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Daily Prelims Test – 26_September 2020

.Which of the following pollutants are monitored under the System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research?

  • 5
  • PM10
  • Nitrogen Oxides
  • Sulfur Dioxide
  • Ammonia
  • Lead
  • Select the correct options from the given below codes
  • 1,2,4,5 and 6 only
  • 1,2,3 and 4 only
  • 1,3,5 and 6 only
  • 1,2,3,4,5 and 6

Answer: (b) 1,2,3 and 4 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: EPCA chief asks Punjab, Haryana to act against stubble burning

  • The Supreme Court-appointed Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority on Tuesday wrote to the chief secretaries of Punjab and Haryana stating that early burning of crop residue was taking place and urged them to address the issue “urgently”.
  • EPCA said according to a SAFAR (System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research under the Central government) estimate, based on harmonising the INSAT-3, 3D and NASA satellite, the fire counts were around 42 on September 21, 2020.

About SAFAR System

  • Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), Govt. of India, has introduced a major national initiative, “System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research” known as “SAFAR” for greater metropolitan cities of India to provide location specific information on air quality in near real time and its forecast 1-3 days in advance for the first time in India.
  • It has been combined with the early warning system on weather parameters. The SAFAR system is developed by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, along with ESSO partner institutions namely India Meteorological Department (IMD) and National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF).
  • It has a giant true color LED display that gives out real-time air quality index on a 24×7 basis with color-coding (along with 72 hours advance forecast).
  • The ultimate objective of the project is to increase awareness among the general public regarding the air quality in their city so that appropriate mitigation measures and systematic action can be taken up.
  • SAFAR is an integral part of India’s first Air Quality Early Warning System operational in Delhi.
  • It monitors all weather parameters like temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction, UV radiation, and solar radiation.
  • Pollutants monitored: 5, PM10, Ozone, Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, and MercuryHence option (b) is correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/epca-chief-asks-punjab-haryana-to-act-against-stubble-burning/article32672708.ece


Consider the following statements regarding Environment Pollution Control Authority

1.It was notified in 1998 by Environment Ministry under Environment Protection Act, 1986.

2.It is a supreme court mandated body tasked with taking various measures to tackle air pollution in the all over Indian region

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Farm fires growing in Punjab, plumes of smoke seen over Delhi in satellite images

  • The number of crop stubble burning cases in Punjab has been increasing over the past five days, especially in Amritsar district, satellite images released by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Nasa) have shown. Nasa also warned that with plumes of smoke being seen over Delhi, the city’s air quality may also deteriorate in the coming weeks.
  • Delhi government data shows that last year stubble burning accounted for 44% of the city’s air pollution.
  • The Supreme Court-mandated Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority (Epca) had written to the chief secretaries of Punjab and Haryana, asking the states to control cases of stubble burning.

About Environment Pollution Control Authority (EPCA):

  • EPCA was constituted with the objective of ‘protecting and improving’ the quality of the environment and ‘controlling environmental pollution’ in the National Capital Region. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • The EPCA also assists the apex court in various environment-related matters in the region.
  • EPCA is Supreme Court mandated body tasked with taking various measures to tackle air pollution in the National Capital Region.
  • It was notified in 1998 by Environment Ministry under Environment Protection Act, 1986. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • EPCA has 15 members, including chairman.

Functions:

  • To protect and improve quality of environment and prevent and control environmental pollution in National Capital Region.
  • To enforce Graded Response Action Plan (GRAP) in NCR as per the pollution levels.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/cities/farm-fires-growing-in-punjab-plumes-of-smoke-seen-over-delhi-in-satellite-images/story-oeMuYCRwplQRN9MIN4ABPK.html


Consider the following statements regarding Jnanpith Award

1.It is India’s highest literary honour.

2.It is bestowed only on Indian writers writing in Indian languages included in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India excluding india

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Jnanpith given to Akkitham

  • Akkitham is the sixth writer to bag the Jnanpith Award for Malayalam literature.
  • The first Jnanpith was awarded to Keralite poet G Sankara Kurup in 1965, then in 1980 it was awarded to writer S K PottekkattThakazhi Sivasankara Pillai in 1984, M T Vasudevan Nair in 1995 and O N V Kurup in 2007.
  • Akkitham is the only living poet being called Mahakavi (great poet) in Malayalam.
  • About Jnanpith Award
  • Jnanpith Award is India’s highest literary honour. Presented annually by the cultural organization Bharatiya Jnanpith to an author for their “outstanding contribution towards literature”. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Award is open for only Indian citizens.
  • Instituted in 1961, the award is bestowed only on Indian writers writing in Indian languages included in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India and English, with no posthumous conferral. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • The award carries cash prizeof 11 lakh rupees, a citation plaque and a bronze replica of Saraswati, the Hindu goddess of knowledge and wisdom.
  • In 1965, famous Malayalam writer G Sankara Kurup became the first winner of Jnanpith Award.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/jnanpith-given-to-akkitham/article32685581.ece/amp/


Consider the following statements regarding Centralized Farm Machinery Performance Testing Portal

1.It is developed by the Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare as a further step to improve services of farm machinery testing institutions.

2.It will facilitate manufacturers in applying, communicating and monitoring the progress of testing of their machines in a seamless manner.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Narendra Singh Tomar launches portal for testing performance of farm machinery

  • Agriculture Minister Narendra Singh Tomar launched a portal where manufacturers can online apply for testing and evaluation their farm machineries.

About Centralized Farm Machinery Performance Testing Portal

  • It is developed by the Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare as a further step to improve services of farm machinery testing institutions. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is aimed at bringing out transparency in the entire process of testing and evaluation of machines.
  • It will facilitate manufacturers in applying, communicating and monitoring the progress of testing of their machines in a seamless manner. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It offers the possibility of integrated management in a unified manner within the organization.
  • It will help in improving the efficiency of the testing institutes thereby reducing testing time for various agricultural machines and equipment.

Source: https://www.financialexpress.com/economy/narendra-singh-tomar-launches-portal-for-testing-performance-of-farm-machinery/2091006/


Data Sonification Project is an initiative of which of the following space organisation?

1.ISRO

2.JAXA

3.ESA

4.NASA

Answer: (d) NASA

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: NASA’s sonification project that turns astronomical images into music

  • While telescopes offer glimpses of outer space by translating digital data into stunning images, NASA’s Chandra X-Ray Center (CXC) has gone a step further by unveiling a new ‘sonification’ project that transforms data from astronomical images into audio.
  • Users can now ‘listen’ to images of the Galactic Centre, the remains of a supernova called Cassiopeia A, as well as the Pillars of Creation Nebula, which are all located in a region around 26,000 light years away from Earth.
  • The data has been collected by NASA’s Chandra X-Ray Observatory, Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer Space Telescope — each of which is represented by a different musical ‘instrument’.

What is data sonification?

  • Data sonification refers to the use of sound values to represent real data. Simply put, it is the auditory version of data visualisation.
  • In NASA’s recent Chandra project, for instance, data is represented using a number of musical notes. With this data sonification project, users can now experience different phenomena captured in astronomical images as an aural experience.
  • The birth of a star, a cloud of dust or even a black hole can now be ‘heard’ as a high or low pitched sound.

How sonification project useful?

  • The sonification project was led by theChandra X-ray Center in collaboration with NASA’s Universe of Learning Program (UoL). Hence option (d) is correct
  • It aims to incorporate NASA science content into the learning environment effectively and efficiently for learners of all ages.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-nasas-sonification-project-that-turns-astronomical-images-into-music-6609057/


Consider the following statements regarding Prithvi II Missile

1.It is India’s first developed and inducted indigenous surface-to-surface strategic missile.

2.It is developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Indigenously developed surface-to-surface Prithvi-II missile test fired

India on Wednesday conducted a successful night testfire of its indigenously developed nuclear capable surface-to-surface Prithvi-II missile as part of a user trial by the Army from a base in Odisha.

About Prithvi II Missile

  • It is India’s first developed and inducted indigenous surface-to-surface strategic missile. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It is capable of attacking targets at a range of 350 km. Prithvi-II is capable of carrying 500 to 1,000 kg of warheads and is powered by liquid propulsion twin engines
  • The missile thrusted by liquid propulsion twin engine uses an inertial guidance system while the warhead uses a radar correlation terminal guidance system.

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/pti-stories/indigenously-developed-prithvi-ii-missile-testfired-120092301505_1.html


Consider the following statements regarding RAISE 2020

1.It will be jointly organised by the Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology (MeitY) and NITI Aayog.

2.It is a first of its kind, global meeting of minds on Artificial Intelligence to drive India’s vision and roadmap for social transformation, inclusion and empowerment through responsible AI.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: PM Modi to inaugurate virtual AI summit ‘RAISE 2020’ on October 5

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi will on October 5 inaugurate a virtual summit on artificial intelligence ‘RAISE 2020’, which is being jointly organised by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology and the NITI Aayog. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Responsible AI for Social Empowerment 2020′ (RAISE 2020) will be a global meeting to exchange ideas and chart a course for using AI for social transformation, inclusion and empowerment in areas such as healthcare, agriculture, education and smart mobility. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • At the RAISE 2020 Summit, delegates and experts in research, policy and innovation on Artificial Intelligence will join from across the globe.
  • The cross-sector subjects at the summit such as ‘Leveraging AI for Pandemic Preparedness’, ‘The Impetus that Innovation Places on Digitisation’, ‘Inclusive AI’, ‘Partnerships for Successful Innovation’ etc.

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/economy-policy/pm-modi-to-inaugurate-virtual-ai-summit-raise-2020-on-october-5-120092401610_1.html


Consider the following statements regarding Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia

1.It an inter-governmental forum for enhancing cooperation towards promoting peace, security and stability in Asia

2.The administrative body of CICA is located in Kazakhstan and india is not a member of this CICA

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: India, Pakistan trade charges at SAARC, CICA meetings

  • India and Pakistan crossed swords over terrorism and J&K at the Foreign Minister’s meetings of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA).
  • In this meeting, India listed its recently taken measures including, a ‘COVID-19 Information Exchange Platform (COINEX), a SAARC Food Bank mechanism, as well as the SAARC COVID-19 Emergency Fund, to which India has contributed $10 million, making essential drugs and testing kits available to countries in the SAARC region.

About Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA)

  • It an inter-governmental forum for enhancing cooperation towards promoting peace, security and stability in Asia. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The idea of convening the CICA was first proposed by the First President of Kazakhstan in 1992. CICA Secretariat, the administrative body of CICA is located in Kazakhstan.
  • For becoming a member of CICA, a state must have at least a part of its territory in Asia.
  • Presently, CICA has 27 Member States (Including India), accounting for 99% of the territory and population of Asia.Eight countries and five multi-national organizations, including United Nations, have the observer status. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Current Chair of CICA is held by Tajikistan.

Key Objectives

  • Promoting peace, security and stability in Asia;
  • Eradicate the menace of terrorism, illicit drug production, weapons of mass destruction and trafficking;
  • Cooperation on all issues relating to environment, trade & humanitarian issues,
  • Facilitate implementation of Confidence Building Measures among Member States.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-pakistan-trade-charges-at-saarc-cica-meetings/article32689173.ece


Consider the following statements regarding World Risk Report (WRR) 2020

1.It is released by the United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security

2.It is an annual report released since 2011 and indicates which countries are in the greatest need to strengthen measures for coping with and adapting to extreme natural events.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: How ready is India for climate change? Not much, says this report

  • All south Asian countries fared poorly in the 2020 World Risk Index on strengthening their abilities to prepare and adapt to extreme events
  • World Risk Index (WRI) 2020 has claimed that India was ‘poorly prepared’ to deal with ‘climate reality’, due to which it was more vulnerable to extreme natural disasters.
  • India ranked 89th among 181 countries on the WRI 2020.
  • The country was fourth-most-at- risk in south Asia on the index, after Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Pakistan.
  • Sri Lanka, Bhutan and the Maldives fared better than India in their abilities to cope with extreme disasters.
  • India also lagged behind Sri Lanka, Bhutan and the Maldives in terms of lack of adaptive capacities or the preparedness to deal with extreme events.
  • India and other south Asian nations did improve their ranking marginally in the World Risk Index during the course of a year.

About World Risk Index (WRI) 2020

  • It is a part of the World Risk Report (WRR) 2020.
  • The WRR 2020 is released by the United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS) and Bundnis Entwicklung Hilft, in cooperation with the University of Stuttgart in Germany. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The WRI is calculated on a country-by-country basis, through the multiplication of exposure and vulnerability.
  • It is an annual report released since 2011 and indicates which countries are in the greatest need to strengthen measures for coping with and adapting to extreme natural events. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/how-ready-is-india-for-climate-change-not-much-says-this-report-73502


With reference to the election of the President of India, consider the following statements:

1.The value of the vote of each MLA varies from State to State.

2.The value of the vote of MPs of the Lok Sabha is more than the value of the vote of MPs of the Rajya Sabha.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

The President is elected not directly by the people but by members of electoral college consisting of:

  •  the elected members of both the Houses of Parliament;
  •  the elected members of the legislative assemblies of the states; and
  •  the elected members of the legislative assemblies of the Union Territories of Delhi and Puducherry.

Value of the vote is determined in the following manner:

  •  Every elected member of the legislative assembly of a state shall have as many votes as there are multiples of one thousand in the quotient obtained by dividing the population of the state by the total number of the elected members of the assembly. (Hence, it varies according to population of state.) Hence statement 1 is correct
  •  Every elected member of either House of Parliament shall have such number of votes as may be obtained by dividing the total number of votes assigned to members of the legislative assemblies of the states by the total number of the elected members of both the Houses of Parliament. Hence statement 2 is incorrect