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Daily Prelims Test – 26_February 2021

Consider the following Statements regarding Thuluth script

It was first formulated in the 7th century at the time of the Umayyad caliphate

It is written on the principle that one-third of each letter slopes.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both1 and 2 

Explanation:

In NEWS: Arabic calligraphy: Art between the lines of prayer

  • Bee Bee Laisa, a final year Engineering student in Bengaluru, has a dream. The 24-year-old wants to transcribe a copy of the Koran in Arabic
  • A 24-year-old with a global presence and her teacher are among a few keeping the art of Arabic calligraphy alive in India
  • The Institute of Indo-Islamic Art and Culture (IIAC) at Richmond Street, Bengaluru, to learn Arabic calligraphy. Also known as khat, this centuries-old art form is held in high regard by Muslims because of its association with the dissemination of the Koran before the era of printing presses.

About Thuluth script

  • Thuluth script was first formulated in the 7th century at the time of the Umayyad caliphate, but it did not progress entirely until the late 9th century. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
  • The Umayyad Caliphate was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
  • Thuluth was developed during the 10th century and later refined by Ahmad Tayyib Shah.
  • It is a variant of Naksh style of Islamic Calligraphy.
  • Letters in this script have long vertical lines with broad spacing.
  • It is written on the principle that one-third of each letter slopes. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • It is a large and elegant, cursive script, used in medieval times on mosque decorations.
  • It took on some of the functions of the early Kufic script.
  • It was used to write sura (Quranic chapter) headings, religious inscriptions, and princely titles and epigraphs.
  • It was also used for many of the large copies of the Quran produced from the 13th century.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/society/history-and-culture/arabic-calligraphy-thrives-in-bengaluru-institute/article33877330.ece


Consider the following Statements regarding BRICS

It is an informal group of states comprising of Brazil, Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa

All five BRICS nations are G-20 members.

New Development Bank (NDB) is operated by the BRICS states

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3 

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3 

Explanation:

In NEWS: India kicks off BRICS chairship with inaugural three-day long Sherpas’ meeting

  • India has kicked off its BRICS Chairship with the inaugural three-day-long Sherpas’ meeting. Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) Spokesperson Anurag Srivastava

About BRICS

  • BRICS is an informal group of states comprising of: Brazil, Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
  • South Africa joined this informal group in 2011 and BRIC became BRICS. 
  • It was established through the Russian initiative on 16 June 2009. The first formal summit was held in Yekaterinburg, Russia. 
  • It together represents about 42% of the world population, 23% of GDP, 30% of the territory and 18% of the global trade.
  • The acronym BRIC was first used in 2001 by Goldman Sachs in their Global Economics Paper. The BRICS members are all developing or newly industrialised countries. 
  • All five BRICS nations are G-20 members. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • At the Fortaleza Summit (2014), in Brazil, important institutions were created: The New Development Bank (NDB) and the Contingent Reserve Arrangement (CRA). Hence, statement 3 is correct.
  • At the 11th BRICS Summit held in Brasilia, the Brasilia Declaration was signed. 
  • It advocated Strengthening the multilateral system, Economic and Financial Cooperation and cooperation on the fight against transnational crime, especially against organized crime & money laundering.

Goals: 

  • To promote dialogue and cooperation among our countries in an incremental, proactive, pragmatic, open and transparent way. 
  • To serve common interests of emerging market economies and developing countries. 
  • To build a harmonious world of lasting peace and common prosperity.

Source: http://www.newsonair.com/News?title=India-kicks-off-BRICS-chairship-with-inaugural-three-day-long-Sherpas%26%2339%3B-meeting&id=410531


Consider the following Statements regarding Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi

  1. Under the scheme an income support of 6,000/- per year in three equal installments will be provided
  2. All landholding farmers irrespective of the size of their land holdings in their names are eligible for this scheme

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both1 and 2 

Explanation:

In NEWS: PM-Kisan scheme completes 2 years

  • The scheme was formally launched on February 24, 2019, with the aim to augment the income of the farmers by providing income support to all landholding farmers’ families across the country.
  • Under the scheme, an amount of 6000 rupees per year is transferred in three instalments of 2000 rupees directly into the bank accounts of the farmers. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
  • The scheme is centrally funded and became effective from December 1, 2018.
  • Landholding farmers’ families from both urban and rural areas can apply for the scheme. All landholding farmers irrespective of the size of their land holdings in their names.  Responsibility of identification of beneficiary farmer family is on the State / UT Governments. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • Aadhaar card is mandatory for registration.
  • Farmer can register themselves through local patwari/revenue officer nominated by the State Government or thorough Common Service Centres (CSCs).
  • Special provisions have been made in the scheme for the north-eastern states where land ownership rights are community-based and in Jharkhand, which does not have updated land records and restrictions on the transfer of land.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/pmkisan-scheme-completes-2-years-all-you-need-to-know-101614158704189.html


Which of the following rights are included in Forest Rights Act (FRA) 2006?

Community rights

Right of ownership, access to collect, use, and dispose of minor forest produce.

Rights of settlement

Right to protect, regenerate or conserve or manage any community forest resource

Right of access to biodiversity

Select the correct option from the given below codes

  1. 2, 3 and 4 only
  2. 1,3 and 5 only
  3. 1 and 5 only
  4. 1,2,3,4 and 5

Answer: (d) 1,2,3,4 and 5

Explanation:

In NEWS: Chhattisgarh’s Sitanadi Udanti tiger reserve: Tribals seek forest rights, officials cite core area rule

  • THOUSANDS OF tribals living in villages located in the core areas of Sitanadi Udanti Tiger Reserve are demanding that their Community Forest Resource rights be recognised.
  • These villagers are facing bureaucratic hurdles, largely based on interpretation of law.
  • The residents have submitted a letter to the Sub Divisional Magistrate, asking for a special gram sabha to facilitate the recognition of Community Forest Resource rights provided under the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006.

About Forest Rights Act (FRA) 2006:

  • The Forest Rights Act (FRA), 2006 recognizes the rights of the forest dwelling tribal communities and other traditional forest dwellers to forest resources, on which these communities were dependent for a variety of needs, including livelihood, habitation and other socio-cultural needs. 
  • The Act further enjoins upon the Gram Sabha and rights holders the responsibility of conservation and protection of bio-diversity, wildlife, forests, adjoining catchment areas, water sources and other ecologically sensitive areas as well as to stop any destructive practices affecting these resources or cultural and natural heritage of the tribals. 
  • The Gram Sabha is also a highly empowered body under the Act, enabling the tribal population to have a decisive say in the determination of local policies and schemes impacting them.

The FRA rights include:

  • Community rights such as nistar, by whatever name called, including those used in erstwhile Princely States, zamindari or such intermediary regimes;
  • Right of ownership, access to collect, use, and dispose of minor forest produce.
  • Other community rights of uses or entitlements such as fish and other products of water bodies, grazing (both settled or transhumant) and traditional seasonal resource access of nomadic or pastoralist communities;
  • Community tenures of habitat and habitation for primitive tribal groups and pre-agricultural communities.
  • Rights of settlement and conversion of all forest villages, old habitation, unsurveyed villages and other villages in forests, whether recorded, notified or not into revenue villages;
  • Right to protect, regenerate or conserve or manage any community forest resource (CFR) which they have been traditionally protecting and conserving for sustainable use;
  • Rights which are recognised under any State law or laws of any Autonomous District Council or Autonomous Regional Council or which are accepted as rights of tribals under any traditional or customary law of the concerned tribes of any State;
  • Right of access to biodiversity and community right to intellectual property and traditional knowledge related to biodiversity and cultural diversity; and
  • Any other traditional right customarily enjoyed by the forest dwelling Scheduled Tribes or other traditional forest dwellers, excluding the traditional right of hunting or trapping. Hence option (d) is correct

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/chhattisgarhs-sitanadi-udanti-tiger-reserve-tribals-seek-forest-rights-officials-cite-core-area-rule-7203531/


Udanti -Sitandi tiger reserve , which was in news recently is located in

  1. Gujarat
  2. Rajasthan
  3. Chhattisgarh
  4. Haryana

Answer: (c) Chhattisgarh

Explanation:

In NEWS: Chhattisgarh’s Sitanadi Udanti tiger reserve: Tribals seek forest rights, officials cite core area rule

  • The tribals who are living in villages located in the core areas of Sitanadi Udanti Tiger Reserve are demanding that their Community Forest Resource rights be recognised.

About Udanti -Sitandi tiger reserve

  • Udanti -Sitandi tiger reserve came into existence in the year 2008-09, are two separate reserves combined together and controlled by one field officer.
  • It comprises a core area of 851.09 sq km. and Buffer area of 991.45 sq km. thus the total area of this tiger reserve is 1842.54 sq km. Located in Chhattisgarh state. Hence option (c) is correct
  • Individually, Sitanadi Wildlife Sanctuary is one of the most famous and important wildlife sanctuaries in central India. It derives its name from the Sitanadi River that originates in the middle of sanctuary. Sitanadi Wildlife Sanctuary is known for its lush green flora and unique and diverse fauna.
  • Udanti Wildlife Sanctuary is a small but an important wildlife sanctuary located in the Raipur district of Chhattisgarh. It derives its name from the Udanti River flowing from the west to east covering major part of the sanctuary.
  • The flora in Udanti Wildlife Sanctuary chiefly consists of tropical dry peninsular sal forests and southern tropical dry deciduous mixed forests.
  • The topography of the area is a broken mass of land traversed by innumerable hill ranges intercepted by strips of plains.
  • It receives an annual rainfall of 1600 mm.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/chhattisgarhs-sitanadi-udanti-tiger-reserve-tribals-seek-forest-rights-officials-cite-core-area-rule-7203531/


Consider the following Statements regarding International Commission On Large Dams

It is a non-governmental International Organization which provides a forum for the exchange of knowledge and experience in dam engineering.

It aims to encourage advances in the planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of large dams

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both1 and 2 

Explanation:

In NEWS: International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) Symposium on Sustainable Development of Dams & River Basins inaugurated

  • The International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) Symposium on Sustainable Development of Dams & River Basins was inaugurated by Minister for Jal Shakti.
  • International Commission on Large Dams (INCOLD) organised Symposium on Sustainable Development of Dams and River Basins under the aegis of ICOLD.
  • It was organised in collaboration with Central Water Commission (CWC), Dam Rehabilitation Improvement Project (DRIP) and National Hydrology Project (NHP).

About The International Commission On Large Dams (ICOLD)

  • The International Commission On Large Dams (ICOLD) is a non-governmental International Organization which provides a forum for the exchange of knowledge and experience in dam engineering. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
  • The Organization leads the profession in ensuring that dams are built safely, efficiently, economically, and without detrimental effects on the environment.
  • Its original aim was to encourage advances in the planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of large dams and their associated civil works, by collecting and disseminating relevant information and by studying related technical questions. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • Earlier, the focus was put on subjects of current concern such as dam safety, monitoring of performance, reanalysis of older dams and spillways, effects of ageing and environmental impact.
  • More recently, new subjects include cost studies at the planning and construction stages, harnessing international rivers, information for the public at large, and financing.
  • The science of dam engineering and water management has been and is being advanced through ICOLD activities.
  • The INCOLD is the Indian Committee interacting with ICOLD Central Office in Paris and helps in dissemination, in India, of information about new developments in dam engineering, besides projecting India’s expertise at international level through participation in various events of ICOLD.
  • Indian experts are many a time invited to officiate as members of ICOLD Committees on specialized topics.
  • Presently Indian representatives are members in 12 technical committees out of 19 committees of ICOLD.

Source:https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1700418#:~:text=The%20International%20Commission%20on%20Large,Chief%20Guest%20and%20Shri%20R.K.


Consider the following Statements regarding Solar Cycle

It is the cycle that the Sun’s magnetic field goes through approximately every 11 years.

It does not affects activity on the surface of the Sun

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both1 and 2 

Explanation:

In NEWS: Kodaikanal Solar Observatory Digitized Data probes Suns rotation over the Century, paving way to predict solar cycles

  • Scientists at Kodaikanal Solar Observatory have estimated how the Sun has rotated over a century from data extracted from old films and photographs that have been digitized.
  • The scientists have estimated how the Sun has rotated over a century from data extracted from old films and photographs that have been digitized.
  • The Sun rotates more quickly at its equator than at its poles and the Sun’s differential rotation rates cause its magnetic field to become twisted and tangled.
  • The tangles in the magnetic field lines can produce strong localized magnetic fields and when the Sun’s magnetic field gets twisted, there are lots of sunspots.
  • The sunspots which form at the surface with an 11-year periodicity are the only route to probe the solar dynamo or solar magnetism inside the Sun and measure the variation in solar rotation.
  • The team compared the consistent digitized data with manual data of rotation taken earlier and said that they have been able to differentiate the behaviors of the bigger and smaller solar spots.

About Solar Cycle:

  • The solar cycle is the cycle that the Sun’s magnetic field goes through approximately every 11 years. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
  • Sun is a huge ball of electrically-charged hot gas.  This charged gas moves, generating a powerful magnetic field.
  • The Sun’s magnetic field goes through a cycle, called the solar cycle.
  • Every 11 years or so, the Sun’s magnetic field completely flips. This means that the Sun’s north and south poles switch places.
  • The solar cycle affects activity on the surface of the Sun, such as sunspots which are caused by the Sun’s magnetic fields. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • The sunspots which form at the surface with an 11-year periodicity are the only route to probe the solar dynamo or solar magnetism inside the Sun and hence measure the variation in solar rotation.

Source: https://www.aries.res.in/node/890 / PIB


Consider the following Statements regarding Swachh Iconic Places (SIP) initiative

It is being coordinated by the Ministry of Jal Shakti, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA), Ministry of Tourism and Ministry of Culture

It aims at enhancing the experience of both domestic and foreign visitors by improving the sanitation and cleanliness standards at and around the sites.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both1 and 2 

Explanation:

In NEWS: Swachh Iconic Places – Ministry of Jal Shakti announces selection of 12 sites for transforming them into ‘Swachh Tourist Destinations’under Phase-IV

‘Swachh Tourist Destinations’ underSwachh Iconic Places (SIP) initiative of Swachh Bharat Mission Grameen (SBM-G), the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS), Ministry of Jal Shakti has announced the selection ofthe following Twelve (12) iconic sites under Phase IV of SIP.

  1. Ajanta Caves, Maharashtra
  2. Sanchi Stupa, Madhya Pradesh
  3. Kumbhalgarh Fort, Rajasthan
  4. Jaisalmer Fort, Rajasthan
  5. Ramdevra, Jaisalmer, Rajasthan
  6. Golconda Fort, Hyderabad, Telangana
  7. Sun Temple, Konark, Odisha
  8. Rock Garden, Chandigarh
  9. Dal Lake, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmi
  10. Banke Bihari Temple, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh
  1. Agra Fort, Agra, Uttar Pradesh
  2. Kalighat Temple, West Bengal

About Swachh Iconic Places (SIP) initiative

  • It is a multi-stakeholder initiative focusing on cleaning up 100 places across India that are “iconic” due to their heritage, religious and/or cultural significance.
  • It is being coordinated by the Ministry of Jal Shakti, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA), Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Culture and the concerned State/UT governments. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
  • The initiative aims at enhancing the experience of both domestic and foreign visitors by improving the sanitation and cleanliness standards at and around the sites. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • The objective of SIP is to achieve a distinctly higher level of Sanitation/Cleanliness at these places.
  • All Iconic Sites have designated PSUs for financial and technical support.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1700780


Consider the following Statements regarding City Innovation Exchange (CiX) platform

It is a platform which engages with innovators to design-test-deliver on solutions to pressing urban challenges through an ‘open innovation’ process.

It has launched by the Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both1 and 2 

Explanation:

In NEWS: City Innovation Exchange (CiX) Launched for Fostering Innovation in Urban Ecosystem

  • The City Innovation Exchange (CiX) platform was launched by Shri Durga Shanker Mishra, Secretary, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs at an online event. Hence, statement 2 is correct.

What is City Innovation Exchange (CiX)?

  • It is a platform which engages with innovators to design-test-deliver on solutions to pressing urban challenges through an ‘open innovation’ processHence, statement 2 is correct.
  • It is designed on the philosophy of ‘everyone is an innovator’.
  • The Smart Cities Mission will partner and effectively collaborate with Startup India, Atal Innovation Mission, AGNIi and other initiatives in the Indian Innovation ecosystem.
  • The Platform has more than 400 start-ups, 100 smart cities, more than 150 challenges statements and over 215 solutions at the time of launch.

Significance of City Innovation Exchange (CiX)

  • It will be a significant addition to the growing innovation ecosystem of India and focuses on fostering innovative practices in cities.
  • It is among the ongoing efforts of the Government to realise Prime Minister’s vision of New and AtmaNirbhar Bharat.
  • It aims to make cities more self-reliant and enabled to meet the needs of and provide services to their citizens.
  • The platform will bring together Citizen Organisations-Academia- Businesses- Government to co-create for the future of Urban India in a transparent and sustainable manner.
  • It will connect cities to innovators across the national ecosystem to design innovative solutions for their pressing challenges.
  • The platform will ease the discovery, design & validation of solutions through a robust, transparent and user centric process that will reduce barriers for innovators and cities to discover fitting solutions.
  • The platform in due time will help our cities in adopting solutions that will enhance the quality of life for its residents and significantly improve the Ease of Doing Business.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1700855


In the context of Indian history, the principle of ‘Dyarchy (diarchy)’ refers to

  1. Division of the central legislature into two houses. 
  2. Introductions of double government i.e., Central and Statement governments.
  3. Having two sets of rulers; one in London and another in Delhi.
  4. Division of the subjects delegated to the provinces into two categories.

Answer: (d) Division of the subjects delegated to the provinces into two categories.

Explanation:

  • The Government of India Act of 1919 was enacted to satisfy the people of India to some extent.
  • The salient features of the Act were as follows : (a) Preamble: The Act provided for a Preamble that laid down the basic principles and policies upon which it was based. According to it the policy of the British Parliament was – (i) to provide for the increasing association of Indians in every branch of Indian administration, (ii) to develop self governing institutions with a view to the progressive realisation of responsible government in British India as an integral part of the empire; (iii) accordingly, the Preamble suggested for a decentralised unitary form of government. The Act divided the functions of government in two categories: central and provincial. The provincial subjects were further subdivided into transferred and reserved. Thus, in the provinces a new form of government, dyarchy, was introduced. Dyarchy means dual set of governments, e.g.