight for biosafety research-level-II (BRL-II) field trials for Event 142, a new variety of genetically modified brinjal (Bt brinjal) during its 139th meeting May 19, 2020.

About Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee

  • The Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) is a statutory body constituted under the ‘Rules for the Manufacture, Use /Import /Export and Storage of Hazardous Microorganisms/Genetically Engineering Organisms or Cells, 1989’ notified under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.Hence statement 3 is incorrect
  • The Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) functions in the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC).Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The committee is also responsible for appraisal of proposals relating to release of genetically engineered (GE) organisms and products into the enviornment including experimental field trials.
  • It is chaired by the Special Secretary/Additional Secretary of MoEF&CC and co-chaired by a representative from the Department of Biotechnology (DBT). Presently, it has 24 members and meets every month to review. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Functions:
  • To appraise activities involving large scale use of hazardous microorganisms and recombinants in research and industrial production from the environmental angle.
  • To appraise proposals relating to release of genetically engineered organisms and products into the environment including experimental field trials.
  • The committee or any persons authorized by it has powers to take punitive action under the Environment Protection Act.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/environment/experts-slam-move-for-approving-new-bt-brinjal-variety-cite-regulatory-lapses-73095

Recently, the Remote Learning Reachability report is issued by

NITI Aayog

Ministry of Education

United Nations Children’s Fund

World Bank

Answer: (c) United Nations Children’s Fund

Explanation:

In NEWS:Just 24% of Indian households have internet to access e-education: UNICEF

  • Just 24% of Indian households have internet connections to access e-education, and there is a large rural-urban and gender divide that is likely to widen the learning gap across high, middle and low-income families
  • The Remote Learning Reachability report, issued by UNICEF expressed concerns over children from economically disadvantaged families struggling with access to remote learning.Hence option (c) is correct
  • The report further said that students, especially girls, from most marginalised communities do not have easy access to smartphones, and even if they do, internet connectivity is poor, and quality education content is often not available in vernacular languages.
  • In India, over 1.5 million (15 lakh) schools have been closed due to the pandemic affecting 286 million (28.6 crore) children from pre-primary to secondary levels, (of which 49% girls) This adds to the 6 million (60 lakh) girls and boys who were already out of school prior to the COVID-19

Source: https://www.livemint.com/education/news/just-24-of-indian-households-have-internet-to-access-e-education-unicef-11598527337136.html

What is common to the articles 243k and 243Za of the Indian Constitution?

Give the power of superintendence, direction and control of preparation of electoral rolls and the conduct of local body elections to the SECs.

Extent of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States

Taxes not to be imposed save by authority of law No tax shall be levied or collected except by authority of law

None of the above

Answer: (a) Give the power of superintendence, direction and control of preparation of electoral rolls and the conduct of local body elections to the SECs.

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Why there are different voters lists, and why the government wants a Common Electoral Roll?

  • The Prime Minister’s Office held a meeting with representatives of the Election Commission and the Law Ministry to discuss the possibility of having a common electoral roll for elections to the panchayat, municipality, state assembly and the Lok Sabha. Prime Minister Narendra Modi has often pitched for a single voters list.
  • The common electoral roll is among the promises made by the BJP in its manifesto for the Lok Sabha elections last year.
  • The pitch for a single voters list is not new. The Law Commission recommended it in its 255th report in 2015. The EC too adopted a similar stance in 1999 and 2004.
  • In the meeting called by the Prime Minister’s Office two options were discussed.
  • First, a constitutional amendment to Articles 243K and 243ZA that give the power of superintendence, direction and control of preparation of electoral rolls and the conduct of local body elections to the SECs. The amendment would make it mandatory to have a single electoral roll for all elections in the country. Hence option (a) is correct
  • Second, to persuade the state governments to tweak their respective laws and adopt the Election Commission’s (EC) voters list for municipal and panchayat polls.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/india-common-electoral-role-elections-voters-lists-explained-6574403/

Rcently, the Mansar lake is seen in news, it is located in

Uttarakhand

Himachal Pradesh

Punjab

Jammu and Kashmir

Answer: (d) Jammu and Kashmir

Explanation:

In NEWS:Dr Jitendra Singh reviews Comprehensive Manser Rejuvenation & Development Plan

  • The plan aims at increasing tourist footfall and boosting the social economic development of Jammu region.
  • The Plan includes upgradation of existing facilities and development of new projects with an aim to increase the annual tourist footfall to twenty lakhs.
  • The proposed plan would also include a Birds Galary and Birds Watchers Lodge.

About Mansar Lake

  • Mansar Lake is situated 62 km from Jammu, Mansar is a lake fringed by forest-covered hills, over a mile in length by half-a-mile in width.Hence option (d) is correct
  • Surinsar-Mansar Lakes are designated as Ramsar Convention in November 2005.
  • Surinsar Lake and Mansar Lake are considered to be twin lakes.
  • Two ancient temples of Umapati Mahadev & Narsimha as also a temple of Durga are situated in the vicinity of the Mansar lake.

Source: http://newsonair.com/News?title=Dr-Jitendra-Singh-reviews-Comprehensive-Manser-Rejuvenation-%26-Development-Plan&id=398385

Why are dewdrops not formed on a cloudy night?

Clouds absorb the radiation released from the Earth’s surface.

Clouds reflect back the Earth’s radiation.

The Earth’s surface would have low temperature on cloudy nights.

Clouds deflect the blowing wind to ground level.

Answer: (b) Clouds reflect back the Earth’s radiation.

Explanation:

Dew is not formed:

  • on cloudy nights becausecloudy nights are warmerthan clear nights
  • in shady places because aircannot move there freely
  • on windy nights because windcarries away the moist air
  • The atmosphere, heated by the absorption of Earth radiation, inturn radiates heat back to the Earth’s surface increasing the Earth’s surface temperatureHence option (b) is correct