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Daily Prelims Test – 26_June

1.Consider the following statements regarding Indian National Space Promotion and Authorization Centre (IN-SPACE)

  • It is to provide a level playing field for private companies to use Indian space infrastructure.
  • It is the commercial arm of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Private sector to get level playing field with space reforms

  • India was among a handful of countries with advanced capabilities in the space sector and these reforms would allow the Indian Space Research Organsiation (ISRO) to focus more on research and development activities, new technologies, exploration missions and human spaceflight programme.
  • The decision taken is in line with the long-term vision of the Prime Minister of making the country self-reliant and technologically advanced

About IN-SPACe

  • The Union Cabinet approved the creation of the Indian National Space Promotion and Authorization Centre (IN-SPACe) to provide a level playing field for private companies to use Indian space infrastructureHence statements 1 is correct
  • This is part of reforms aimed at giving a boost to private sector participation in the entire range of space activities.
  • The IN-SPACe will also hand-hold, promote and guide the private industries in space activities through encouraging policies and a friendly regulatory environment
  • It will also have its own chairman and board who will function autonomously and parallel to Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). Hence statements 2 is incorrect
  • It will be a national nodal agency under the Department of Space

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/private-sector-to-get-level-playing-field-with-space-reforms/article31908283.ece

2.Consider the following statements regarding New Space India Limited (NSIL)

  • It is a wholly-owned Government of India undertaking/ Central Public Sector Enterprise under the administrative control of the Department of Space
  • It is responsible for promotion and commercial exploitation of the products and services emanating from the Indian space Programme

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Historic reforms initiated in the Space sector

Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi approved far reaching reforms in the Space sector aimed at boosting private sector participation in the entire range of space activities

Key Benefits:

  • Indian Industry to be an important player in the global space economy
  • large-scale employment in the technology sector
  • The proposed reforms will enhance the socio-economic use of space assets and activities
  • New Space India Limited (NSIL)’ will endeavour to re-orient space activities from a ‘supply driven’ model to a ‘demand driven’ model

About New Space India Limited (NSIL)

  • NewSpace India Limited (NSIL), incorporated on 6 March 2019 (under the Companies Act, 2013) is a wholly owned Government of India company, under the administrative control of Department of Space (DOS).Hence statements 1 is correct 
  • NSIL is the commercial arm of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) with the primary responsibility of enabling Indian industries to take up high technology space related activities and is also responsible for promotion and commercial exploitation of the products and services emanating from the Indian space programmeHence statements 2 is correct

The major business areas of NSIL include:

  • Production of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV) through industry;
  • Production and marketing of space-based services
  • Building of Satellites (both Communication and Earth Observation) as per user requirements.
  • Transfer of technology developed by ISRO centres/ units

Source: https://www.isro.gov.in/about-isro/newspace-india-limited-nsil

https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetailm.aspx?PRID=1633901

3.Consider the following statements with respect to Skills Build Reignite Platform.

  • It has launched by the Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE) in partnership with IBM
  • It aims to facilitate job seekers and entrepreneurs an access to free online coursework and mentoring support

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: MSDE Ministry, IBM unveil Free Digital Learning Platform to reach job seekers

  • Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) in partnership with IBMhas unveiled Free Digital Learning Platform ‘Skills Build Reignite’ to reach more job seekers and provide new resources to business owners in India. Hence statements 1 is correct
  • The Skills Build Reignite has been launched to facilitate job seekers and entrepreneurs an access to free online coursework andmentoring support. Hence statements 2 is correct
  • This will help them in transforming their careers as well as businesses.

Some of its key features are:

  • personalized coaching for entrepreneurs
  • imparting advice to help establish or restart their small businesses as they start to focus on recovery to arise out of the COVID 19 pandemic.

Source: http://newsonair.com/Main-News-Details.aspx?id=392178

4.Consider following statements with reference toDrugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act, 1954

  • It prohibits advertisements of drugs and remedies that claim to have magical properties
  • The act defines magic remedy as any talisman, mantra and amulet which is claimed to have miraculous powers to cure disease in humans or animal

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Tall claims

  • The Ministry of AYUSH has ask to Baba Ramdev’s Patanjali Ayurved to stop advertising that it has found a cure for the contagion, until it examines the matter
  • Advertisements of drugs including Ayurvedic medicines are regulated under Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act, 1954.

About Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act, 1954:

  • It is an Act of the Parliament of India which controls advertising of drugs in India.
  • It prohibits advertisements of drugs and remedies that claim to have magicalproperties and makes doing so a cognizable offence. Hence statements 1 is correct
  • The act defines magic remedy as any talisman, mantra, amulet or any other object which is claimed to have miraculous powersto cure, diagnose, prevent or mitigate disease in humans or animal. Hence statements 2 is correct
  • It includes such devices that are claimed to have the power to influence the structure or function of an organ in humans or animals.
  • Section 7 of the Act says anybody who violates the law shall be punished with a maximum of 6 months imprisonment along with fine. This is, however, for the first conviction.
  • In case of a subsequent conviction, the perpetrator may be jailed for up to 1 year along with a fine.
  • In case a company violates the provisions of the Act, every person who was in-charge of the company when the offence was committed shall be deemed to be guilty.

The law prohibits advertising of drugs and remedies for:

  • Inducing miscarriage or preventing conception in women.
  • Improving or maintaining the capacity for sexual pleasure.
  • Correction of menstrual disorders.
  • Curing, diagnosing or preventing any disease or condition mentioned in an included schedule.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/editorials/ramdev-corona-kit-medicine-6476479/

5.Which of the following Commission recommendations deals with Sub Categorization of OBCs?

  • Malimath Commission
  •  Rohini Commission
  • Padmanabaiah Commission
  • B N Srikrishna Commission

Answer: (b) G. Rohini Commission

Explanation:

In NEWS: OBC sub-categorisation commission gets six-month extension

  • The Union Cabinet approved a six-month extension to the commission appointed to examine sub-categorisation of Other Backward Classes.
  • The Commission was constituted under article 340 of the Constitution with the approval of President on 2nd October 2017.
  • The Commission is headed by Justice () Smt. G. Rohini has since interacted with all the States/UTs which have subcategorized OBCs, and the State Backward Classes Commissions.Hence option (b) is correct
  • The Commission is likely to make recommendations for benefit of such marginalized communities in the Central List of OBCs.
  • The expenditure involved related to the establishment and administration costs of the Commission, will be borne by the Department of Social Justice and Empowerment.

Article 340:

  • The article 340 of the Indian Constitution lays down conditions for the appointment of a Commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes.
  • The President may by order appoint a Commission consisting of such persons as he thinks fit to investigate the conditions of socially and educationally backward classes within the territory of India.

About OBC’s:

  • The OBCs were found to comprise 52% of the country’s population by the Mandal Commission report of 1980 and were determined to be 41% in 2006 when the National Sample Survey Organisation took place.
  • In the Indian Constitution, OBCs are described as “socially and educationally backward classes” due to which they are entitled to 27% reservations in public sector employment and higher education.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/obc-commissions-tenure-extended-by-6-months/article31904996.ece

6.Consider following statements with reference to Lightening

  • It is a result of the difference in electrical charge between the top and bottom of a cloud.
  • It is usually associated with cumulonimbus clouds
  • The lightning-generating clouds are typically about 10-12 km in height

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Lightning kills 83 people in Bihar

At least 83 people were killed and over three dozen injured in incidents of lightning strikes across Bihar. It is the biggest-ever casualty in a day due to lightning in recent years

About lightning:

  • Lightning is a very rapid and massive discharge of electricity in the atmosphere. Some of it is directed towards the Earth.
  • It is a result of the difference in electrical charge between the top and bottom of a cloud. Hence statements 1 is correct
  • The lightning-generating clouds are typically about 10-12 km in height, with their base about 1-2 km from the Earth’s surface. The temperatures at the top range from -35°C to -45°C. Hence statements 3 is correct
  • Lightning is usually associated with cumulonimbus clouds, but it also occurs in stratiform clouds (layered clouds with a large horizontal extent), in snowstorms and dust storms, and sometimes in the dust and gases emitted by erupting volcanoes. Hence statements 2 is correct

Mechanism behind Lightning Strike:

  • As water vapour moves upwards in the cloud, it condenses into water due to decreasing temperatures.
  • A huge amount of heat is generated in the process, pushing the water molecules further up. As they move to temperatures below zero, droplets change into small ice crystals.
  • As they continue upwards, they gather mass, until they become so heavy that they start descending. It leads to a system where smaller ice crystals move upwards while larger ones come down.
  • The resulting collisions trigger release of electrons, in a process very similar to the generation of electric sparks. The moving free electrons cause more collisions and more electrons; a chain reaction is formed.
  • The Earth is a good conductor of electricity. While electrically neutral, it is relatively positively charged compared to the middle layer of the cloud.
  • As a result, an estimated 20-25 per cent of the current flow gets directed towards the Earth. It is this current flow that results in damage to life and property.
  • Lightning has a greater probability of striking raised objects on the ground, such as trees or buildings.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/natural-disasters/lightning-kills-83-people-in-bihar-71968

7.7.With respect to Environment Impact Assessment (EIA), Consider following statements

  • It is a formal process used to predict the environmental consequences of any development project.
  • India was the first country to assign mandatory status to EIA through its legislation.
  • It has been made mandatory under the Environmental Protection Act, 1986

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Student unions petition Environment Minister

  • Student unions from several universities and colleges from across India have petitioned Union Environment Minister Prakash Javadekar to put the draft of the proposed Environment Impact Assessment Notification, 2020
  • The key points of dispute with the proposed draft are that it shortens the period of public consultation hearings to a maximum of 40 days, and reduces from 30 to 20 days the time provided for the public to submit their responses during a public hearing for any application seeking environmental clearance.

About Environment Impact Assessment (EIA)

  • EIA is a process of evaluating the likely environmental impacts of a proposed project or development, taking into account inter-relatedsocio-economic, cultural and human-health impacts, both beneficial and adverse. Hence statements 1 is correct
  • The MoEFCC uses EIA Notification 2006 as a major tool for minimizing the adverse impact of rapid industrialization on the environment and for reversing those trends which may lead to climate change in the long run.
  • EIA has now been made mandatory under the Environmental (Protection Act, 1986 for 29 categories of developmental activitiesinvolving investments of Rs. 50 crores and above. Hence statements 3 is correct
  • United States of America was the first country to assign mandatory status to EIA through its National Environmental Protection Act. Hence statements 2 is incorrect

EIA stages:

  • Screening: This stage decides which projects a full or partial assessment need study.
  • Scoping: This stage decides which impacts are necessary to be assessed. This is done based on legal requirements, international conventions, expert knowledge and public engagement.
  • Assessment & evaluation of impacts and development of alternatives
  • EIA Report
  • Decision making
  • Monitoring, compliance, enforcement and environmental auditing

Source: TH

8.Consider following statements with reference to Financial Action Task Force

  • Its secretariat is located at the OECD headquarters in Paris
  • It has an investigative authority for combating money laundering and terrorist financing.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: FATF report fl