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Daily Prelims Test – 27_July 2021

Consider the following statements regarding I-STEM:

  • It is a National Portal which assists researchers to locate the specific facility they need for their Research and Development
  • It is an initiative of NITI Aayog.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: National web portal for sharing R&D facilities I-STEM enters Phase-II, five years extension approved by the Office of Principal Scientific Adviser to GOI

  • The Indian Science Technology and Engineering facilities Map (I-STEM), the national web portal for sharing R&D facilities was formally launched in January 2020
  • The I-STEM project has been accorded an extension for five years, until 2026 and enters its second phase with added features.

About I STEM

  • I-STEM is a National Portal, which assists researchers to locate the specific facility(ies) they need for their R&D workHence statement (1) is
  • It was formally launched in January 2020.
  • The portal also assists in shortlisting and identifying the facilities based on distance and time of availability.
  • It is an initiative of Office of the Principal Scientific Adviser to the Govt. of India (PSA, GOI) under the aegis of Prime Minister Science, Technology and Innovation Advisory Council (PM-STIAC) missionHence statement (2) is in
  • The goal of I-STEM is to strengthen the R&D ecosystem of the country by connecting researchers with resources, in part by
  • promoting technologies and scientific equipment development indigenously
  • providing necessary supplies and supports to researchers
  • by enabling them access to existing publicly funded R&D facilities in the country through the I-STEM web portal.
  • Under Phase II, the portal will host indigenous technology products listed through a digital catalogue.
  • The portal will also provide a platform for the various City Knowledge and Innovation Clusters.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1738848

With reference to PM CARES for Children scheme, consider the following statements:

  • It aims to ensure comprehensive care and protection of children who have lost their parents to COVID pandemic in a sustained manner.
  • A corpus of Rs. 10 lakh will be allocated to each of these children from the PM CARES fund.
  • The amount can be withdrawn fully by the beneficiary after attaining 18 years of age.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 and 3 only
  3. c) 1 and 2 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (c) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Ministry of Women and Child Development launches web based portal pmcaresforchildren.in

The Ministry of Women and Child Development has launched the web based portal “pmcaresforchildren.in” to facilitate submission of applications, identification of children eligible to receive support under the ‘PM CARES for Children’ scheme.

PM CARES for Children Scheme:

  • The PM CARES for Children Scheme was announced by the Government of India.
  • Aim: The scheme aims to ensure comprehensive care and protection of children who have lost their parents to COVID pandemic in a sustained mannerHence statement (1) is
  • Eligibility for the Scheme: All children who have lost
  • Both parents or
  • Surviving parent or
  • legal guardian/adoptive parents due to COVID 19 pandemic, starting from March,2020 till the end of pandemic shall be entitled to benefits under the scheme.
  • Benefits under the Scheme:
  • Financial Assistance of Rs.10 Lakh:
  • A corpus of Rs. 10 lakhwill be allocated to each of these children from the PM CARES fund. Hence statement (2) is
  • This corpus will be usedto give a monthly stipend from 18 years of their age for the next five years.
  • On reaching the age of 23 years, he or she will get the corpus amount as one lump-sum for personal and professional use. Hence statement (3) is incorrect.
  • Education Expenses of Children:
  • The education expenses of younger childrenwill be supported by way of admission to Kendriya Vidyalayas and private schools up to higher secondary level.
  • These children will also be supported during their higher education through either a scholarship equivalent to the tuition fees or educational loans where the interest on the loan will be paid by the PM-CARES fund.
  • Health Insurance:
  • All children will be enrolled as a beneficiary under Ayushman Bharat Scheme with a health insurance cover of Rs. 5 lakh.
  • The premium amountwill be paid by PM-CARES till a child turns 18.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1738851

Consider the following statements regarding Green Sohra Afforestation Campaign:

  • It was launched under the slogan of Evergreen Northeast which highlights tree plantation and afforestation in North East India.
  • It was launched in Assam.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct.?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Union Home Minister Shri Amit Shah launched the Green Sohra Afforestation Campaign at Sohra (Cherrapunji)

  • Union Home Minister Shri Amit Shah launched the Green Sohra Afforestation Campaign at Sohra (Cherrapunji). Shri Amit Shah also inaugurated the Greater Sohra Water Supply Scheme.
  • The battle we are going to fight cannot be successful without the cooperation of the general public at the district and taluka panchayat levels. Home Minister calls upon all panchayats to cooperate in tree plantation programmes being carried out by paramilitary forces at various places
  • The history of Assam Rifles has been to complete whatever work has been given to them in 180 years, in time with full dedication
  • All Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) are planting trees across the country under the tree plantation campaign started at the initiative of the Home Minister, under which more than 16 lakh 31 thousand saplings are being planted
  • About Green Sohra Afforestation Campaign
  • It was launched at Sohra (Cherrapunji) at Meghalaya.
  • The campaign was launched under the slogan of ‘Evergreen Northeast’, which highlights tree plantation and afforestation in NE India. Hence statement (1) is
  • The Green Sohra Afforestation Campaign will be jointly executed by Assam Rifles and the Meghalaya Government. Hence statement (2) is i
  • The plantation drive will be executed under the campaign.
  • In this regard, the Assam Rifles will adopt the entire locality of Cherrapunji.
  • The Green Sohra Afforestation Campaign will help to enhance eco-tourism in the state and will ultimately help the tourism sector.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1738816

Consider the following statements regarding Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS):

It was designed with two major objectives for measurement of employment and unemployment.

It is being surveyed and released by the Labour Bureau.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct.?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: ExplainSpeaking: The curious case of India’s falling unemployment rate in 2019-20

  • The government released the latest annual report of the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS). The data was for the 12 months (or four quarters) between July 2019 and June 2020.
  • It showed two surprising trends. One, India’s unemployment rate (UER) had declined over this period. Two, the Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR) had increased.
  • The unemployment rate fell to 4.8 per cent in 2019-20.
  • The Covid-19 pandemic hit the economyhard in March-April 2020 and made the unemployment worse.
  • According to the Centre for Monitoring of Indian Economy (CMIE), the monthly jobless rate for March 2020 was 8.75 per cent, which rose to 23.52 per cent in April 2020, then came down a little to 21.73 per cent in May and in June 2020, it was 10.18 per cent.
  • The report shows that in 2019-20, India’s Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR) improved marginally and the unemployment rate went down, meaning improved employment chances.
  • About the Survey
  • The PLFS is an annual survey conducted by the NSO. Hence statement (2) is in
  • It was started in April 2017 and it essentially maps the state of employment in the country. 
  • PLFS is India’s first computer-based survey which gives estimates of key employment and unemployment indicators like the labour force participation rate, worker population ratio, proportion unemployed and unemployment rate in rural households annually and on a quarterly basis for the urban households. Hence statement (1) is
  • The PLFS also gives the distribution of educated and unemployed people, which in turn can be used as a basis for skilling of youth to make them more employable by industry
  • The first annual report (July 2017-June 2018) was released in May 2019, showing unemployment at 6.1 per cent.
  • The second annual report (July 2018-June 2019) was released in June 2020, which showed an unemployment rate of 5.8 per cent.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explainspeaking-the-curious-case-of-indias-falling-unemployment-rate-in-2019-20-7422326/

Consider the following statements:

  • In 2019, India ranked first in global agricultural exports.
  • India was the 3rd-largest cotton exporter in 2019.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct.?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: India breaks into the top 10 list of agri produce exporters

  • India broke into the top 10 list of agricultural produce exporters in 2019 with a sizable share in the export of rice, cotton, soya beans and meat, according to a World Trade Organization (WTO) report on the trends in world agricultural trade in the past 25 years.
  • Robust exports of rice, cotton, soya beans and meat propel the country to No. 9 spot
  • In 2019, Mexico and India, with 3.4% and 3.1% share in agri exports, replaced Malaysia (7th) and New Zealand (9th) as the top exporters. Hence statement (1) is in
  • India is also the third-largest cotton exporter (7.6%), and the fourth-largest importer (10%) in 2019. It had not featured in the top 10 list in 1995. In the largest traded agri product, soya beans, India (0.1%) has a meagre share, but was ranked ninth in the world. In the “meat and edible meat offal” category, India was ranked eighth in the world with a 4% share in global trade. While India was the seventh-largest wheat and meslin exporter in 1995, it does not feature in the top 10 list in 2019. Hence statement (2) is
  • However, India lagged behind as a value-added contributor to world agri exports. India’s share of foreign value-added content in its agri exports was also low at 3.8% primarily due to high tariffs on agri imports to protect the domestic market.
  • China climbed from the sixth spot in 1995 (4%) to fourth in 2019 (5.4%).
  • The top 10 exporters accounted for more than 96% of exports in both 1995 and 2019.
  • Source: PIB

Consider the following statements regarding Special Economic Zone (SEZ):

  • It was to enhance foreign investment and provide an internationally competitive and hassle-free environment for exports.
  • Only the private sector of the domestic or foreign origin can set up an SEZ.
  • The first SEZ was started after the enactment of the SEZ Act in 2005.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct.?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 and 3 only
  3. c) 1 and 2 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Special Economic Zones touch new heights in terms of performance in Exports, Investment and Employment

  • In various Special Economic Zones (SEZs) across the country, 1096 Nos. of units have been registered during the last three years.
  • SEZs set up under SEZ law have largely or generally met their objectives. SEZs have touched new heights in terms of performance in Exports, Investment and Employment

What are SEZs?

  • A Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is an area in which the business and trade laws are different from the rest of the country.
  • SEZs are located within a country’s national borders, and their aims include increasing trade balance, employment, increased investment, job creation and effective administration.
  • To encourage businesses to set up in the zone, financial policies are introduced.
  • These policies typically encompass investing, taxation, trading, quotas, customs and labour regulations.
  • Additionally, companies may be offered tax holidays, where upon establishing themselves in a zone, they are granted a period of lower taxation.

SEZs in India

  • The SEZ policy in India first came into inception on April 1, 2000. Hence statement (3) is incorrect.
  • The prime objective was to enhance foreign investment and provide an internationally competitive and hassle-free environment for exports. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The idea was to promote exports from the country and realizing the need for that a level playing field must be made available to the domestic enterprises and manufacturers to be competitive globally.
  • Subsequently, the SEZ Act 2005, was enacted to provide the umbrella legal framework, covering all important legal and regulatory aspects of SEZ development as well as for units operating in SEZs.
  • Any private/public/joint sector or state government or its agencies can set up an SEZ. A foreign agency can set up SEZs in India. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1738171

Recently, Indian scientists discovered materials that self-repair mechanical damages. It works on principle of

  1. a) Bose-Einstein Condensate
  2. b) Superconductivity
  3. c) Piezoelectric effect
  4. d) 4th law of thermodynamics

Answer: (c) Piezoelectric effect

Explanation:

In NEWS: Indian scientists discover materials that self-repair mechanical damages

  • The materials recently developed by scientists can repair their own mechanical damages with the electrical charges generated by the mechanical impact on them.
  • Devices that we use daily often break down due to mechanical damage, forcing us either to repair or replace them. This decreases the life of the equipment and increases maintenance costs. In many cases, like in space crafts, human intervention for restoration is not possible.
  • Keeping such necessities in mind, researchers fromthe Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Kolkata, teaming up with IIT Kharagpur, have developed piezoelectric molecular crystals that repair themselves from mechanical damages without need for any external intervention. Piezoelectric crystals are a class of materials that generate electricity when it undergoes a mechanical impact. Hence option (c) is
  • The piezoelectric molecules developed by the scientists called bipyrazole organic crystals recombine following mechanical fracture without any external intervention, autonomously self-healing in milliseconds with crystallographic precision.
  • In these molecular solids, due to the unique property of generating electrical charges on mechanical impact, the broken pieces acquire electrical charges at the crack junction, leading to attraction by damaged parts and precise autonomous repair.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1738607

Consider the following statements regarding the principle “Common But Differentiated Responsibilities”:

  • It is a principle within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
  • This principle is enshrined in Earth Summit 1992, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct.?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: How EU’s proposed carbon border tax will work & why India is among the nations opposing it

  • India urged G20 members having per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions above the global average to bring it down to the world average, in order to vacate carbon spacefor developing nations.
  • The statement comes at a time when the EU Commission is pushing for the world’s first carbon border tax on imported goods like carbon-intensive steel. The 27-nation bloc plans to levy the tax in a phased manner from 2026. It directs non-EU companies exporting to Europe to pay the same price for their carbon footprint in Europe as European companies.
  • India, along with other developing countries, has long opposed the EU’s proposed carbon border tax. In April, it issued a joint statement with the BASIC bloc — Brazil, South Africa, India and China — calling CBAM “discriminatory“. The concern is that the border tax will ramp up prices of their goods in Europe and shrink demand.
  • The BASIC group also said the EU’s proposal goes against the UN principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities (CBDR–RC).
  • About Common but Differentiated Responsibilities
  • Common But Differentiated Responsibilities (CBDR)is a principle within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Hence statement (1) is
  • It acknowledges different capabilities and differing responsibilities of individual countries in addressing climate change.
  • The principle of ‘common but differentiated responsibility’ evolved from the notion of the ‘common heritage of mankind’.
  • The principle of CBDR is enshrined inEarth Summit 1992, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Hence statement (2) is
  • The principle recognizes historical differences in the contributions of developed and developing Statesto global environmental problems and differences in their respective economic and technical capacity to tackle these problems.
  • CBDR is based on two elements of responsibilities:
  • One is the common responsibility of all the states to cater to the concerns of environmental protection and sustainable development.
  • Another is of differentiated responsibility enabling the states to act, for environment protection, in their national capacity and as per their national priority.

Source: https://theprint.in/theprint-essential/how-eus-proposed-carbon-border-tax-will-work-why-india-is-among-the-nations-opposing-it/703214/

With respect to Exercise Cutlass Express 2021, Consider the following statements:

  • It is a maritime exercise held annually to promote regional and national maritime security in the Western Indian Ocean and East Africa.
  • It involves the participation of 12 East African countries, India, UK and

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct.?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: INS Talwar participates in Exercise Cutlass Express 2021 in Mombasa

  • In the maritime Exercise Cutlass Express 2021, INS Talwar is participating. This naval exercise is being conducted from 26th July 2021 to 6th August 2021 along the Eastern Coast of Africa.
  • This maritime exercise is held annually and it is conducted to promote regional and national maritime security in the Western Indian Ocean and East AfricaHence statement (1)is
  • In exercise Cutlass Express 2021, INS Talwar is participating and this exercise is being conducted along the Eastern Coast of Africa. This exercise is being conducted to improve enforcement capacity, combined maritime law and to promote regional and national security.
  • The 2021 edition involves the participation of 12 East African countries, India, UK, US and various other international organisations such as United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), International Maritime Organisation (IMO), European Union Naval Force (EUNAVFOR), Interpol, EUCAP Somalia and Critical Maritime Routes Indian Ocean (CRIMARIO). The Indian Navy is participating in a trainer role. Hence statement (2) is
  • Indian Navy, along with the other partners, is undertaking the training of the contingents from the various countries participating in various fields of maritime security operations. Information flow and sharing between the various partner countries regarding maritime domain awareness is also an aim of this exercise and the participation of India’s Information Fusion Centre – Indian Ocean Region (IFC-IOR).

Source: https://www.aninews.in/news/world/asia/ins-talwar-participates-in-exercise-cutlass-express-2021-in-mombasa20210727095920/

Who among the following Mughal Emperors shifted emphasis from illustrated manuscripts to album and individual portrait?

  1. a) Humayun
  2. b) Akbar
  3. c) Jahangir
  4. d) Shah Jahan

Answer: (c) Jahangir

Explanation:

During Akbar’s reign many manuscripts were illustrated, the prominent being Razmnamah, the Persian translation of Mahabharata. It was during Jahangir’s reign that manuscripts became less important and individual portraits became more prominent. Hence option (c) is correct.