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Daily Prelims Test – 26_December_2021

1. Consider the following statements regarding Juvenile Justice Board:

1)   It is an institutional body constituted under Juvenile Justice Act, 2015.

2)   It consists of a judicial magistrate of the first class.

3)   It is meant to resolve cases within a four month period.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)    3 only

b)   2 and 3 only

c)    1 and 2 only

d)   1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: HC issues directions for streamlining juvenile justice delivery system

In its sustained effort to streamline the functioning of the juvenile justice delivery system, the Delhi High Court has passed a series of directions, including a quarterly review of the progress of the Individual Care Plan (ICP) and rehabilitation of children in conflict with law by the Juvenile Justice Board (JJB).

Juvenile Justice Board:

●        The Juvenile Justice Board is an institutional body constituted under Section 4 of the JJ Act, 2015Hence statement (1) is correct.

●      It has been included in the State List

●      One or more than one Juvenile Justice Board(s) are established by the State Government for each district.

●      The Board exercises its powers and discharges functions relating to the ‘child in conflict with law’ as has been defined under Section 2(13) of this Act.

●      The Bench shall have all the powers conferred by the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 on a Metropolitan Magistrate or a Judicial Magistrate First Class.

●        It consists of a judicial magistrate of the first class and two social workers. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●        It is meant to resolve cases within a four month period. Hence statement (3) is correct.

The Board constituted for any district shall have the power to deal exclusively with the proceedings under the Act:

●      In the area of jurisdiction of the Board,

●      In matters relating to children in conflict with the law.

Functions:

●        Ensuring informed participation of the child & the parent or the guardian throughout the process.

●        Ensuring protection of the child’s rights throughout the process of arresting the child, inquiry, aftercare and rehabilitation.

●        Ensuring the availability of legal aid for the child through various legal services institutions.

●        Providing a qualified interpreter or translator to the child if he/she fails to understand the language during the course of proceedings.

●        Ordering the police for registration of FIR if any offence is committed against any child in conflict with the law.

●        Conducting a regular inspection of jails meant for adults, to check if any child is lodged in such jails.

●        Taking immediate measures for the transfer of a child found in jails for adults, to an observation home.

●        Conducting inquiry for declaring that a certain person is fit for taking care of the child in conflict with the law.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/hc-issues-directions-for-streamlining-juvenile-justice-delivery-system/article38016448.ece

2. Consider the following statements regarding Rukmini Devi Arundale:

1)   She founded the Kalakshetra Foundation in Madras.

2)   She was the first Indian woman to be nominated in Rajya Sabha.

3)   She was a theosophist who was greatly inspired by Annie Besant.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)    3 only

b)   2 and 3 only

c)    1 and 2 only

d)   1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

Students from various states of India should learn more about Kalakshetra Foundation and there has to be awareness building on the institution which has been recognized by the Centre as an “institution of excellence”, Union Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman said

Kalakshetra Foundation:

●      It is an art and cultural academy dedicated to the preservation of traditional values in Indian art and crafts, especially in the field of Bharatanatyam dance and Gandharvaveda music.

●      It is a renowned training institute for the classical dances of India.

Rukmini Devi Arundale (1904 – 1986)

●        She was an Indian classical dancer who led the renaissance of the ‘Bharatnatyam’ dance form.

●        She founded the Kalakshetra Foundation in Madras. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●        She was also a theosophist who was greatly inspired by Annie Besant, the Theosophical Society’s British co-founder, and president. Hence statement (3) is correct.

●        She was nominated as a member of the Indian Parliament’s Council of States (the Rajya Sabha) in 1952.

●        She was the first Indian woman to be nominated in Rajya Sabha. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●        She removed the inherent eroticism of Sadhir dance to make it palatable to Victorian British morality and Indian upper-caste elites.

●        She became the President of the All-India Federation of Young Theosophists in 1923 and the President of the World Federation of Young Theosophists in 1925.

Source: PIB

3. Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor is a project led by the

a)    European Space Agency

b)   National Aeronautics and Space Administration

c)    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency

d)   Canadian Space Agency

Answer: (a) European Space Agency

Explanation:

In NEWS: Astronomers detect rare giant eruptions from magnetar located 13 million light years away

●      Magnetars are a type of isolated neutron stars that possess the most intense magnetic fields.

●      They experience violent eruptions or intense bursts in the form of transient X-ray pulses which are several orders higher than that of the Sun.

●      An international group of astronomers has obtained the first clues about extremely rare giant eruptions lasting 3.5 milliseconds that emerged from a magnetar located 13 million light years away.

●      The team includes astronomers from Norway, Spain and the Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Nainital.

●      So far, only 30 magnetars located within the Milky Way have been discovered.

●      Like earthquakes on Earth, magnetars suffer starquakes produced on their crust due to high instability prevailing in their magnetospheres. This instability triggers Alfven waves that are also common in the Sun.

●      The interactions between multiple Alfven waves ultimately release massive energies, appearing as giant flares lasting for a few milliseconds

●      The detection would have been nearly impossible without Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) on board the International Space Station and its wide effective area, coupled with complex data analysis performed by the scientists.

Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM):

●        It is a project led by the European Space AgencyHence option (a) is correct.

●        It placed cameras and X-ray/γ-ray detectors on the International Space Station.

●        It aims to observe the upper atmosphere in order to study sprites, jets and elves and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes in connection with thunderstorms.

●        ASIM was the only mission that detected the main burst phase in the entire energy range of photons without saturation

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/pune/astronomers-detect-eruptions-from-magnetar-7686177/

4. Consider the following statements regarding Abhyas:

1)   It is the unmanned indigenous aerial target system.

2)   It has been developed by the Bengaluru-based Aeronautical Development Establishment along with other laboratories of the DRDO.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)    1 only

b)   2 only

c)    Both 1 and 2

d)   Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: India successfully tests indigenous Aerial Target ‘Abhyas’

●        The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has successfully conducted the flight test of indigenously developed High-speed Expendable Aerial Target (HEAT) Abhyas from Integrated Test Range (ITR), Chandipur off the coast in Odisha. Hence statement (1) is correct and statement (2) is correct.

●        Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE), Bengaluru based DRDO laboratory along with other DRDO laboratories has developed this indigenous unmanned aerial target system to meet the requirement of aerial targets of Indian Armed Forces.

●        It is powered by a small gas turbine engine.

●        The aircraft is controlled by a ground based controller and an indigenously developed MEMS based Inertial Navigation System along with the Flight Control Computer which helps it to follow the pre-designated path in a fully autonomous mode.

●        Abhyas is designed for autonomous flying with the help of an autopilot, under development at ADE.

Source: https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/drdo-conducts-flight-test-aerial-target-abhyas-1891486-2021-12-23

5. Consider the following statements regarding Advanced Chemistry Cell:

1)   They can store electric energy either as electrochemical or as chemical energy.

2)   They can convert it back to electric energy as and when required.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)    1 only

b)   2 only

c)    Both 1 and 2

d)   Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Auto component industry optimistic for growth in FY22 despite Covid woes

●        The auto component industry remains ‘cautiously optimistic’ for the growth of the industry in the current fiscal year despite concerns of another wave of the pandemic, industry body ACMA 

●        The increased focus by the auto industry on deep-localisation and the recent announcements of PLI schemes by the Government on Advanced Chemistry Cell (ACC) Batteries and Auto & Auto Components will facilitate the creation of a state-of-the-art automotive value chain and developing India into an attractive alternative source of high-end auto components

●        ACCs are the new generation of advanced storage technologies that can store electric energy either as electrochemical or as chemical energy and convert it back to electric energy as and when requiredHence statement (1) is correct and statement (2) is correct.

●        The consumer electronics, electric vehicles, advanced electricity grids, solar rooftop etc. which are major battery consuming sectors are expected to achieve robust growth in the coming years.

●        It is expected that the dominant battery technologies will control some of the world’s largest growth sectors.

●        While several companies have already started investing in battery packs, though the capacities of these facilities are too small when compared to global averages, there still is negligible investment in manufacturing, along with value addition, of ACCs in India.

●        All the demand of the ACCs is currently being met through imports in India. The National Programme on Advanced Chemistry Cell (ACC) Battery Storage will reduce import dependence.

●        It will also support the Atmanirbhar Bharat initiative. ACC battery Storage manufacturers will be selected through a transparent competitive bidding process.

●        The manufacturing facility would have to be commissioned within a period of two years. The incentive will be disbursed thereafter over a period of five years.

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/companies/auto-component-industry-optimistic-for-growth-in-fy22-despite-covid-woes-121122100615_1.html

6. Consider the following statements regarding Tolkāppiyam:

1)   It is considered the earliest of Tamil literary works.

2)   It is a unique work on grammar and poetics.

3)   It was authored by Tolkappiyar.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)    3 only

b)   2 and 3 only

c)    1 and 2 only

d)   1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Dr. Subhas Sarkar releases the Hindi translation of Tolkāppiyam and the Kannada translations of 9 books of Classical Tamil literature, hails the rich heritage of Tamil literature and culture

●        The rich heritage of Tamil literature and culture have withstood the vagaries of time and thrived over centuries.

●        He said that the Sangam literature and Tolkāppiyam are part of this rich and glorious tradition and the country is extremely proud of this heritage. He expresses his confidence that people would like to savor the literary richness and wisdom inherent in these texts.

●        He congratulated the Central Institute of Classical Tamil and its team of translators for their outstanding contribution in bringing out these translations and making this literature available to Hindi and Kannada readers.

●        ShriSarkar stated that the translation of texts is important because it not only provides accessibility and wider readership but also enriches languages by introducing new words from various source languages.

Tolkāppiyam:

●        Tolkappiyam is the most ancient extant Tamil grammar text and the oldest extant long work of Tamil literatureHence statement (1) is correct.

●        Some in the Tamil tradition place the text in the mythical second sangam, variously in 1st millennium BCE or earlier.

●        Tolkappiyam, a unique work on grammar and poetics, in its three parts of nine sections each, deals with Ezhuthu(letter), Col (word) and Porul (subject matter). Hence statement (2) is correct.

●        Almost all levels of the human language from the spoken to the most poetic lie within the purview of Tolkappiyar’s analysis as he treats in exquisitely poetic and epigrammatic statements on phonology, morphology, syntax, rhetoric, prosody and poetics. Hence statement (3) is correct.

●        The Tolkappiyam in Hindi translation in verse (Text, Transliteration, and Translations) was translated by Dr. H. Balasubramaniam and Prof. K. Nachimuthu was published with 1214 pages.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1784277

7. Consider the following statements regarding Pralay missile:

1)   It is a 150-500 km short-range and is a surface-to-surface missile with a payload capacity of 500-1,000 kg.

2)   It is India’s first conventional quasi-ballistic missile.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)    1 only

b)   2 only

c)    Both 1 and 2

d)   Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: India tests Pralay missile second time in 2 days

●        The twin flight tests came days after India tested an advanced variant of the Agni class of missiles from the Dr APJ Abdul Kalam Island test facility on December 18.

●        The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has recently completed a successful maiden flight test of the Pralay, a new indigenously developed surface-to-surface missile.

Pralay:

●        Pralay is India’s first conventional quasi-ballistic missile, and it is designed to counter any conventional missile attack from the northern or western borders. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●        The Quasi-ballistic missile has a low trajectory and, while it is largely ballistic, is capable of manoeuvring in flight.

●        The missile has been designed to defeat interceptor missiles and also have the ability to change path mid-air after covering a certain range.

●        It is propelled by a solid-propellant rocket motor and incorporates newer technologies.

●        A state-of-the-art navigation system and integrated avionics are included in the missile guidance system.

●        It is a derivative of the Prahaar missile programme, which was tested for the first time in 2011.

●        Prahaar is a 150-kilometre-range surface-to-surface missile. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●        The main goal is to close the gap between the Pinaka multi-barrel rocket launcher and guided Prithvi missile variants.

●        The missile can be launched from a mobile launcher and has a range of 150-500 kilometres.

●        The Pralay missile will be the Army’s longest-range surface-to-surface missile.

●        The Army also has the BrahMos supersonic cruise missile, which has a range of 290 plus kilometres.

●        The significance of this is that it will totally change the tactical battlefield dynamics, and India will have two conventional long-range missiles.

●        This one will be the ballistic option, whereas the BrahMos will be a cruise option.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/india-tests-pralay-missile-second-time-in-2-days-101640266873136.html

8. Consider the following statements regarding Vernacular Innovation Program:

1)   It is an initiative aimed at lowering the language barrier in the fields of innovation and entrepreneurship.

2)   It was launched by the NITI Aayog’s Atal Innovation Mission.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)    1 only

b)   2 only

c)    Both 1 and 2

d)   Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Atal Innovation Mission, NITI Aayog launches Vernacular Innovation Program (VIP) to Empower Innovators, Entrepreneurs in 22 Mother Tongues

●        With an ambition to empower innovators and entrepreneurs across the country, Atal Innovation Mission (AIM), NITI Aayog has come up with a first of its kind Vernacular Innovation Program (VIP), which will enable innovators and entrepreneurs in India to have access to the innovation ecosystem in 22 scheduled languages by the Government of India. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●        To build the necessary capacity for the VIP, AIM has identified and will be training a Vernacular Task Force (VTF) in each of the 22 scheduled languages. Each task force comprises vernacular language teachers, subject experts, technical writers, and the leadership of regional Atal Incubation Centers (AICs).

●        To get the program rolling, AIM NITI Aayog is launching a train-the-trainer program where it will collaborate with the Design Department of IIT Delhi to coach the VTF in design thinking and entrepreneurship and the adaptation of these subjects in the 22 languages and cultures.

●        Furthermore, industry mentors have joined hands to lend design thinking expertise, and CSR sponsors have agreed to generously support the program. Upon training the task force over the period of December 2021 to April 2022, the ecosystem will be opened to vernacular innovators.

●        VIP is an initiative to lower the language barrier in the field of innovation and entrepreneurship such that it will systematically decouple creative expressions and languages of transaction. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●        Only 10.4% of Indians speak English, most as their second, third, or fourth language. Not surprisingly, only 0.02% of Indians spoke English as their first language. Ten years later these numbers are not likely to be very different

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1784135

9. Consider the following statements:

1)   Adjournment sine die refers to the termination of a sitting of Parliament for an indefinite amount of time.

2)   The President of India has the authority to adjourn the House sine die.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)    1 only

b)   2 only

c)    Both 1 and 2

d)   Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Winter Session, 2021 of Parliament adjourned sine die today

The Winter Session, 2021 of Parliament which commenced on Monday, 29th November, 2021 and was scheduled to adjourn on Thursday, 23rd of December, 2021 has been adjourned sine die on Wednesday, 22ndDecember 2021.

What are the procedures of Termination of a sitting Parliament?

●        The Parliamentary sitting in both Houses can only be terminated by: Adjournment, adjournment sine die, Prorogation and Dissolution Dissolving (not applicable for Rajya Sabha).

Adjournment: 

●        An adjournment suspends work in a sitting for a set period of time, which can be hours, days, or weeks.

●        The time of reassembly is indicated in this circumstance because an adjournment only ends a sitting and not a session of the House.

●        The Presiding officer of each House has the authority to adjourn the House.

Adjournment sine die:

●        Adjournment sine die refers to the termination of a sitting of Parliament for an indefinite amount of time; that is when House is adjourned without naming a day for reassembly. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●        The Presiding officer of the House has the authority to adjourn the House sine die. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.

●        The Presiding officer of a House, on the other hand, has the authority to call a sitting of the House before the time or date to which it has been adjourned, or at any time after the House has been adjourned sine die.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1784165

10. With the print state of development, Artificial Intelligence can effectively do which of the following?

1)   Bring down electricity consumption in industrial units

2)   Create meaningful short stories and songs

3)   Disease diagnosis

4)   Text -to -Speech Conversion

5)   Wireless transmission of electrical energy

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

a)    1, 2, 3 and 5 only

b)   1, 3 and 4 only

c)    2, 4 and 5 only

d)   1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Answer: (d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Explanation:

●        Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. Artificial Intelligence has various applications in today’s society.

●        In multiple industries, such as Healthcare, entertainment, finance, education, etc. AI has been used in disease diagnosis, creating songs like ‘I am AI’ and ‘Daddy’s Car’ and creating short stories and fictions. AI has been used in Text -to -speech conversion, e.g. Cerewave AI.

●        Artificial Intelligence has also found use in the power industry, e.g. Machine -learning assisted power transfer (based on AI) using magnetic resonance and AI used for energy efficiency. Hence option (d) is correct.