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Daily Prelims Test – 28_March 2021

Climate Data Service Portal is launched by which of the following organisations?

India Meteorological Department

Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services

Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology

Indian Space Research Organisation

Answer: (a) India Meteorological Department

Explanation:

In NEWS: World Meteorological Day celebrations and Inauguration of Climate

  • The India Meteorological Department celebrated World Meteorological Day: Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav on 23rd March, 2021. Dr. M. Rajeevan, Secretary, Ministry of Earth Science and Chief Guest of this function inaugurated Climate Data Services Portal of IMD on this occasion

About Climate Data Service Portal:

  • Climate Data Services Portal has been developed by IMD, Pune with user-friendly platforms for climate data management and supply to the users. Hence option (a) is the correct answer
  • It complements fully automated climate data management processes from real-time data acquisition to expeditious data dissemination. 
  • The Portal serves as an integrated platform to render weather and climate services of India Meteorological Department, Ministry of Earth Sciences.
  • This central hub functions as a repository to acquire and disseminate the climate data of the Indian sub-continent region.
  • This is enabled by automatic ingestion and first level quality control management in addition to monitoring, messaging / mailing response and acceptance.

The major components of the portal are listed below:

  • Real-Time monitoring of weather observations recorded by IMD Observatories.
  • Encapsulated IMD Metadata Portal, other reports and dashboards
  • Online access to meteorological data through Data Supply Portal.
  • Free download facility for Gridded Temperature and Rainfall Data of India.
  • Climatological Tables, Extremes and Normal.
  • Information on Monsoon Rainfall and Cyclone frequencies.
  • Data analytics and info graphics.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1707201


Consider the following Statements regarding Salt production in India

Currently, India is the third largest Salt producing Country in the World

The main sources of Salt in India are Sea brine, Lake brine, Subsoil brine and Rock salt deposits

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Salt Commissioner Organisation to organize a General Health- cum-Eye and Health Awareness camp on Dandi March route as part of Amrut Mahotsav’

  • Salt has played a vital role in changing the course of the history of our Nation. The workers in the salt pan continue to put in hard work for salt production and contributing to the development of India.
  • In the pre-independence era, Indians were forced to buy imported salt at a very high cost and were barred from producing or selling salt locally.
  • Salt, as a vehicle of nutrient supplementation (Iodine and Iron),has proven to be effective as we have enabled almost the entire Population to have access to the Iodised Salt which has been effective in combating Iodine Deficiency Disorders.

Current status of salt production in India

  • Currently, India is the third largest Salt producing Country in the World after  China and USA  with Global annual production being about 230 million tones. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Salt production has reached 30 million Tonnes(from less than 2 million Tonnes in the pre-independence era), meeting all human and industrial requirements and then exporting surplus to the tune of 5 million Tonnes to foreign countries worldwide. 
  • Salt, as a vehicle of nutrient supplementation (Iodine and Iron),has proven to be effective as we have enabled almost the entire Population to have access to the Iodised Salt which has been effective in combating Iodine Deficiency Disorders.

The main sources of Salt in India are:

  1. Sea brine
    1. Lake brine
    1. Subsoil brine 
  2. Rock salt deposits. Hence statement 2 is correct

About Salt Commissioner’s Organisation

  • It has been entrusted with the task of Manufacture, Supply and Distribution of Salt by Union Agencies and by other Agencies.
  • The Organization is an attached office of the Ministry of Commerce & Industry . The Salt Organization  has been entrusted with the task of Manufacture, Supply and Distribution of Salt by Union Agencies and by other Agencies.  
  • The Salt Organization is headed by the Salt Commissioner with its Headquarters at Jaipur (Rajasthan). 

Source:https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1707618#:~:text=As%20partof’AMRUT%20MAHOTASAV’a,route%20atMagnad%2C%20Amod%20District%20Bharuch%2C


Consider the following Statements regarding Building and Other Construction Workers Act, 1996

  1. It exempts for the construction of residential houses for own purpose constructed with a cost not exceeding Rs. 10 Lakh.
  2. It has provision for constitution of safety committees in every establishment employing 500 or more workers with equal representation from workers and employers 

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Centre tells worker welfare boards not to distribute items, stick to DBT

  • The Centre has ordered State welfare boards for building and other construction workers (BOCW) not to distribute household and other articles to workers and instead stick to transferring monetary assistance into their bank accounts.
  • The BOCW boards are meant to carry out welfare activities for workers from the cess on construction collected by States.
  • The procurement process adds layers to the entire process, with apprehension of leakages both at the procurement stage and at the distribution end, hence this decision was prompted.
  • The distribution of cash and articles in kind were banned. However, benefits in kind could be provided in extraordinary situations like natural disasters, epidemics and accidents, with the approval of the State government.
  • The cess is collected at a rate of 1% of construction costs of public and private building projects by States and given to the boards.

About BOCW Act

  1. The BOCW Act aims to provide for regulation of employment and conditions of service of the building and other construction workers as also their safety, health and welfare measures in every establishment which employs or employed ten or more workers.
    1. The BOCW Act exempts for the construction of residential houses for own purpose constructed with a cost not exceeding Rs. 10 Lakh. Hence statement 1 is correct
  2. The Act has provision for constitution of safety committees in every establishment employing 500 or more workers with equal representation from workers and employers in addition to appointment of safety officers qualified in the field. Hence statement 2 is correct
  3. It also specifies the Penalties of fine and imprisonment for violation and contravention of the BOCW Act.
  4. The Building and Other Construction Workers Welfare Cess Act, 1996 is to provide for the levy and collection of a cess on the cost of construction incurred by employers with a view to augment the resources of the Building and Other Construction Workers’ Welfare Boards constituted under the Building and Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1996.
  5. Under the Act 1% cess shall be collected from every employer where the cost of construction is more than Rs. 10 lakhs.
  6. The proceeds of the cess so collected shall be paid by the local authority or the State Government collecting the cess to the Board after deducting the cost of collection of such cess not exceeding 1% of the amount collected.
  7. The enforcement of the Act primarily lies with the State Governments/Union Territories.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/centre-tells-worker-welfare-boards-not-to-distribute-items-stick-to-dbt/article34161770.ece


Consider the following Statements regarding Chilika Lake

  1. Nalbana Island is the core area of Chilika Lake.
  2. It was designated the first Indian wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention in 1981.
  3. It is located on the left bank of the Malaguni River and is a part of the Western Ghats.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Once upon a time, the Chilika was a part of the Bay of Bengal: Study

  • The Chilika lake in Odisha, Asia’s largest brackish water lake, was once part of the Bay of Bengal, a study by the marine archaeology department of the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, has found.
  • The process of the formation of the Chilika might have begun in the later part of the Pleistocene epoch, around 20,000 years ago.
  • India’s peninsular river Mahanadi carried a heavy load of silt and dumped part of it at its delta. As the sediment-laden river met the Bay of Bengal, sand bars were formed near its mouth.
  • These created a backflow of the sea water into the sluggish fresh water at the estuary, resulting in the huge brackish water lake.
  • Marine archaeological studies on the Odisha coast clearly show that the Chilika once acted as a safe harbour for cargo ships bound for southeast Asia and other parts of the world.
  • The lake has been a useful centre for maritime activities since the third millennium before the Common Era (CE).
  • Greek geographer Claudius Ptolemy (150 CE) described Palur as an important port of Kalinga and referred to it as ‘Paloura’.
  • This port was situated close to the ‘point of departure’ located outside the southern tip of the lake at Kantiagarh, from where ships used to sail directly for Southeast Asia.
  • Stone anchors and hero stones (memorial stones commemorating ancient heroes) from Manikapatna, Palur and the adjoining onshore regions of the Chilika suggest that the present brackish water lagoon was in fact a part of the Bay of Bengal.
  • The famous Sanskrit poet Kalidas called the king of Kalinga ‘Madhodhi Pati’ or ‘Lord of the Ocean’.

About Chilika Lake

  • It is the largest coastal lagoon in India and the largest brackish water lagoon in the world after The New Caledonian barrier reef.
  • It is spread over the Puri, Khurda and Ganjam districts of Odisha.
  • The site is located on the left bank of the Malaguni River, a tributary of the Daya River and forms the part of the Eastern Ghats. Hence statement 3 is incorrect
  • It consists of six major islands: Parikud, Phulbari, Berahpura, Nuapara, Nalbana, and Tampara.
  • Rejhansa (long barrier beach) forms its Eastern side.
  • It is an ephemeral lake with shallow bar-built estuary and large areas of mudflats.
  • It was designated the first Indian wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention in 1981. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Nalbana Island is the core area of Chilika Lake. Hence statement 1 is correct

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/water/once-upon-a-time-the-chilika-was-a-part-of-the-bay-of-bengal-study-76168


Consider the following Statements regarding GISAT-1

  1. It is the first state-of- the-art agile earth observation satellite which will be placed in a Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit by GSLV-F10
  2. It will facilitate near real-time observation of Indian sub-continent at frequent intervals under cloud-free condition and will produce selected field image in every 5 minutes

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: ISRO revises launch schedule of GISAT-1 after ‘minor issue’ with satellite

  • The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has revised the launch schedule of geo imaging satellite GISAT-1 on board GSLV-F10 rocket following a “minor issue” with the spacecraft.
  • GISAT-1 was originally planned to be launched from Sriharikota spaceport, about 100 km north of Chennai, on March 5 last year but was postponed a day before the blast-off due to technical reasons.

About GISAT-1

  • GISAT-1 is the first state-of- the-art agile earth observation satellite. It will be placed in a Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit by GSLV-F10. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Weighing about 2268 kg, the satellite will facilitate near real-time observation of Indian sub-continent at frequent intervals, under cloud-free conditions. 
  • It will produce a selected field image in every 5 minutesHence statement 2 is correct
  • It will provide an image of the entire Indian landmass every 30 minutes at 42 m spatial resolution.
  • GSAT is an Indian imaging satellite class for geostationary orbit. It comprises a high temporal resolution which helps in providing near real time imaging along with fast revisit capability besides real time monitoring.
  • Two identical satellites will be providing resolution in the range of 42 to 318 m. It will also carry multi-spectral multi-resolution imaging instruments. 

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/isro-revises-launch-schedule-of-gisat-1-after-minor-issue-with-satellite/article34171421.ece


With respect to fast breeder reactor, Consider the following Statements

  1. It is the first stage of India’s three stage nuclear programme.
  2. It uses fast neutrons to generate more nuclear fuels than they consume while generating power.
  3. It doesn‘t use moderator while liquid sodium is used as coolant.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (b) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Revenue shortfall will affect import of nuclear fuel: DAE to parl panel

  • The revenue shortfall for the Department of Atomic Energy in 2020-21 will affect the import of nuclear fuel for its power reactors and other important projects, its secretary has told a parliamentary panel.
  • India imports nuclear fuel from Kazakhstan and Canada.
  • It will also affect the contribution to the ITER project, an international nuclear fusion research and engineering megaproject, the panel was told.
  • The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL), another PSU of the DAE, is presently operating 22 commercial nuclear power reactors with an installed capacity of 6780 MW.
  • The reactor fleet comprises two Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and 18 Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) including one 100-MW PHWR at Rajasthan which is owned by the DAE and two 1000-MW VVER reactor KKNPS-1&2, both built with Russian technology. contribution

About the Nuclear Programme.

  • India has consciously proceeded to explore the possibility of tapping nuclear energy for the purpose of power generation. As a result, India has planned a three stage nuclear programme.

Stage 1: Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR)

  • Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor using Natural UO2 as fuel matrix to produce electricity while
  • generating plutonium-239 as a by-product.
  • Heavy water as moderator and coolant
  • India achieved complete self- reliance in this technology and this stage of the programme is in the industrial domain
  • STAGE 2 (FBR): Fast Breeder Reactor is India‘s second stage of nuclear power generationHence statement 1 is incorrect
  • FBR is a nuclear reactor that uses fast neutrons to generate more nuclear fuels than they consume while generating power. Hence statement 2 is correct
    • In the second stage, it envisages the use of Pu-239 obtained from the first stage reactor operation
    • As the fuel core in FBR, a blanket of U-238 surrounding the fuel core will undergo nuclear transmutation to produce fresh Pu239 as more and more Pu-239 is consumed during the operation.
    • Besides a blanket of Th-232 around the FBR core also undergoes neutron capture reactions leading to the formation of U-233.
    • U-233 is the nuclear reactor fuel for the third stage of India‘s Nuclear Power Programme.
  • FBR is known as a fast breeder because it doesn‘t use moderator while liquid sodium is used as coolant. Hence statement 3 is correct
  • India‘s first Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor is a 500 MWe fast breeder nuclear reactor presently being constructed at the Madras Atomic Power Station in Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu).
  • STAGE 3: (Breeder Reactor). A Stage III reactor or an Advanced nuclear power system involves a self-sustaining series of thorium-232-uranium-233 fuelled reactors.

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/economy-policy/revenue-shortfall-will-affect-import-of-nuclear-fuel-dae-to-parl-panel-121030901482_1.html


The term Hypnea indica and Hypnea bullata is seen in news, it is related to which of the following options?

  1. New species of Seaweed
  2. Extinct Butterfly species found in Western Ghats
  3. Largest Freshwater fish Species
  4. All the above options are incorrect 

Answer: (a) New species of Seaweed

Explanation:

In NEWS: New species of red algae seen in west, south East Indian coast

  • As the two species have been found on the west and south east coasts of India, it suggests good prospects for their cultivation which can be put to good use economically.
  • Two new species of seaweed have been discovered by a group of marine biologists from Central University of Punjab, Bathinda.
  • Named Hypnea indica (after India) and Hypnea bullata (because of the blister like marks on its body – bullate), the seaweeds are part of the genus Hypnea or red seaweeds. Hence option (a) is the correct answer
  • While Hypnea indica was discovered Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu, and Somnath Pathan and Sivrajpur in Gujarat, Hypnea bullata was discovered from Kanyakumari and Diu island of Daman and Diu.
  • They grow in the intertidal regions of the coast, namely the area that is submerged during the high tide and exposed during low tides.
  • The genus Hypnea consists of calcareous, erect, branched red seaweeds. There are 61 species of which 10 were reported in India. With our two new species, the total number of species now would be 63.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/new-species-of-red-algae-seen-in-west-south-east-indian-coast/article34178566.ece


Consider the following Statements regarding Teesta River

  1. It originates in the Himalayas near Chunthang, Sikkim
  2. It flows through the Indian states of Sikkim, Assam and West Bengal 

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Millions depend on Teesta, Hasina tells Modi

  • Bangladesh reiterated that the livelihood of “millions” of its citizens depended on Teesta river and the country should receive a proper share of its waters.
  • Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina reiterated Bangladesh’s long-pending request for concluding the interim agreement on the sharing of the waters of Teesta river.
  • Ministries of Water Resources to firm up the Framework of Interim Agreement over the six common rivers — Monu, Muhuri, Khowai, Gumti, Dharla and Dudhkumar.

About Teesta River

  • Teesta River is a 315 km long river that rises in the eastern Himalayas, flows through the Indian states of Sikkim and West Bengal through Bangladesh and enters the Bay of Bengal. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • It is a tributary of the Brahmaputra (known as Jamuna in Bangladesh), flowing through India and Bangladesh.
  • It originates in the Himalayas near Chunthang, Sikkim and flows to the south through West Bengal before entering Bangladesh. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Originally, it continued southward to empty directly into the Padma River but around 1787 the river changed its course to flow eastward to join the Jamuna river.
  • The Teesta Barrage dam helps to provide irrigation for the plains between the upper Padma and the Jamuna.
  • The point of contention between India and Bangladesh is mainly the lean season flow in the Teesta draining into Bangladesh.
  • The river covers nearly the entire floodplains of Sikkim while draining 2,800 sq km of Bangladesh, governing the lives of hundreds of thousands of people.
  • For West Bengal, Teesta is equally important, considered the lifeline of half-a-dozen districts in North Bengal.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/millions-depend-on-teesta-waters-hasina-tells-modi/article34179390.ece


Bhagoria festival is celebrated by the tribal people of :

  1. Kerala
  2. Punjab
  3. Rajasthan
  4. Madhya Pradesh

Answer: (d) Madhya Pradesh

Explanation:

In NEWS: Tribals in Alirajpur district of Madhya Pradesh beating ‘maandal’ during the Bhagoriya Fair. The festival starts a week before Holi

  • Bhagoria Fest is a festival celebrated by the tribal people of the Indian state Madhya Pradesh (originally known as ‘Malwa’). Also known as Bhagoria Haat Festival, during this festival, young boys and girls are allowed to elope after choosing their partners. Hence option (d) is the correct answer
  • The Bhagoria Haat Festival belongs to the local tribes called Bhils and Bhilalas. 
  • Bhagoria Haat Festival is organized in Khargone district and Jhabua. The haat is organized in the form of a ‘swayamvar’ or a marriage market where young girls and boys are allowed to choose their partners.
  • Bhagoria Haat Festival has an agricultural significance attached to it, that is, it coincides with the end of harvesting. So some people also celebrate it to mark the completion of harvesting. But the star attraction of Bhagoria Haat Festival of Madhya Pradesh is the running away of young boys and girls with their partner who are later accepted as husband and wife by the society
  • Bhagoria Haat Festival in Madhya Pradesh is celebrated in the month of March before the Holi festival.

Source: TH


Which of the following statements are correct regarding the general difference between plant and animal cells?

  1. Plant cells have cellulose cell walls whilst animal cells do not. 
  2. Plant cells do not have plasma membranes unlike animal cells which do. 
  3. Mature plant cell has one large vacuole whilst an animal cell has many small vacuoles. 

Select the correct answer using the code given below: 

  1. 1 and 2 only 
  2. 2 and 3 only 
  3. 1 and 3 only 
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (c) 1 and 3 only 

Explanation:

  • The most important difference between a plant cell and an animal cell is that the former has a cell wall. A cell wall gives mechanical support to a plant cell. Animal cells do not have cell walls. Plants have both a cell wall that is made up of cell membrane (plasma membrane) and cellulose. The cell wall is, a rigid membrane matrix found on the surface of all plant cells whose primary role is to protect the cell and its content. Hence statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is not correct.
  • Plant cells have a large central vacuole that can occupy up to 90% of the cell’s volume. Animal cells may have many small vacuoles, a lot smaller than the plant cell. Hence statement 3 is correct.

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