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Daily Prelims Test – 26_January 2021

Consider the following Statements regarding Sunderbans

It is a mangrove area in the delta formed by the confluence of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers in the Bay of Bengal.

The mangroves of Sundarbans are the largest single block of tidal halophytic mangroves of the world.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Sunderbans is home to 428 species of birds, says ZSI

  • The Indian Sunderbans, which is part of the largest mangrove forest in the world, is home to 428 species of birds, a recent publication of the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) states.
  • The scientists said of the 428 birds listed, some, like the masked finfoot and the Buffy fish owl, are recorded only from the Sunderbans.
  • India has over 1,300 species of birds and if 428 species of birds are from the Sunderbans, it means that one in every three birds in the country is found in the unique ecosystem.
  • The publication not only highlights the ecological and conservation aspect of the Sunderbans, but through detailed description of bird species and localities where they are found we want to encourage birdwatching.
  • Pointing out that scientists and nature lovers are observing the 125th birth anniversary year of Salim Ali, the Birdman of India, the ZSI Director said birdwatching not only brings people closer to nature, but also creates awareness and livelihood opportunities for the locals.

About Sunderbans

  • The Sundarbans is a mangrove area in the delta formed by the confluence of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna Rivers in the Bay of BengalHence statement 1 is correct
  • The Indian Sunderbans covers 4200 sq km, comprises of the Sunderban Tiger Reserve of 2,585 sq. km — home to about 96 royal Bengal tigers (as per the last census in 2020). It is a world heritage site and a Ramsar site (a wetland site designated to be of international importance).
  • The area is home to nine out of 12 species of kingfishers found in the country as well rare species such as the Goliath heron and Spoon-billed Sandpiper.
  • The most abundant tree species are sundri and gewa.
  • The Sundarbans was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987.
  • It is home to critically endangered northern river terrapin (Batuga, Basaka), the endangered Irrawaddy dolphin, and the endangered fishing cat
  • The part of the Sundarban delta, which lies in Bangladesh (60%) , was accorded the status of a Ramsar site in 1992.
  • It is the largest tidal halophytic mangrove forestin the worldHence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/sunderbans-home-to-428-species-of-birds-records-zsi/article33651099.ece


Which of the following statements is correct regarding the objectives of the Beti Bachao Beti Padhao?

Prevention of gender biased sex selective elimination

Ensuring survival and protection of the girl child

Ensuring education and participation of the girl child

Select the correct options from the codes given below

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Gross enrolment ratio of girls in schools improved from 2014 to 2018: WCD

  • Sharing the achievements of the government’s Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Andolan (BBBP) ahead of National Girl Child Day on Sunday, the ministry said the scheme has resulted in increased awareness and sensitisation of the masses regarding prevalence of gender bias and role of community in eradicating it.
  • Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB) has improved by 16 points from 918 (2014-15) to 934 (2019-20), as per the Health Management Information System (HMIS) data.
  • Out of 640 districts covered under BBBP, 422 districts have shown improvement in SRB from 2014-15 to 2018-2019.
  • GER of girls in the schools at secondary level has improved from 77.45 (2014-15) to 81.32 (2018-19) as per Unified District Information System for Education (UDISE) provisional data.
  • The Ministry highlighted to Mau in Uttar Pradesh (694 in 2014-15 to 951 in 2019-20), Haryana’s Karnal (758 to 898), Mahendergarh (791 to 919), and Rewari (803 to 924), and Punjab’s Patiala (847 to 933).

About Beti Bachao Beti Padhao

  • This is a joint initiative of Ministry of Women and Child Development, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and Ministry of Human Resource Development.
  • BBBP is a national campaign and focussed multisectoral action in 100 selected districts low in Child Sex Ratio (CSR), covering all States and UTs.
  • Main Objectives: Hence option (d) is correct
  • Prevention of gender-biased sex-selective elimination.
  • Ensuring survival & protection of the girl child.
  • Ensuring education and participation of the girl child.

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/current-affairs/gross-enrolment-ratio-of-girls-in-schools-improved-from-2014-to-2018-wcd-121012301108_1.html


The Great Reset is an initiative by the:

World Bank

World Economic Forum

World Trade Organization

International Labour Organization

Answer: (b) World Economic Forum

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained Ideas: What is The Great Reset and why is it controversial

What is The Great Reset?

  • The Great Reset is an initiative by the World Economic Forum. Hence option (b) is correct
  • It has been conceptualized by the founder and executive chairman of the World Economic Forum’s , Klaus Schwab, and has evolved over the last few years. It is based on the assessment that the world economy is in deep trouble. 
  • It has been argued that the situation has been made a lot worse by many factors, including the pandemic’s devastating effects on global society, the un- folding technological revolution, and the consequences of climate change.
  • Schwab demands that “the world must act jointly and swiftly to revamp all aspects of our societies and economies, from education to social contracts and working conditions. Every country, from the United States to China, must participate, and every industry, from oil and gas to tech, must be transformed. In short, we need a ‘Great Reset’ of capitalism.”

Three of them stand out.

  • First is the question of reforming capitalism. Davos has been at the forefront of calling for “stakeholder capitalism” that looks beyond the traditional corporate focus on maximising profit for shareholders.
  • Second, Davos is certainly right to focus on the deepening climate crisis. Climate sceptics have been ousted from Washington and President Biden has rejoined the 2015 Paris accord on mitigating climate change.
  • Third is the growing difficulty of global cooperation that Davos wants to promote. The era of great power harmony that accompanied the liberalisation of the global economy at the turn of the 1990s has yielded place to intense contestation. The contestation is not just political but increasingly economic and technological.
  • The right sees the WEF arguments about restructuring the global economy as a dangerous attempt to impose ‘socialism’ and dismantle the traditional society, or what remains of it. The left scoffs at the Davos Man’s talk on the crisis of capitalism. It points to the complicity of the Davos forum in promoting policies that have brought the world to the current impasse and question its capacity to produce solutions. 

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/what-is-the-great-reset-and-why-is-it-controversial-world-economic-forum-7160434/


Sarottar lake, which was in news recently is located in

West Bengal

Assam

Rajasthan

Bihar

Answer: (d) Bihar

Explanation:

In NEWS: Bihar forest department recovers 155 skinned migratory birds from poacher

  • The Bihar forest department claimed to have arrested a notorious poacher with 155 skinned migratory birds in East Champaran district January 24, 2021.
  • The poacher has been booked under the Wild (Life) Protection Act, 1972.
  • The man was arrested from near the famous Sarottar Lake in the district that is known as a ‘migratory bird’s paradise’. Hence option (d) is correct
  • Sarottar Lake, about 35km south of Motihari and adjacent to world famous Kesaria Stupa, attracts migratory birds from Siberia and the Himalayan region every winter.
  • Pochard, Red Crested Pochard, Coot, Dove, Sora, Virgina rail, Snipe, Teal and Wood Cock are among those that flock to the lake in search of food and nesting spots.
  • The arrival of different varieties of exotic winged guests, apart from resident birds, has made the lake a birdwatcher’s paradise.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/bihar-forest-department-recovers-155-skinned-migratory-birds-from-poacher-75194


Consider the following statements about Global Climate Risk Index, 2021

It is released by Germanwatch, an NGO based in Bonn, Germany.

As per the report, India listed first in the most-affected countries by the impact of climate change globally in 2019

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: India seventh on index of countries impacted by climate change in 2019.

  • India ranks seventh among countries most affected in 2019 by climate change, according to the Global Climate Risk Index, 2021, released Monday by Germanwatch — an NGO based in Bonn, Germany. Hence statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is incorrect
  • In 2019, monsoon continued for a month longer than normal in India. From June to the end of September 2019, 110% of the long-period average was recorded.
  • Flooding caused by heavy rain was responsible for 1,800 deaths across 14 states and led to the displacement of 1.8 million people, the report said. There were eight tropical cyclones in India. Six of them intensified to become very severe
  • ‘Extremely severe’ cyclone Fani affected 28 million people, killing 90 people in India and Bangladesh, and causing economic loss to the tune of US$8.1 billion, the report added.
  • India was preceded by Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Bahamas, Japan, Malawi and Afghanistan in the list of countries most affected by the impacts of extreme weather events in 2019
  • In March 2019, the intense tropical cyclone Idai hit Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi, causing catastrophic damage and a humanitarian crisis in all three countries
  • Six of the 10 countries most affected from 2000 to 2019 belong to the low to lower-middle income category.

About Global Climate Risk Index (CRI)

  • The Global Climate Risk Index (CRI) analyses quantified impacts of extreme weather events both in terms of the fatalities and economic losses.
  • It doesn’t however consider slow-onset events like rising sea levels, glacier melting or ocean warming and acidification.
  • The index is based on data from the Munich Re NatCatSERVICE.
  • This an annually published Risk Index

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-seventh-on-index-of-countries-impacted-by-climate-change-in-2019-7161722/


Consider the following statements about Akash-NG

It is a new generation Air to Air Missile

It can be use by Indian Air Force with an aim of intercepting high maneuvering low Radar Cross Section aerial threats

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: DRDO successfully tests new generation Akash missile

  • The Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) on Monday successfully conducted the maiden test of the New Generation Akash missile (Akash-NG).
  • Akash-NG is a new generation Surface to Air Missile meant for use by Indian Air Force with an aim of intercepting high maneuvering low RCS (Radar Cross Section) aerial threats. Hence statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is correct
  • The missile, DRDO said, intercepted the target with text book precision and the launch met all the test objectives by performing high maneuvers during the trajectory.
  • The performance of the Command and Control system, onboard avionics and aerodynamic configuration of the missile was successfully validated during the trial.
  • The new generation missile system has been developed with better deployability compared to other similar systems with canisterized launcher and much smaller ground system footprint

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/drdo-successfully-tests-new-generation-akash-missile-7161693/


Consider the following Statements regarding Law Commission of India

It is neither a constitutional body nor a statutory body

It is an executive body which is established by the government for a fixed tenure and acts as an advisory body to the Law Ministry.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: SC notice to Centre on PIL seeking Law Commission to be declared ‘statutory body’

  • Advocate Ashwini Kumar Upadhyay contended that the non-working of the Law Commission is depriving the Centre of the benefit of having its exhaustive recommendations on various aspects of law
  • The Supreme Court Monday issued notice on a PIL urging it to direct the Centre to declare the Law Commission of India as a “statutory body” and to appoint a chairperson and members for the body within a month.
  • The petition pointed out that the tenure of the 21st Law Commission had ended on August 31, 2018 and though the Centre had approved the constitution of the 22nd Commission on February 19, 2020, it was yet to notify the next Commission or extend the tenure of the chairperson and members.

About Law Commission of India

  • The Law Commission is an executive body which is established by the government for a fixed tenure. It acts as an advisory body to the Law Ministry. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The Law Commission is neither a statutory nor a constitutional body. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is primarily composed of legal experts.
  • The first Law Commission in India was formed in 1955 with its chairman being the then Attorney-General of India, M. C. Setalvad.
  • Currently, there is no Law Commission as the tenure of the latest commission, i.e., the 21st Commission got over in August 2018.
  • The Law Ministry has initiated the process of forming a new Law Commission.
  • The Commission submits reports to the government on various matters of a legal nature. The reports are not binding on the government, which can either reject or accept them.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/sc-notice-to-centre-on-pil-seeking-law-commission-to-be-declared-statutory-body-7161881/


Consider the following Statements regarding Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons

It is the first legally binding international agreement to comprehensively prohibit nuclear weapons

It prohibits provision of assistance to any State in the conduct of prohibited activities.

India is a part of this treaty

Select the correct options from the codes given below

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: India says it doesn’t support treaty on nuclear-weapon prohibition

  • As the first-ever treaty to ban nuclear weapons entered into force, India said that it does not support the treaty and shall not be bound by any of the obligations that may arise from it
  • India does not support the treaty and shall not be bound by any of the obligations that may arise from it. Hence statement 3 is incorrect
  • India believes that this goal can be achieved through a step-by-step process underwritten by a universal commitment, and an agreed global and non-discriminatory multilateral framework, as outlined in the country’s working paper titled ‘Nuclear Disarmament
  • The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons was approved by the United Nations General Assembly in 2017, but none of the nine countries known or believed to possess nuclear weapons supported it and neither did the NATO alliance

About Treaty on the prohibition of nuclear weapons

  • The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW), or the Nuclear Weapon Ban Treaty, is the first legally binding international agreement to comprehensively prohibit nuclear weapons, with the goal of leading towards their total eliminationHence statement 1 is correct
  • It was passed on 7 July 2017.
  • In order to come into effect, signature and ratification by at least 50 countries is required.
  • The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) includes a comprehensive set of prohibitions on participating in any nuclear weapon activities. These include undertakings not to develop, test, produce, acquire, possess, stockpile, use or threaten to use nuclear weapons.
  • The Treaty also prohibits the deployment of nuclear weapons on national territory and the provision of assistance to any State in the conduct of prohibited activitiesHence statement 2 is correct
  • States parties will be obliged to prevent and suppress any activity prohibited under the TPNW undertaken by persons or on territory under its jurisdiction or control.
  • The Treaty also obliges States parties to provide adequate assistance to individuals affected by the use or testing of nuclear weapons, as well as to take necessary and appropriate measure of environmental remediation in areas under its jurisdiction or control contaminated as a result of activities related to the testing or use of nuclear weapons.
  • More than 120 nations adopted the first international treaty banning nuclear weapons at the United Nations headquarters in New York City.
  • The initiative—led by Austria, Brazil, Mexico, South Africa, and New Zealand—was approved by 122 votes, with only the Netherlands opposed, and Singapore abstaining.
  • The nine countries generally recognized as possessing nuclear weapons—the U.S., Russia, Britain, China, France, India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Israel—were noticeably absent from the negotiations, as were most members of NATO

Source: https://www.financialexpress.com/defence/india-says-it-doesnt-support-treaty-on-nuclear-weapon-prohibition/2177018/


Which of the following sites are selected for reintroduction of cheetah in India by the Supreme Court-appointed panel?

Kuno National Park

Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary

Gandhi Sagar-Chittorgarh

Bhainsrogarh Sanctuary

Select the correct options from the codes given below

  1. 1,2 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 4 only
  3. 1,2 and 4 only
  4. 1,2,3 and 4

Answer: (d) 1,2,3 and 4

Explanation:

In NEWS: Four sites selected for reintroduction of cheetah in India

  • A Supreme Court-appointed committee has selected four possible sites – three in Madhya Pradesh and one in Rajasthan – for cheetah introduction in the wild even as MP forest department officials plan a visit to Africa to train themselves on handling the fastest animal on the planet.
  • The sites include Kuno National Park, Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary and Gandhi Sagar-Chittorgarh in Madhya Pradesh and Bhainsrogarh Sanctuary in RajasthanHence option (d) is correct
  • All four areas were selected as they are well-protected and have well-managed grasslands, the report said.
  • On the basis of the suggestion of the report, the forest department will cut down more than 200 thorny trees in Kuno. The grassland will also be changed. Now, the department will replace tall grass with short grass. In Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary, prey base will be increased

Asiatic cheetahs in India

  • In 1947, Maharaja Ramanuj Pratap Singh of Deoghar of Koriya, Chhattisgarh — who was infamous for shooting over 1,150 tigers — reportedly killed the last known Asiatic cheetah in India.
  • The latter sighting is generally accepted to be the final credible sighting of a cheetah in India. In 1952, the cheetah was officially declared extinct from India.
  • The Asiatic cheetah is classified as a “critically endangered” species by the IUCN Red List, and is believed to survive only in Iran.
  • Reintroductions of large carnivores have increasingly been recognized as a strategy to conserve threatened species and restore ecosystem functions.
  • The cheetah is the only large carnivore that has been extirpated, mainly by over-hunting in India in historical times.
  • India now has the economic ability to consider restoring its lost natural heritage for ethical as well as ecological reasons.

Source: DTE


Tides occur in the oceans and seas due to which among the following?

Gravitational force of the Sun

Gravitational force of the Moon

Centrifugal force of the Earth

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

The periodical rise and fall of the sea level, once or twice a day ,mainly due to attraction of Sun and Moon. Another factor is centrifugal force, which is the force that acts to counter balance the gravity.