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Daily Prelims Test – 27_June_2022

1. With respect to Centre for Fire, Explosive and Environment Safety, consider the following statements

1) It is an Indian defence laboratory of the Defence Research and Development Organisation

2) It is located in timarpur, Delhi

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Nexon EV fire incident: Tata Motors says detailed investigation underway

  • Tata Motors said it is investigating the incident of a Nexon electric vehicle catching fire in Mumbai.
  • The government has ordered an independent enquiry into a Nexon electric vehicle catching fire in Mumbai
  • The Centre for Fire Explosive and Environment Safety, Indian Institute of Science and Naval Science & Technological Laboratory have been asked to probe the circumstances that led to the incident.
  • The Centre for Fire, Explosive and Environment Safety (CFEES) is an Indian defence laboratory of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
  • Located in Timarpur, Delhi, its main function is the development of technologies and products in the area of explosive, fire and environmental safety.
  • CFEES is organised under the Armaments Directorate of DRDO.
  • The present director of CFEES is Rajiv Narang

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/business/companies/nexon-ev-fire-incident-tata-motors-says-detailed-investigation-underway-7986848/

2. Consider the following statements regarding Psyche mission

1) It is a journey to a unique metal-rich asteroid orbiting the Sun between Mars and Jupiter.

2) NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory is responsible for this mission management

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: NASA delays Psyche mission to asteroid because of late software delivery

NASA has announced that the Psyche mission, the space agency’s first mission designed to study a metal-rich asteroid, will not be attempting a 2022 launch.

Psyche was selected in 2017 as part of NASA’s Discovery Program

About the mission

  • The Psyche mission is a journey to a unique metal-rich asteroid orbiting the Sun between Mars and Jupiter.
  • What makes the asteroid Psyche unique is that it appears to be the exposed nickel-iron core of an early planet, one of the building blocks of our solar system.
  • Deep within rocky, terrestrial planets – including Earth – scientists infer the presence of metallic cores, but these lie unreachably far below the planets’ rocky mantles and crusts.
  • The Psyche spacecraft is designed with solar electric propulsion, and the scientific payload includes a multispectral imager, a magnetometer, and a gamma-ray spectrometer.
  • 16 Psyche is the heaviest known M-type asteroid, and was once thought to be the exposed iron core of a protoplanet.
  • Scientists think that 16 Psyche could be the exposed core of an early planet that could have been as large as Mars and lost its surface in a series of violent collisions.
  • The Psyche mission aims to characterize 16 Psyche’s geology, shape, elemental composition, magnetic field, and mass distribution.
  • It is expected that this mission will increase the understanding of planetary formation and interiors.
  • Understand a previously unexplored building block of planet formation: iron cores.
  • Look inside terrestrial planets, including Earth, by directly examining the interior of a differentiated body, which otherwise could not be seen.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/technology/science/nasa-psyche-asteroid-mission-delay-late-software-delivery-7993356/

3. Consider the following statements regarding National Mobile Monitoring Software (NMMS) App

1) It is aimed at bringing more transparency and ensuring proper monitoring of the schemes.

2) It permits taking real time attendance of workers at Mahatma Gandhi NREGA worksites along with geo-tagged photographs.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: The advent of ‘app-solute’ chaos in NREGA

Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) launched the National Mobile Monitoring Software (NMMS) app, a new application meant for “improving citizen oversight and increasing transparency” in National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) works.

National Mobile Monitoring Software (NMMS) app

  • The app was launched by the Minister of Rural Development on May, 21 2021.
  • This app is aimed at bringing more transparency and ensuring proper monitoring of the schemes.
  • The NMMS App permits taking real time attendance of workers at Mahatma Gandhi NREGA worksites along with geo-tagged photographs.
  • The app helps in increasing citizen oversight of the programme.
  • The National Mobile Monitoring App is applicable for the Mahatma Gandhi NREGA workers for all the States/ Union Territories.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/the-advent-of-app-solute-chaos-in-nrega/article65561536.ece

4. Consider the following statements regarding Zika virus

1. It is transmitted by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes

2. It can transmit Zika sexually.

3. It was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 and 3 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 2 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Scientists warn of Zika spread in newer areas, call for better surveillance

  • Scientists at the National Institute of Virology (NIV), Pune, have raised an alarm about the spread of the Zika virus, along with dengue and chikungunya, across several States and Union Territories where it has never been reported earlier, establishing local transmission in India.

About Zika virus

  • The Zika virus (ZIKV), a vector-borne flavivirus, is transmitted by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus
  • It is a contagious disease, infected people can transmit Zika sexually. The incubation period (the time from exposure to symptoms) of Zika virus disease is estimated to be 3-14 days
  • It was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys, Zika was detected in humans five years later.
  • Sporadic cases have been reported throughout the world since the 1960s, but the first outbreak happened only in 2007 in the Island of Yap in the Pacific.
  • A major outbreak in Brazil led to the revelation that Zika can be associated with microcephaly, a condition in which babies are born with small and underdeveloped brains.
  • In India, Zika virus was first recorded in 1952-53. The latest major outbreak was in 2018, when 80 cases were reported in Rajasthan.
  • It results involve microcephaly, especially when pregnant women are infected.
  • It has been reported a steep increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome — a neurological disorder that could lead to paralysis and death, according to the WHO.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/scientists-warn-of-zika-spread-in-newer-areas-call-for-better-surveillance/article65564238.ece

5. Which of the following states have a traditional celebration of the Sao Joao festival in India?

a) Assam

b) Goa

c) Manipur

d) Kerala

Answer: (b) Goa

In News: Goa celebrates ‘Sao Joao’ festival after 2-year Covid induced hiatus

Explanation:

Sao Joao:

  • The people of Goa celebrated the Sao Joao festival, the feast of St John the Baptist with traditional enthusiasm after a two-year coronavirus-induced gap. Hence option (b) is correct.
  • Revellers across the state jumped into water bodies across the state to mark the occasion. The colourful, theme-based floats are also a traditional part of the festivities.
  • Residents of the coastal state also thronged to wells, ponds and other water bodies in large numbers to celebrate Sao Joao, a popular festival of Goa. Jumping into water bodies wearing crowns made of fruits and flowers, and screaming ‘Viva Sao Joao’ is a key tradition of the festival which has its origins in the erstwhile Portuguese rule.
  • The festival is dedicated to Saint John the Baptist, who baptised Lord Jesus on the river of Jordan and is celebrated at the onset of monsoon. Siolim, a village in North Goa, hosts a traditional canoe parade on the occasion of Sao Joao.

https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/goa-celebrates-sao-joao-festival-after-2-year-covid-induced-hiatus-see-pics-101656119795569.html

6. Consider the following statements regarding Participatory Notes:

1. They are issued by registered Foreign Direct Investors to overseas investors.

2. Increase in Participatory notes investments can lead to weakening of the Indian currency.

3. FIIs need to disclose the identity of the actual investors of the Participatory Notes to the SEBI.

Which of the above statements are incorrect?

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

In News: Investment via participatory notes declines to Rs 86,706 crore in May

Explanation:

  • Participatory notes (P-notes) are issued by registered foreign portfolio investors (FPIs) to overseas investors who wish to be a part of the Indian stock market without registering themselves under SEBI directly after going through a due diligence process.
  • The increase in P-notes investment is in line with the higher net inflows of Foreign Portfolio Investors (FPIs) in the cash segment.
  • P-Notes are Offshore Derivative Investments (ODIs) with equity shares or debt securities as underlying assets, as they are used by the investors abroad but not within India.
  • They provide liquidity to the investors as they can transfer the ownership by endorsement and delivery.
  • While the FIIs have to report all such investments each quarter to SEBI, they need not disclose the identity of the actual investors.

https://www.business-standard.com/article/markets/investment-via-participatory-notes-declines-to-rs-86-706-crore-in-may-122062301124_1.html

7.Consider the following:

1. Black carbon is formed by the complete burning of fossil fuels by man.

2. It has heat trapping power a million times more than CO2

3. CO2 has more warming effect than Black carbon.

Which of the above statements are correct?

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 1 and 3 only

c) 2 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (c) 2 and 3 only

In News:

Explanation: Aerosol study shows how SARS-CoV-2 spreads – The researchers studied air samples from hospital and residential zones and proximity to infected persons

Black Carbon

  • It is formed by the incomplete burning of fossil fuels, biofuels, biomass (caused by human actions) and by natural sources such as wildfires
  • It is the dominant form of light-absorbing particulate matter in the atmosphere
  • It warms the atmosphere because it absorbs light (solar energy)
  • It remains in the atmosphere for just a few days or weeks, compared to a century or more for carbon dioxide
  • It is a major short-term contributor to global warming
  • It has a heat-trapping power a million times more than carbon dioxide
  • It can travel long distances on air currents
  • The warming effects of black carbon aerosols are second only to carbon dioxide

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/health/aerosol-study-shows-how-sars-cov-2-spreads/article65563648.ece

8. Consider the following statements:

1. Firefly occurrence decreases with proximity to artificial light.

2. Increasing sky glow can imbalance ecosystems by affecting nocturnal species’ physiology.

3. Fireflies need low light for reproduction.

Which of the above statements are correct?

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 1 and 3 only

c) 2 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

In News: How are fireflies affected by light pollution?

Explanation:

  • Insects act in coordination with natural light regimes and are sensitive to changes in light intensity, wavelengths, sources and other factors. Nocturnal insects perform various activities such as foraging, reacting to predators, or navigating using the stars and moon.
  • For insects of the family Lampyridae, commonly known as fireflies, low light is needed for reproduction.
  • Research shows that firefly occurrence decreases with proximity to artificial light. The closer one gets to a light source, the lesser fireflies there are.
  • Dark areas are decreasing around the world and increasing artificial lights cause a habitat loss of sorts for several species. Increasing sky glow can imbalance ecosystems by affecting nocturnal species’ migratory patterns, interactions, vegetation processes, and – in the case of fireflies – mating and reproduction.

Source: https://india.mongabay.com/2022/06/explainer-how-are-fireflies-affected-by-light-pollution/

9. The recently launched NIRYAT portal is associated with which of the following?

a) To increase financial inclusion.

b) To monitor public health.

c) To expedite court judgements.

d) To look into foreign trade related data.

Answer: (d) To look into foreign trade related data.

In News: PM Modi to inaugurate new commerce ministry office complex (Vanijya Bhavan), NIRYAT portal

Explanation:

Prime Minister has launched Vanijya Bhawan and NIRYAT (National Import-Export Record for Yearly Analysis of Trade) Portal. Hence option (d) is correct.

Vanijya Bhawan:

  • Vanijya Bhawan is the new premises of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
  • Vanijya Bhawan, which is constructed near the India Gate (New Delhi) will be used by the two departments under the Ministry i.e. Department of Commerce and the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT).

NIRYAT Portal

  • NIRYAT (National Import-Export Record for Yearly Analysis of Trade) is developed as a one-stop platform for the stakeholders to get all the necessary information that is related to India’s foreign trade.
  • India exported a total of USD 670 billion- Rs. 50 lakh crores in 2021. Exports are vital to a country’s progress.

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/economy/pm-launches-niryat-information-portal-to-support-importers-exporters/article65557757.ece

10. As per the Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016 in India, which one of the following statements is correct?

a) Waste generator has to segregate waste into five categories.

b) The Rules are applicable to notified urban local bodies, notified towns and all industrial townships only.

c) The Rules provide for exact and elaborate criteria for the identification of sites for landfills and waste processing facilities.

d) It is mandatory on the part of the waste generator that the waste generated in one district cannot be moved to another district.

Answer: (c) The Rules provide for exact and elaborate criteria for the identification of sites for landfills and waste processing facilities.

Explanation:

Under the Solid Waste Management, Rules 2016, waste processing facilities will have to be set up by all local bodies having 1 million or more population within two years.

  • In case of census towns below 1 million population, setting up common, or stand-alone sanitary landfills by, or for all local bodies having 0.5 million or more population and for setting up common, or regional sanitary landfills by all local bodies and census towns under 0.5 million population will have to be completed in three years. Hence, rules provide for exact and elaborate criteria for identification of landfill sites and waste processing facilities. Hence option (c) is correct.
  • Waste generators would now have to now segregate waste into three streams- Biodegradables, Dry (Plastic, Paper, metal, Wood, etc.) and Domestic Hazardous waste (diapers, napkins, mosquito repellants, cleaning agents etc.) before handing it over to the collector.