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Daily Prelims Test – 28_October 2020

.Consider the following statements regarding Echinops Sahyadricus

  1. It has been discovered from the Rajgad Fort in the Sahyadri Mountains.
  2. It is endemic to Western Maharashtra and found only on a few open hilltops in the northern Western Ghats.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: New species of Echinops found in Sahyadri mountains

  • A student from Mumbai is reported to have discovered a new species of Echinops Sahyadricus in collaboration with researchers of Fabio Conti of the University of Camerino, Italy and Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS).
  • Echinops is a genus of about 130 species of flowering plants found in tropical and North Africa, the Mediterranean basin and West Asia, extending eastwards to China and Japan.
  • The highest number of taxa (76) is concentrated in the Iranian plateau and five species are found in India including two in Maharashtra.

About Echinops Sahyadricus

  • Its common name is Sahyadri Globe Thistle.
  • It has been discovered from the Rajgad Fort in the Sahyadri MountainsHence statement 1 is correct
  • The new species is unique because of the size of its composite inflorescence which measures up to 9 cm in diameter that is relatively large compared to other Echinops species found around the world.
  • The species is endemic to Western Maharashtra and found only on a few open hilltops in the northern Western Ghats. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The new species is close to other Indian species called Echinops echinatus or Indian Globe thistle and one European species called Echinops sphaerocephalus

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/new-species-of-echinops-found-in-sahyadri-mountains/article32944224.ece


Consider the following statements regarding Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS):

  1. It is an autonomous body in 1999 under the Ministry of Science & Technology
  2. It is mandated to provide the best possible ocean information and advisory services to society, industry, government agencies

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Internal tide mixing keeps deep Andaman Sea warmer than Bay of Bengal: Study

  • Deep waters in the Andaman Sea are about 2 degrees Celsius warmer than in the Bay of Bengal
  • The role of oceanic processes in keeping the deep Andaman Sea warm has been a mystery for long. A new study conducted by Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) to investigate internal waves, however, has given an answer: Deep waters (below 1,200 metres) in the Andaman Sea are about 2 degrees Celsius warmer than the Bay of Bengal due to internal tide mixing.
  • The study is important to interpret the response of the ocean to climate change by understanding the distribution of temperature, both near the ocean surface and the deep ocean.
  • Internal tide energy dissipation and associated vertical mixing play a major role in maintaining the warmer temperature in the deep Andaman Sea, according to the study. The rate of vertical mixing in the AS is about twice than what is observed in the Bay of Bengal. This elevated internal tide induced vertical mixing results in the efficient transfer of heat into the deeper layers, which keeps the deep Andaman Sea warm.
  • INCOIS study suggested that in future, the amplitude of internal tides could be larger and Andaman Sea could have a more rapid response to the change in vertical mixing in the global warming scenario compared to other regions. Therefore, modeling and long-term measurements of physical, chemical and biological properties would be crucial in deciphering the long-term change in this region.

About Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services

  • ESSO-INCOIS was established as an autonomous body in 1999 under the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) and is a unit of the Earth System Science Organization (ESSO). Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • ESSO- INCOIS is mandated to provide the best possible ocean information and advisory services to society, industry, government agencies and the scientific community through sustained ocean observations and constant improvements through systematic and focused research. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It is located in Hyderabad.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/internal-tide-mixing-keeps-deep-andaman-sea-warmer-than-bay-of-bengal-study-73957


Consider the following statements regarding Model code of conduct:

  1. It was first introduced in the state assembly elections in Karnataka in 1960.
  2. It is a set of guidelines issued by the EC to regulate political parties and candidates prior to elections.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Madhya Pradesh by polls- EC sends M.P. Minister Imarti Devi notice

About Model Code of Conduct

  • The MCC is a set of guidelines issued by the EC to regulate political parties and candidates prior to elections. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It helps EC in keeping with the mandate it has been given under Article 324 of the Constitution, which gives it the power to supervise and conduct free and fair elections to the Parliament and State Legislatures.
  • The MCC is operational from the date on which the election schedule is announced until the date of result announcement.
  • The origins of the MCC lie in the Assembly elections of Kerala in 1960, when the State administration prepared a ‘Code of Conduct’ for political actors. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • Subsequently, in the Lok Sabha elections in 1962, the ECI circulated the code to all recognized political parties and State governments and it was wholeheartedly followed.
  • It was in 1991 after repeated flouting of the election norms and continued corruption, the EC decided to enforce the MCC more strictly.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/madhya-pradesh-bypolls-ec-sends-mp-minister-imarti-devi-notice/article32955830.ece


‘K.S. Radhakrishnan Committee’ is concerned with which of the following?

  1. Corporate Governance
  2. Road Safety
  3. Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code
  4. Nuclear Wastage

Answer: (b) Road Safety

Explanation:

In NEWS: India had most deaths in road accidents in 2019: Report

  • India continued to have the most road fatalities in the world, followed by China, a distant second at 63,093 deaths in 2,12,846 road accidents in 2019, the report revealed. The United States of America (USA) reported the most road accidents at 2,211,439, and witnessed 37,461 deaths in 2019.
  • According to the report, speeding was the leading cause of deaths, while, in terms of vehicles, two-wheelers were involved in most road fatalities.
  • Across states, most road accidents were reported in Tamil Nadu (57,228), followed by Madhya Pradesh (50,669), Uttar Pradesh (42,572), Kerala (41,111) and Karnataka (40,658) accidents.
  • Maharashtra ranked sixth with 32,295 accidents, but saw the second-highest number of fatalities (12,788), after 22,655 in Uttar Pradesh.
  • Former chairman of the Supreme Court (SC) committee on road safety, retired justice KS Radhakrishnan, said speeding is the major cause of accidents, especially on straight roads and highways, where control on speed is minimal. On curved roads, speeding is less, due to which accidents are less. “Condition of roads, traffic violations, drink and drive, among others, are also major contributors to high number of fatalities and accidents. Hence option (b) is correct

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/mumbai-news/india-had-most-deaths-in-road-accidents-in-2019-report/story-pikRXxsS4hptNVvf6J2g9O.html


Feni bridge is associated with

  1. India and China
  2. India and Myanmar
  3. India and Bangladesh
  4. India and Nepal

Answer: (c) India and Bangladesh

Explanation:

In NEWS: Feni bridge connecting India and Bangladesh to be completed by December: Road Transport Minister Nitin Gadkari

  • The 1.8 kilometre long Feni bridge connecting Sabrum in India with Ramgarh in Bangladesh will be completed by December this year.
  • According to a press release issued by the Ministry, Road Transport Minister Nitin Gadkari said that the Feni bridge being built at the cost of Rs. 129 crore will ease the transportation of goods from Chattogram and Kolkata ports. An integrated check post is also proposed to be built near Sabrum.
  • He said that the construction of the RCC bridge over Feni will improve connectivity to the international border with Bangladesh.
  • The bridge is being built over the Feni River and will connect Tripura with Chittagong port of Bangladesh. Hence option (c) is correct
  • The foundation of the bridge was laid in 2015 jointly by Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina.

Source: http://newsonair.com/News?title=Feni-bridge-connecting-India-and-Bangladesh-to-be-completed-by-December%3a-Road-Transport-Minister-Nitin-Gadkari&id=403152


Consider the following statements regarding India-Australia Circular Economy Hackathon (I-ACE)

  1. I-ACE will focus on identification and development of innovative technology solutions by students, startups and MSMEs of both nations.
  2. It is organized by Atal Innovation Mission in association with Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

  • Atal Innovation Mission(an initiative set up by NITI Aayog), in association with Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research organization (CSIRO), will organize a two-day hackathon on circular economy, ‘India-Australia Circular Economy Hackathon (I-ACE)’, in December 2020. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • The idea of I-ACE was conceived during a virtual summit on 4th June, 2020, between the Indian and Australian prime ministers, exploring innovative ways to boost the circular economy in India and Australia.
  • Focus: I-ACE will focus on identification and development of innovative technology solutions by students, startups and MSMEs of both nationsHence statement 2 is correct.
  • Selection of Winners: Shortlisted students and startups/MSMEs will be called for the hackathon, where two winners (one student and one startup/MSME) per theme from each country will be announced at an award ceremony.
  • Cash Prize: Winning teams from both the countries will get cash prizes. The winning Indian student and startup/MSME will be awarded a prize of Rs. 2 lakh and Rs 5 lakh, respectively, coupled with post-hackathon product development opportunities.

Source: PIB


Consider the following statements regarding Nrityanjali

  1. It is an online festival of documentary films on the life and work of some of the leading Indian classical dance exponents.
  2. The Films Division of the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting is organizing the concluding part of Nrityanjali.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Films Division presents concluding part of NRITYANJALI – an ode to Indian Classical Dance

  • Nrityanjali is an online festival of documentary films on the life and work of some of the leading Indian classical dance exponents. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • The festival will be streamed on Films Division website and its YouTube channel. All films will be streamed live, simultaneously, for three days.
  • The Films Division of the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting is organizing the concluding part of ‘Nrityanjali’, an online film festival on Indian classical dance and its maestros from October 28 to 30. Hence statement 2 is correct.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1667928


Consider the following statements

  1. National Highway 310 traverses through the state of Sikkim
  2. National Highway 44 traverses through the state of Assam and Tripura.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are incorrect?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Union Minister for Road Transport, Highways will lay the foundation stones of nine National Highway projects in Tripura on October 27, 2020.

The Projects include:

  • Jolaibari – Belonia of NH-108A
  • Kailashahar – Kumarghat of NH-208.
  • Khayerpur to Amtali (Agartala bypass) of NH-08
  • Agartala – Khowai of NH-108B
  • Assam and Tripura (Kailashahar to Kurti bridge) NH-208A Hence statement 2 is incorrect.
  • National Highway 44(NH 44) is the longest-running major north–south National Highway in India. It passes through the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir, in addition to the states of PunjabHaryanaDelhiUttar PradeshRajasthanMadhya PradeshMaharashtraTelanganaAndhra PradeshKarnataka, and Tamil Nadu
  • Geometric improvement on Churaibari-Agartala section of NH-44
  • Defence Minister Rajnath Singh was in Sikkim to dedicate the 19.85 kilometre alternate alignment of the national highway 310. Hence statement 1 is correct.

Source: https://www.livemint.com/news/india/rajnath-dedicates-bro-road-in-east-sikkim-to-the-nation-11603624856886.html


What is/are the importance of bringing natural gas under the ambit of GST?

  1. It would lead to a reduction in the cascading impact of taxes on industries such as power and steel, which used natural gas as an input.
  2. it would do away with the central excise duty and different value added taxes imposed by states

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Why energy MNCs want natural gas to come under GST

  • Currently petrol, diesel, aviation turbine fuel, natural gas and crude oil fall outside India’s Goods and Services Tax (GST) regime.
  • Government officials have also indicated that the government is considering bringing natural gas under the ambit of the GST regime.

Why is it important to bring natural gas under the GST regime?

  • It would lead to a reduction in the cascading impact of taxes on industries such as power and steel, which used natural gas as an input. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • It would do away with the central excise duty and different value added taxes imposed by states. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • This would lead to an increase in the adoption of natural gas in line with the government’s stated goal to increase the share of natural gas in the country’s energy basket from 6.3% to 15%.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/natural-gas-gst-tax-energy-companies-lpg-lng-6900697/


With reference to the Parliament of India, which of the following Parliamentary Committees scrutinizes and reports to the House whether the powers to make regulations, rules, sub -rules, by -laws, etc. conferred by the Constitution or delegated by the Parliament are being properly exercised by the Executive within the scope of such delegation?

  1. Committee on Government Assurances
  2. Committee on Subordinate Legislation
  3. Rules Committee
  4. Business Advisory Committee

Answer: (b) Committee on Subordinate Legislation

Explanation:

  • The Committee on Subordinate Legislation examines and reports to the House whether the powers to make rules, regulations, bye – laws, schemes or other statutory instruments conferred by the Constitution or delegated by Parliament are being properly exercised. In both the Houses, the committee consists of 15 members. It was constituted in 1953.Hence option (b) is correct