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Daily Prelims Test – 26_August_2021

Climate Action and Finance Mobilization Dialogue (CAFMD) to enhance actions in the current decade to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement, is a Partnership engagement between India and which of the following countries?

a)  Japan

b) United state of America

c)  China

d) Australia

Answer: (b) United state of America

Explanation:

In NEWS: India stands committed to working with the U.S. on Clean Energy

  • US Special Presidential Envoy for Climate John Kerry is likely to visit India in September 2021 to strengthen the India-US partnership on Clean Energy. The development came in after a telephonic call between the Union Environment Minister and US Envoy for Climate.
  • Minister of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Bhupender Yadav on August 24, 2021, during a telephonic conversation with US Special Presidential Envoy for Climate, John Kerry deliberated on Climate Action and Finance Mobilization Dialogue (CAFMD) Track under India-US Climate and Clean Energy Agenda 2030 PartnershipHence option (b) is correct.
  • US Envoy Kerry said that the launch of CAFMD as a part of the India-US Climate and Clean Energy Agenda 2030 Partnership is to enhance climate actions in the current decade to meet the Paris Agreement goals.
  • The Environment Minister stated India is committed to working with the US on Clean Energy.
  • Both sides agreed that India and the USA will engage in a constructive engagement under the “India-US Climate and Clean Energy Agenda 2030 Partnership” .
  • The Environment Minister stated that these platforms provide greater opportunities for working together for climate actions and emphasized that India stands committed to working with the US on Clean Energy.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1748688

Consider the following statements with respect to the Global Manufacturing Risk Index:

1) India became the world’s most desired manufacturing destination in the world.

2) It is released by the World Economic Forum.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: ‘India pips U.S. as hub for manufacturing’

    India has overtaken the U.S. to become the second-most sought-after manufacturing destination globally, driven mainly by cost competitiveness, according to real estate consultant Cushman & WakefieldHence statement (1) is correct and statement (2) is incorrect.

Global Manufacturing Risk Index::

  • It assesses the most advantageous locations for global manufacturing among 47 countries in Europe, the Americas and Asia-Pacific (APAC).
  • The improvement in ranking indicates the growing interest shown by manufacturers in India as a preferred manufacturing hub over other countries, including the US and those in the APAC region.
  • The rankings in the report are determined based on four key parameters:
  • Country’s capability to restart manufacturing,
  • Business environment (availability of talent/labour, access to markets),
  • Operating costs,
  • Risks (political, economic and environmental).

Factors Responsible for Improvement in India’s Ranking:

    The growing focus on India can be attributed to India’s operating conditions and cost competitiveness.

    India has a huge population, which means a younger workforce with innovative capabilities that has the potential to fuel the country’s manufacturing sector.

    The improvement in ranking can be also attributed to plant relocations from China to other parts of Asia due to an already established base in pharma, chemicals and engineering sectors.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/business/Industry/india-pips-us-as-hub-for-manufacturing/article36089038.ece

Consider the following statements regarding MeerKAT Telescope:

1) It is a radio telescope consisting of 64 antennas in the Northern Cape of South Africa.

2) It supports a wide range of observing modes, including deep continuum, polarisation and spectral line imaging, pulsar timing and transient searches.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Analysis of 2,000 galaxies using the MeerKat radio telescope reveals fresh insights

  • Galaxies — massive collections of gas, dust, and billions of stars and their solar systems — are a fundamental component of our Universe. Understanding how they have formed and evolved over cosmic eras remains one of the greatest challenges of modern astronomy.
  • There are a few reasons for this. First, the number of galaxies: Astronomers have estimated that there are roughly 200 billion galaxies in our Universe. Second, the sheer size and age of these galaxies. Their ages range from 100 million to 10 billion years and the size ranges from roughly 3,000 to 300,000 light years. One light year is 9.46 x 10¹² km — clearly, then, galaxies are huge and ancient.
  • These emissions, after escaping the confines of the galaxy and traversing the cosmic distances, are among the telltale signals picked up by the MeerKAT.
  • These findings help scientists better understand the nature of these galaxies, and furthermore, the formation and evolution of galaxies in general including our home galaxy, the Milky Way, which may be undergoing a similar process at the moment.
  • Scientists selected 2,094 galaxies that are active in forming stars, which means they are energetic and young in cosmic time-scales.
  • MeerKat radio telescope:
  • MeerKAT, originally the Karoo Array Telescope, is a radio telescope consisting of 64 antennas in the Northern Cape of South Africa. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • MeerKAT is the most sensitive radio telescope in the southern hemisphere until the Square Kilometre Array (SKA, which will be the world’s largest radio telescope) is completed.
  • MeerKAT was launched in 2018.
  • It was designed by engineers within the South Africa Radio Astronomy Observatory and South African industries.
  • It comprises 64 antennas, each 13.5m in diameter, equipped with cryogenic receivers.
  • MeerKAT is a precursor for the SKA-mid array, as are the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA), the Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) and the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA).
  • MeerKAT supports a wide range of observing modes, including deep continuum, polarisation and spectral line imaging, pulsar timing and transient searchesHence statement (2) is correct.
  • Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/blog/science-technology/analysis-of-2-000-galaxies-using-the-meerkat-radio-telescope-reveals-fresh-insights-78608

With respect to the Forum for Decarbonizing Transport, consider the following statements:

1) It is launched jointly by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy and World Resources Institute India.

2) It aims at bringing down the peak level of GHG emissions in Asia.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: NITI Aayog and World Resources Institute India Jointly Launch ‘Forum for Decarbonizing Transport’ in India

  • NITI Aayog and World Resources Institute India(WRI) jointly launched ‘Forum for Decarbonizing Transport’ in India as part of the NDC-Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC-TIA) project. Hence statement (1) is incorrect.
  • About the Forum-
  • It aims at bringing down the peak level of GHG emissions (transport sector) in Asia (in line with a well below 2-degree pathway), resulting in problems like congestion and air pollutionHence statement (2) is correct.
  • The NDC-TIA India component focuses on developing a coherent strategy of effective policies and the formation of a multi-stakeholder platform for decarbonizing transport in the country. 
  • Through this forum, the WRI India team, along with NITI Aayog and other project partners, will work in close coordination with all these stakeholders to formulate strategies and develop appropriate business models to accelerate electric mobility in India. 
  • The forum will also provide a platform to initiate dialogues for the development of uniform policies and help achieve specific results in reducing emissions from the transport sector.
  • The forum  is a defining milestone for the electric mobility ecosystem in the country. 
  • It will bring together CEOs, researchers, academics, multilateral agencies, financial institutions as well as the Central and state governments on a common platform. 
  • Sourcehttps://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1748514

Consider the following statements regarding NDC-Transport Initiative for Asia:

1) It aims to promote a coherent strategy of effective policies for decarbonising transport co-ordinated among various sector ministries, civil society, and the private sector.

2) It is a joint programme of seven organisations that will engage China, India, and Vietnam.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: NITI Aayog, WRI launch forum for decarbonisation of transport sector

  • The forum launched by NITI Aayog and WRI aims to create a platform to initiate dialogues for the development of uniform policies and help achieve specific results in reducing carbon emissions from the transport sector by promoting electric vehicles.
  • The forum is a part of the Nationally Determined Contribution -Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC-TIA) project
  • Nationally Determined Contribution -Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC-TIA) project:
  • It is a joint programme of seven organisations that will engage China, India, and Vietnam in promoting a comprehensive approach to decarbonizing transport in their respective countries. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • The project is part of the International Climate Initiative (IKI).
  • The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) supported the initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag.
  • NITI Aayog is the implementing partner for the India component of the project.
  • The NDC-TIA aims to promote a coherent strategy of effective policies for decarbonising transport co-ordinated among various sector ministries, civil society, and the private sector. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The goal is to enable the countries’ transport sectors to contribute to achieving their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and increase ambition in transport sections of long-term strategies and 2025 NDCs.
  • As a regional initiative, the project will disseminate knowledge in Asia and at the global level.
  • It will disseminate and share experiences at international dialogue platforms such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) process.
  • Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/niti-aayog-wri-launch-forum-for-decarbonisation-of-transport-sector-101629863546468.html

Consider the following statements regarding World Water Week:

1) It is the leading annual global event for concretely addressing the planet’s major water issues.

2) It is hosted and conducted by Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI).

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: NMCG hosts Session on ‘Integrated River Basin Management: Stakeholder Engagement’ on Day 2 of Stockholm World Water Week, 2021

  • The National Mission for Clean Ganga today hosted a Meet & Mingle session on ‘Integrated River Basin Management: Stakeholder Engagement On the Second Day of Stockholm World Water Week 2021.
  • The Program Director, WWF India, Ms. Sejal Worah as a session moderator introduced the session objective to understand the ‘real’ experiences of IRBM at International and how it can be implemented in India by elaborating the challenges and mechanisms to adopt.
  • World Water week:
  • World Water Week is the leading annual event on global water issues, organized by Stockholm International Water Institute since 1991. Together with organizations from all sectors and all regions of the world, we find solutions to the world’s greatest water-related challenges.
  • It offers an unusual mix of participants and perspectives, with sessions on a broad array of water-related topics, ranging from food security and health, to agriculture, technology, biodiversity, and the climate crisis.
  • World Water Week is the leading annual global event for concretely addressing the planet’s major water issues. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The world water week is hosted and conducted by Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI). Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • For 2021, World Water Week is being held entirely online.
  • The theme for 2021 is Building Resilience Faster.
  • Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1749030

Consider the following statements regarding Multi-Mode Hand Grenades:

1) It works in both offensive and defensive modes with high accuracy and reliability.

2) It has been designed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and produced by Economic Explosives Ltd in Nagpur.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: First batch of Multi-Mode Hand Grenades handed over to Indian Army in the presence of Raksha Mantri Shri Rajnath Singh in Nagpur

  • The first batch of Multi-Mode Hand Grenades (MMHG), manufactured by Economic Explosives Limited (EEL) following Transfer of Technology from Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory of Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO), was handed over to the Indian Army in the presence of Raksha Mantri Shri Rajnath Singh in Nagpur, Maharashtra. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • The MMHG grenades will replace Grenade No. 36 of World War I vintage design that is still in service.
  • The grenade offers multiple advantages to soldiers in terms of safety and penetration attack as compared to the vintage hand grenades.
  • The grenade operates in a dual mode. In the offensive mode, the grenade does not have a fragment sleeve and is used for low-intensity attacks. This mode is used when the soldier targets the attack within five metres from the point of burst. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The defensive mode is used when the soldier is in shelter and the enemy is in an open area.
  • Moreover, the grenade has a minimum shelf life of 15 years from manufacturing under normal storage conditions, proving that it is stable and can be used for a long time.
  • Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1748523

Consider the following statements regarding HGCO19 Vaccine:

1) It is India’s ‘first of its kind’ mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine.

2) It is developed by Pune-based biotechnology company Gennova Biopharmaceuticals Ltd.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: DBT-BIRAC supported Nation’s first mRNA-based vaccine found to be safe gets a nod from the Drugs Controller General of India DCG(I) to move into Phase II/III trial

India’s first mRNA vaccine against coronavirus named “HGCO19” has been found to be safe and has been given the go-ahead from the Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) to move into Phase II and III of clinical trials.

HGCO19 Vaccine:

  • It is India’s ‘first of its kind’ mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • It is developed by Pune-based biotechnology  ompany Gennova Biopharmaceuticals Ltd. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • It is being funded under the ‘Mission COVID Suraksha- The Indian COVID-19 Vaccine Development Mission’.
  • Gennova, in collaboration with HDT Biotech Corporation USA, has developed theCOVID-19 mRNA vaccine HGCO19.
  • What is mRNA Vaccine?
  • The coronavirus vaccine based on mRNA, once injected into the body, will instruct the body’s cells to create copies of the spike protein.
  • The mRNA is coded to tell the cells to recreate the spike protein of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which causes Covid-19.
  • It is the spike protein which appears as spikes on the surface of the coronavirus that initiates the process of infection and it allows the virus to penetrate cells, after which it goes on to replicate.
  • The mRNA vaccines work by using mRNA or messenger RNA, which is the molecule that essentially puts DNA instructions into action.
  • The mRNA vaccines have the advantage that scientists are not growing the virus in the lab, which has been a hindrance sometimes to create enough virus or viral particles to give in a vaccine.
  • Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1748520

With respect to E-Shram Portal, consider the following statements:

1) It aims to register unorganised workers and will be issued an e-Shram card containing a 12 digit unique number which will help in including them in social security schemes.

2) It is launched by the Minister for Labour and Employment.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: e-Shram portal: A database for unorganised sector workers

  • The Union Ministry of Labour & Employment will launch the e-Shram portal. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • The government aims to register 38 crore unorganised workers, such as construction labourers, migrant workforce, street vendors and domestic workers, among others.
  • The workers will be issued an e-Shram card containing a 12 digit unique number, which, going ahead, will help in including them in social security schemes. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The registration of workers on the portal will be coordinated by the Labour Ministry, state governments, trade unions and CSCs.
  • Awareness campaigns would be planned across the country to enable nationwide registration of workers.
  • Following the launch of the portal, workers from the unorganized sector can begin their registration from the same day.
  • A national toll free number — 14434 — will also be launched to assist and address the queries of workers seeking registration on the portal.
  • A worker can register on the portal using his/her Aadhaar card number and bank account details, apart from filling other necessary details like date of birth, home town, mobile number and social category.
  • Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/e-shram-portal-database-unorganised-sector-workers-7469815/

Consider the following statements:

1) Coal ash contains arsenic, lead and mercury.

2) Coal-fired power plants release sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen into the environment.

3) High ash content is observed in Indian coal.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)  3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

  • Coal itself isn’t a particularly toxic material. But after it’s burned, what remains in the ash includes lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, arsenic, and selenium, all in levels that may threaten human health. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • Thermal power plants produce large amounts of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide—the pollutants that cause acid rain—when they burn fossil fuels, especially coal, to produce energy. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • India’s domestic coal reserves have a high ash content—up to 40 to 45 percent. Hence statement (3) is correct.