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Daily Prelims Test – 25_October 2020

Consider the following statements regarding International Labour Organization

1.It was created by the Versailles Peace Treaty ending World War II

2.India is a founder member of ILO.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: After 35 years, India assumes the Chairmanship of the Governing Body of International Labour Organization

  • After 35 years, India has assumed the Chairmanship of the Governing Body of International Labour Organization, marking a new chapter in the 100 years of productive relationship between India and ILO. Shri Apurva Chandra, Secretary (Labour and Employment) has been elected as the Chairperson of the Governing Body of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) for the period October 2020- June 2021. The Chairperson of the Governing Body of ILO is a position of international repute.

About ILO

  • The International Labour Organization (ILO) is the United Nations agency for the world of work.
  • It was created in 1919 by the Versailles Peace Treaty ending World War I. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • After the demise of the League of Nations, the ILO became the first specialized agency associated with the UN.
  • It sets international labour standards, promotes rights at work and encourages decent employment opportunities, the enhancement of social protection and the strengthening of dialogue on work-related issues.
  • The ILO has 187 member states: 186 of the 193 UN member states plus the Cook Islands are members of the ILO.
  • The International Labour Office is the permanent secretariat of the International Labour Organization.
  • It is the focal point for the International Labour Organization’s overall activities, which it prepares under the scrutiny of the Governing Body and under the leadership of the Director-General.
  • The Headquarter of ILO is in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • India is a founder member of ILO. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1667036


Consider the following statements regarding Snow leopards

1.They are currently found in only 12 countries in the world excluding India.

2.It has been listed in Schedule I under Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Government committed to landscape restoration for snow leopard habitat conservation.

  • Minister of State for EnvironmentForest and Climate Change Shri Babul Supriyo has said that the Government of India has been conserving snow leopard and its habitat through the Project Snow Leopard (PSL).
  • The PSL was launched in 2009. Speaking at the International Snow Leopard Day 2020 through a virtual meeting, Shri Supriyo said, Government is committed to landscape restoration for snow leopard habitat conservation, and implementing participatory landscape-based management plans involving local stakeholders.
  • Community volunteer programme “Himal Sanrakshak” was launched followed by the release of origami notebooks based on the theme of combating illegal trade in wildlife.

About Snow leopards

  • The snow leopard (Uncia uncia) is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of central and southern Asia.
  • Snow leopards are currently found in only 12 countries in the world, including India. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • India, Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Krygz, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan,
  • Russia, Mongolia, China
  • In India, their geographical range encompasses a large part of the western Himalayas including the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh in the eastern Himalayas.
  • Snow leopards prefer steep, rugged terrains with rocky outcrops and ravines.
  • Snow leopards are not known to be aggressive toward humans.
  • It is the National Heritage Animal of Pakistan and Afghanistan.
  • IUCN- Vulnerable
  • CITES- Appendix I
  • It has been listed in Schedule I under Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1667118


Consider the following statements regarding Himalayan Brown Bear

1.It is found in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Jammu and Kashmir

2.They are categorized as an endangered by the IUCN Red list of Threatened Species in Himalayas

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Study predicts massive habitat decline for the Himalayan brown bear by 2050 due to climate change

  • A recent study on the Himalayan brown bear (Ursus arctos isabellinus) has predicted a significant reduction in suitable habitat and biological corridors of the species in the climate change scenario, prompting scientists to suggest an adaptive spatial planning of protected area network in the western Himalayas for conserving the species.
  • The Himalayan brown bear is one of the largest carnivores in the highlands of Himalayas. It occupies the higher reaches of the Himalayas in remote, mountainous areas of Pakistan and India, in small and isolated populations, and is extremely rare in many of its ranges.
  • The study carried out in the western Himalayas by scientists of Zoological Survey of India, predicted a massive habitat decline of about 38% to 72.87% of the Himalayan brown bear by the year 2050 in the climate change scenario.
  • They are categorised as “Critically Endangered” by the IUCN Red list of Threatened Species in Himalayas and Hindukush. In the rest of the world, the brown bear is categorised as “Least Concern” by the IUCN. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • The brown bear is found in 23 protected areas in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal and Jammu and Kashmir. Hence statement 1 is correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/study-predicts-massive-habitat-decline-for-the-himalayan-brown-bear-by-2050-due-to-climate-change/article32935974.ece


Consider the following statements regarding Mars Orbiter Mission

1.It is a space probe launched by the Indian Space Research Organization and National Aeronautics and Space Administration

2.It explored and observed Mars surface features, morphology, mineralogy and the Martian atmosphere

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Martian atmosphere depleting at much faster pace than Earth, suggests ISRO stud

  • ISRO has observed the intense heating-up of the upper layer of Mars’ atmosphere due to much-prevalent dust storms, through its Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) which is keeping surveillance on Mars’ atmosphere
  • ISRO has said that Mars is seemingly losing its atmosphere at a much rapid pace as compared to the Earth. Further, it also cited the reason behind the speed-up of dust storms in recent times on the Red planet.
  • According to the study published in the Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets, ISRO has observed the intense heating-up of the upper layer of Mars’ atmosphere due to much-prevalent dust storms, through its Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) which is keeping surveillance on Mars’ atmosphere. In addition to it, such findings have also been, earlier, corroborated by NASA’s Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN). Hence statement 2 is correct

About Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM)

  • The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) was launched into space on November 5, 2013, using a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) rocket C25 (PSLV C25).
  • The MOM entered into the orbit of Mars on September 2014.
  • It was indigenously designed, built and launched by ISRO in a record period of fewer than two years in 450 crore rupees (73 million US dollars) budget which is considered as cheapest inter-planetary mission till date to reach Mars. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • The spacecraft has five instruments mounted on it for collecting scientific data of Mar’s morphology, atmospheric processes, surface temperature, surface geology and atmospheric escape process.
  • India is the first Asian nation to reach the Mars orbit and the first in the world to achieve it on its first attempt.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/technology/science/isro-study-martian-atmosphere-depleting-faster-than-earth-6869490/


Consider the following statements regarding Asteroid Bennu

1.It is an Extra martian Astroid, revoling around the sun

2.It has high chances of colliding with Earth in the Next Century

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: NASA’s OSIRIS-REx mission successfully picks samples from asteroid Bennu, but there is a problem

  • NASA’s OSIRIS-REx spacecraft, which was sent to collect rocks and dust from the surface of a near-Earth asteroid, is now so stuffed with cosmic rubble that a door was wedged open and precious samples are presently leaking into space.
  • Days after the spacecraft first touched the surface of asteroid Bennu, located over 200 million miles away from Earth, the coordinators of the mission are now saying that it may have performed too well.
  • The big concern now is that particles are escaping because we’re almost a victim of our own success

About Asteroid Bennu

  • 101955 Bennu is a carbonaceous Intra Martian Asteroid Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • It is a potentially hazardous object that is listed on the Sentry Risk Table with the second-highest cumulative rating on the Palermo Technical Impact Hazard Scale.
  • It has a cumulative 1-in-2,700 chance of impacting Earth between 2175 and 2199. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Asteroid Bennu was first discovered by a team from the NASA-funded Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research team in 1999.
  • It was named after an Egyptian deity by a nine-year-old boy from North Carolina in 2013 who won NASA’s “Name that Asteroid” competition.
  • Located around 200 million miles away from Earth, asteroid Bennu is around the size of the Empire State Building in New York.
  • Significantly, Bennu hasn’t undergone drastic changes since its formation over billions of years ago and, therefore, it contains chemicals and rocks dating back to the birth of the solar system. It is also relatively close to the Earth.
  • The spacecraft contains five instruments meant to explore Bennu including cameras, a spectrometer and a laser altimeter. The departure window for the mission will open up in 2021, after which it will take over two years to reach Earth

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-nasas-osiris-rex-mission-asteroid-bennu-6870837/


Chatar festival is celebrated in the State of

1.Tripura

2.Manipur

3.Karnataka

4.Odisha

Answer: (d) Odisha

Explanation:

In NEWS: Animals spared of sacrifice in pandemic­hit Odisha 

This year, the Orissa High Court had ordered ban on animal sacrifice. While all rituals will be conducted as per tradition, no devotee will be allowed into the temple during the festival. The yatra attracts more than 5 lakh devotees from different parts of Odisha and other states every year.

  • Chatar festival in the Bhawanipatna town of Odisha’s Kalahandi district, which is usually marked by the sacrifice of thousands of animals and birds, passed off without much Hence option (d) is correct
  • Every year, the idol of Goddess Manikeswari is taken to Jena Khal on the outskirts of the town, and after some secret rituals, the deity returns to her abode. The return journey is known as Chatar Yatra.
  • On this occasion, almost every family has an animal or bird to sacrifice
  • To please Maa Manikeswari, a tribal dance is performed, which is known as Ghumura dance. Ghumura is a traditional dance and a heritage of Kalahandi district. It is a dance performed with a traditional instrument Ghumura Veer Badya. The dancers tie the Ghumura (badya/instrument) on their shoulders and hang it tight on their chest

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/animals-spared-of-sacrifice-in-pandemic-hit-odisha/article32936709.ece


Which one of the following option is correct regarding recent discovery in Indus Valley Civilization?

1.Camel Bones are reported

2.Knew the art of measurement

3.Evidence of dairy production

4.Used an Iron Ploughshare

Answer: (c) Evidence of dairy production

Explanation:

In NEWS: Evidence of dairy production in the Indus Valley Civilisation

  • Traces indicate that milk may have been boiled before consumption. Hence option (c) is correct
  • By analysing residues on ancient pots, researchers show the earliest direct evidence of dairy product processing, thus throwing fresh light on the rural economy of the civilisation. The studies were carried out on 59 shards of pottery from Kotada Bhadli, a small archeological site in present ­day Gujarat.
  • The team used molecular analysis techniques to study the residues from ancient pottery. Pots are porous. So as soon as we put any liquid form of food, it will absorb it. The pot preserves the molecules of food such as fats and proteins. Using techniques like C16 and C18 analysis we can identify the source of lipid
  • The team was also able to show which type of animals were being used for dairy production. They studied the tooth enamel from fossils of cattle, water buffalo, goat and sheep found in the area.
  • A preliminary study suggested that most of the cattle and water­ buffalo died at an older age, suggesting they could have been raised for milk, whereas the majority of goat/sheep died when they were young, indicating they could have been used for meat.
  • The Harappans did not just use dairy for their household. The large herd indicates that milk was produced in surplus so that it could be exchanged and there could have been some kind of trade between settlements

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/evidence-of-dairy-production-in-the-indus-valley-civilisation/article32937155.ece#:~:text=Credit%3A%20Prabodh%20Shirvalkar-,Traces%20indicate%20that%20milk%20may%20have%20been%20boiled%20before%20consumption,far%20back%20as%202500%20BCE.


What is/are the consequence/consequences of a country of being in the FATF grey list?

1.Economic sanctions from IMF, World Bank, ADB

2.Problem in getting loans from IMF, World Bank, ADB and other countries

3.Reduction in international trade

4.International boycott

Select the correct options from the given below codes

  1. 1 and 4 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1,2,3 and 4

Answer: (d) 1,2,3 and 4

Explanation:

In NEWS: Pakistan to remain in grey list of global terror financing watchdog- FATF till February 2021

  • Pakistan will remain on the grey list of global terror financing watchdog, Financial Action Task Force (FATF) as it has not been able to fulfil six out of the 27 mandates to check terror funding. The decision was announced by the President of FATF Marcus Pleyer.
  • The FATF strongly urged Pakistan to swiftly complete its full action plan by February 2021. It said, Pakistan needs to do more to check terror funding, adding that the 6 items which Pakistan is yet to address are serious deficiencies.
  • The implementation plan to curb money laundering and terror financing was supposed to be put in place by the end of 2019. However, the deadline was extended in the wake of COVID pandemic.
  • Countries that are considered safe haven for supporting terror funding and money laundering are put in the FATF grey list. This inclusion serves as a warning to the country that it may enter the blacklist.

Consequences of being in the FATF grey list: Hence option (d) is correct

  • Economic sanctions from IMF, World Bank, ADB
  • Problem in getting loans from IMF, World Bank, ADB and other countries
  • Reduction in international trade
  • International boycott

About FATF

  • The FATF is an inter-governmental body set up in 1989 to combat money laundering, terror financing and other related threats to the international financial system. It currently has 39 members. These include two regional organizations – the European Commission and Gulf Cooperation Council.

Source: http://ddnews.gov.in/international/pakistan-remain-grey-list-global-terror-financing-watchdog-fatf-till-february-2021-0


Consider the following statements regarding Yellow dust

1.It is actually sand from deserts in China and Mongolia that high speed surface winds carry into both North and South Korea during specific periods every year.

2.It is not harmful to human health

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Yellow dust, which North Korea has warned could be carrying Covid-19

  • North Korean authorities have urged citizens to remain indoors to avoid contact with a mysterious cloud of ‘yellow dust’ blowing in from China

What is this mysterious yellow dust?

  • Yellow dust is actually sand from deserts in China and Mongolia that high speed surface winds carry into both North and South Korea during specific periods every year. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The sand particles tend to mix with other toxic substances such as industrial pollutants, as a result of which the ‘yellow dust’ is known to cause a number of respiratory ailments. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • Usually, when the dust reaches unhealthy levels in the atmosphere, authorities urge people to remain indoors and limit physical activity, particularly heavy exercise and sport.
  • Sometimes, when the concentration of yellow dust in the atmosphere crosses around 800 micrograms/cubic meter, schools are shut and outdoor events cancelled in the affected areas.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-yellow-dust-covid-north-korea-china-6863487/


With reference to the scholars/litterateurs of ancient India, consider the following statements:

1.Panini is associated with Pushyamitra Shunga.

2.Amarasimha is associated with Harshavardhana.

3.Kalidasa is associated with Chandra Gupta-II.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (c) 3 only