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Daily Prelims Test – 27_September 2020

Consider the following statements regarding National Medical Commission

1.It aims to improve access to quality and affordable medical education, and ensure availability of adequate and high quality professionals across the country.

2.National Medical Commission Act, 2019 provided for setting up of National Medical Commission (NMC)in place of the Medical Council of India.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: It’s National Medical Commission now

  • The National Medical Commission (NMC), in place of the Medical Council of India (MCI), as the country’s apex regulator of medical education and profession has come into existence from Friday.
  • National Medical Commission Act, 2019 provided for setting up of National Medical Commission (NMC)in place of the scam-tainted Medical Council of India. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Indian Medical Council Act, 1956 is repealed with effect from September 25.

About National Medical Commission (NMC):

  • The National Medical Commission (NMC), is the country’s apex regulator of medical education and profession.
  • NMC aims to improve access to quality and affordable medical education, and ensure availability of adequate and high quality professionals across the countryHence statement 1 is correct
  • The NMC comprises a chairman, 10 ex-officio members and 22 part-time members.

Functions of the National Medical Commission:

  • Framing policies for regulating medical institutions and medical professionals.
  • Assessing the requirements of healthcare related human resources and infrastructure.
  • Framing guidelines for determination of fees for up to 50% of the seats in private medical institutions and deemed universities which are regulated under the Bill.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/its-national-medical-commission-now/article32696627.ece


Consider the following statements regarding Scrub typhus

1.It was first described from India.

2.It is an acute illness caused by a bacterium Orientia Tsutsugamushi.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: 5 killed in Nagaland scrub typhus outbreak

More than 600 have tested positive for the disease spread through bites of larval mites in Noklak district bordering Myanmar.

About Scrub typhus 

  • Scrub typhus is an infectious disease with symptoms similar to any viral fever.
  • Scrub typhus is an acute illness caused by a bacterium Orientia Tsutsugamushi. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Tsutsugamushi is transmitted by bite of mite larvae (chiggers), which are found in areas of heavy scrub vegetation.
  • It affects people of all ages including children. Humans are accidental hosts in this zoonotic disease.
  • It was first described from JapanHence statement 1 is incorrect
  • Symptoms are fever, changes in Tissue and rashes on skin.
  • Doxycycline, an antibiotic, is the most common drug used for its treatment.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/5-killed-in-nagaland-scrub-typhus-outbreak/article32647398.ece#:~:text=An%20outbreak%20of%20scrub%20typhus,district%20bordering%20Myanmar%2C%20officials%20said.&text=Scrub%20typhus%2C%20also%20known%20as,include%20fever%2C%20headache%20and%20bodyache.


Consider the following statements regarding Permanent Court of Arbitration

1.It is an intergovernmental organization dedicated to serve the international community in the field of dispute resolution and to facilitate arbitration and other forms of dispute resolution between States

2.It is a United Nations agency

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Vodafone Group Plc-govt case: Govt may have to shell out Rs 85 cr if it decides not to appeal

  • The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) at The Hague (Netherlands) ruled that India’s retrospective imposition of a tax liability, as well as interest and penalties on Vodafone Group for a 2007 deal was violation of the Bilateral Investment Treaty with Netherlands and the arbitration rules of United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL).
  • In May 2007, the British telecommunication company Vodafone Group had bought a 67% stake in a company called Hutchison Whampoa.
  • For this, the Indian government for the first time raised a demand of capital gains and withholding tax from Vodafone, under the Income Tax Act of 1961. The government argued that Vodafone should have deducted the tax at source before making a payment to Hutchison.

About Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)

  • It is an intergovernmental organizationdedicated to serve the international community in the field of dispute resolution and to facilitate arbitration and other forms of dispute resolution between States. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Established in: 1899. HQ: Hague, Netherlands.
  • The organization is not a United Nations agency, but is an official United Nations Observer. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • The PCA provides services for the resolution of disputes involving various combinations of states, state entities, intergovernmental organizations, and private parties.
  • The cases conducted by the PCA span a wide range of legal issues, including disputes over territorial and maritime boundaries, sovereignty, human rights, international investment (investor-state arbitrations), and matters concerning international and regional trade.
  • It is constituted through two separate multilateral conventions (1899&1907) with a combined membership of 122 states.
  • India is a party of the PCA according to the Hague Convention on 1899.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/business/companies/vodafone-group-plc-govt-case-govt-may-have-to-shell-out-rs-85-cr-if-it-decides-not-to-appeal-6614428/


Which of the following insurance company in india have been identified as Domestic Systemically Important Insurers (D-SIIs) for 2020-21 by the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India?

Select the correct options from the given below codes

  • 1 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 3 only
  • 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Irdai lists LIC, GIC Re, New India as ‘too big to fail’, need enhanced supervision

  • The Life Insurance Corporation of India(LIC), General Insurance Corporation of India and The New India Assurance Co have been identified as Domestic Systemically Important Insurers (D-SIIs) for 2020-21 by insurance regulator, the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI). Hence option (d) is correct
  • The IRDAI would identify D-SIIs on an annual basisand disclose the names of such insurers for public information
  • D-SIIs are perceived as insurers that are ‘too big or too important to fail’ (TBTF).
  • D-SIIs refer to insurers of such size, market importance and domestic and global interconnectedness whose distress or failure would cause a significant dislocation in the domestic financial system.
  • Thus, the continued functioning of D-SIIs is critical for the uninterrupted availability of insurance services to the national economy.
  • The insurance sector had grown exponentially in the last 15 years and a few of the insurers have a sizeable market share and interconnected with other financial institutions as well.
  • With perception of TBTF and the perceived expectation of government support may amplify risk taking, reduce market discipline, create competitive distortions, and increase the possibility of distress in future.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/business/companies/irdai-lists-lic-gic-re-new-india-as-too-big-to-fail-need-enhanced-supervision-6613938/


Consider the following statements regarding Pinaka missile system

1.It is an Artillery Missile System capable of striking into enemy territory up to a range of 75 kilometres with high precision.

2.The Navigation system of the missile is aided by the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: DRDO completes key process relating to Pinaka missiles

  • The Defense Research Development Organization (DRDO) has  began the mass production of Pinaka rockets on September 26, 2020
  • The Authority Holding Sealed Particulars (AHSP), which is responsible for collecting and analyzing defense items, has handed over the Pinaka weapon system production project to Directorate-General of Quality Assurance.
  • Pinaka is a free flight artillery rocket system having a range of 37.5 km.

About The Pinaka

  • The Pinaka is an Artillery Missile System capable of striking into enemy territory up to a range of 75 kilometreswith high precision. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Navigation system of the missile is also aided by the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS). Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The mission achieved all the objectives including enhancing the range, accuracy and sub-system functionality.
  • The missile system has been jointly developed by various DRDO Laboratories viz. Armament Research & Development Establishment (ARDE), Defence Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL) etc
  • The Pinaka MK-II Rocket is modified as a missile by integrating with the Navigation, Control and Guidance System to improve the end accuracy and enhance the range.

Source: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/defence/drdo-completes-key-process-relating-to-pinaka-rockets-launchers-and-related-equipment/articleshow/78323423.cms


Consider the following statements regarding Positive Pay Mechanism

1.It is a fraud detection tool adopted by banks to protect customers against forged, altered or counterfeit cheques.

2.It is being developed by the National Payments Corporation of India

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Positive Pay system for high value cheques from January 1, 2021: RBI

  • The Reserve Bank of India said the proposed Positive Pay System for Cheque Truncation System will be introduced from January 1 next year and will be developed by the National Payments Corporation of India. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • NPCI shall develop the facility of Positive Pay in CTS and make it available to participant banks. Banks, in turn, shall enable it for all account holders issuing cheques for amounts of ₹50,000 and above.
  • Under this mechanism, cheques will be processed for payment by the drawee bank based on information passed on by its customer at the time of issuance of cheque. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • By following such a system, a bank knows of a cheque being drawn by the customer even before it is deposited by the beneficiary into his/her account.
  • Under Positive Pay feature, the issuer will first share the details of the issued cheque like cheque number, date, name of the payee, account number, amount and the likes through his/her net banking account.
  • Along with this, an image of the front and reverse side of the cheque is also required to be shared, before handing it over to the beneficiary.

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/money-and-banking/positive-pay-system-for-high-value-cheques-from-january-1-2021-rbi/article32701457.ece


In which state Sajjangarh Wildlife Sanctuary is located?

  • Rajasthan
  • Gujarat
  • West Bengal
  • Tripura

Answer: (a) Rajasthan

Explanation:

In NEWS: Weeding out lantana restores grasslands in Rajasthan

  • A special drive to uproot the invasive lantana bushes in the famous Sajjangarh wil­dlife sanctuary in Rajas­than’s Udaipur district has helped in ecological restora­tion of grasslands and saved biodiversity.
  • The “mission lantana” was taken up last month at the instance of a senior wo­ man police officer who not­ iced an unease among the herds of spotted deer with the gradual shrinking of their natural habitat

About Sajjangarh Wildlife Sanctuary 

  • Sajjangarh Wildlife Sanctuaryis located in Udaipur District of Rajasthan in the southern Aravalli Hills. The area of the sanctuary is 5.19 square kilometres. Hence option (a) is correct
  • The sanctuaryis located entirely within Girwa Tehsil of Udaipur district.
  • The area constituted the hunting grounds surrounding the Monsoon Palace, used by the Maharanas of Udaipurin the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
  • The area was made a wildlife sanctuary in 1987. In 2017, an area of 28.7 square kilometres around the boundary of the sanctuary was declared to be an Eco-Sensitive Zoneby the Government of India.
  • Natural grass has started growing in the Sajjangarh sanctuary and the spotted deer and other herbivores can be seen forag­ing on the vegetation.

Source: TH


Consider the following statements regarding Lantana camara

1.It is a small perennial shrub which can grow to around 2 m tall and form dense thickets in a variety of environments

2.It is a species of flowering plant within the verbena family and is native to the African tropics

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWSMission lantana

  • The small sanctuary in the southern Aravalli hills, spread over 5.19 sq. km, is home to a large number of herbivores. Lantana camara, a thicket forming shrub, has covered vast tracts of land in the sanctuary, stop­ ping the natural light and nu­trition for flora and fauna.
  • The toxic substance in its foliage and ripe berries af­fected the animals, while its expansion stopped the natu­ral growth of grass and other shrubs.

About Lantana camara

  • Lantana camara is a species of flowering plant within the verbena family, native to the American tropics. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • It’s a small perennial shrub which can grow to around 2 m tall and form dense thickets in a variety of environments. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Camara is often cultivated indoors, or in a conservatory, but can also thrive in a garden with sufficient shelter. It has spread from its native Central and South America to around 50 countries, where it has become an invasive species.
  • Camara will often out-compete other more desirable species, leading to a reduction in biodiversity.
  • It can also cause problems if it invades agricultural areas as a result of its toxicity to livestock, as well as its ability to form dense thickets which, if left unchecked, can greatly reduce the productivity of farmland.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/kolkata/weeding-out-lantana-restores-grasslands-in-rajasthan/article32705549.ece#:~:text=Sajjangarh%20wildlife%20sanctuary.-,Forest%20Department%20has%20planted%20500%20saplings%20in%20the%20cleared%20pockets,of%20grasslands%20and%20saved%20biodiversity.


Consider the following statements regarding Copernicus Programme

1.It is headed by the European Commission (EC) in partnership with the European Space Agency

2.It will provide accurate, timely and easily accessible information to improve the management of the environment, understand and mitigate the effects of climate change and ensure civil security

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Using cloud computing for better flood inundation mapping

  • The Kerala rains of July ­Au­gust 2018 caused substantial loss of lives and property and left major cities flooded for days.
  • Maps showing where flooding may occur or flood inundation maps can help in better flood risk prepared­ness.
  • Space­ based sen­sors known as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) have been used widely for moni­toring and mapping of flood­ water inundation. SAR is capable of acquiring data in all-weather condition, mak­ing it useful for mapping and monitoring flood inundation areas.
  • These sensors operate on the constellation of two SAR sa­tellites belonging to the Co­pernicus Programme launched by the European Space Agency.

About Copernicus Programme

  • Copernicus is the most ambitious Earth observation programme to date.
  • It will provide accurate, timely and easily accessible information to improve the management of the environment, understand and mitigate the effects of climate change and ensure civil security. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Copernicus is the new name for the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security programme, previously known as GMES.
  • This initiative is headed by the European Commission (EC) in partnership with the European Space Agency (ESA). Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Copernicus is served by a set of dedicated satellites (Sentinel families) and contributing missions (existing commercial and public satellites).
  • The Sentinel satellites are specifically designed to meet the needs of the Copernicus services and their users.
  • Copernicus also collects information from in situ systems such as ground stations, which deliver data acquired by a multitude of sensors on the ground, at sea or in the air.
  • Six thematic streams of Copernicus services are: Atmosphere, Marine, Land, Climate change, Security and Emergency

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/using-cloud-computing-for-better-flood-inundation-mapping/article32704054.ece


Consider the following statements:

1.The quantity of imported edible oils is more than the domestic production of edible oils in the last five years.

2.The Government does not impose any customs duty on all the imported edible oils as a special case.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is correct. India occupies a prominent position in the world oilseeds industry with contribution of around 10% in worldwide production. But the demand of edible oils (extracted from oilseeds in addition to palm oil) is significantly higher than the domestic production, leading to dependence on imports (60% of requirement).
  •  Statement 2 is not correct. Government imposes customs duty on edible oils to safeguard the interests of domestic oil crushing industry. The duty on two major edible oils, namely crude sunflower seed oil and crude canola/rapeseed/mustard is 25 per cent, while crude soyabean oil attracts 30 per cent duty.