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Daily Prelims Test – 25_January_2022

1. Consider the following statements:

1)  He was a famous proponent of Vishishtadvaita.

2)  He was also referred to as Ilaya Perumal.

3)  He was the most respected Acharya in the philosophy of Sri Vaishnavism.

Which of the following personality is described in the statements above?

a)   Vallabhacharya

b)  Ramalinga Swamigal

c)   Ramananda

d)  Sri Ramanuja

Answer: (d) Sri Ramanuja

Explanation:

In NEWS: PM to unveil statue of 11th century Vaishnavaite saint Ramanujacharya

●     Preparations are on full swing for the unveiling of “Statue of Equality,” the 216-ft statue of 11th century Vaishnavaite saint Sri Ramanujacharya on the 40-acre sprawling premises of Sri Chinna Jeeyar Swamy ashram at Muchintal village on the outskirts of Hyderabad

●     The 216-ft panchaloha statue, made of five metals – gold, silver, copper, brass and tin – was erected in 2017 itself, but it took four years for the completion of works on the other constructions.

Ramanuja:

●     He was a philosopher, Hindu theologian, social reformer, and one of the most important exponents of Sri Vaishnavism tradition within Hinduism. Hence option (d) is correct.

●     His ideas are one of three subschools in Vedanta, the other two are known as Adi Shankara’s Advaita (absolute monism) and Madhvacharya’s Dvaita (dualism)

●     He was also referred to as Ilaya Perumal which means the radiant one.

●     His philosophical foundations for devotionalism were influential to the Bhakti movement.

●     He is famous as the chief proponent of Vishishtadvaita subschool of Vedānta.

●     He wrote influential texts, such as bhāsya on the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita, all in Sanskrit.

Sourcehttps://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/pm-to-unveil-statue-of-11th-century-vaishnavaite-saint-ramanujacharya-101642533113504.html

2. Consider the following statements:

1)  In India, the Supreme Court does not have power to initiate contempt cases on its own.

2)  The Attorney General consent is mandatory when a private citizen wants to initiate a case of contempt of court against a person.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)   1 only

b)  2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d)  Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: AG Venugopal allows activist to initiate contempt action against UP priest Yati Narsinghanand

While granting consent to activist Shachi Nelli, the Attorney General said the statement made by the Dharam Sansad leader was ‘a direct attempt to lower the Supreme Court’s authority’.

AG grant consent to initiate proceedings for criminal contempt of the Supreme Court of India in terms of Section 15 of the Contempt of Courts Act, 1971

Contempt of Courts:

●     Contempt of Court refers to the offence of showing disrespect to the dignity or authority of a court.

●     The Supreme Court and High Courts derive their contempt powers from the Constitution.

●     The Contempt of Court Act, 1971, outlines the procedure in relation to investigation and punishment for contempt.

●     The Act divides contempt into civil and criminal contempt

●     The AG’s consent is mandatory when a private citizen wants to initiate a case of contempt of court against a person. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●     However, when the court itself initiates a contempt of court case the AG’s consent is not required.

●     Article 129 of the Constitution conferred on the Supreme Court the power to punish contempt of itselfHence statement (1) is incorrect.

●     Article 215 conferred a corresponding power on the High Courts. 

●     The prior consent of the Attorney General (AG) of India is not required to suo motu initiate the inherent contempt powers of the Supreme Court.

●     The Contempt of Court Act of 1971 cannot limit this power of the court. The statute only provides the procedure in which such contempt is to be initiated.

●     The suo motu contempt powers of the top court are drawn from Article 129 of the Constitution, which says the Supreme Court, as a court of record, has the power to punish for contempt of itself.

Source: https://theprint.in/judiciary/ag-venugopal-allows-activist-to-initiate-contempt-action-against-up-priest-yati-narsinghanand/809527/

3. With respect to C-Band, consider the following statements:

1)  It has a wave frequency ranging from about 3.3 to 4.2GHz.

2)  It can be used for faster connection.

3)  It is less susceptible to rain fade than Ku band.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)   1 and 3 only

b)  2 only

c)   2 and 3 only

d)  1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained | Why is 5G rollout a problem near U.S. airports?

●     Air India has cancelled a number of its long-haul flights to the United States, including on the Delhi-New York-Delhi, Delhi-San Francisco-Delhi, Delhi-Chicago-Delhi and Mumbai-Newark-Mumbai sectors, from January 19 until further notice.

●     The cancellations come in the wake of concerns over the implementation of fifth generation (5G) mobile communications networks in the C-band, the frequency band that is allocated for commercial telecommunications via satellites.

C-Band:

●     C-Band is a portion of the airwave spectrum and is considered most popular for 5G connectivity.

●     It has a wave frequency ranging from about 3.3 to 4.2GHz. In the US, the 5G C-Band debate is mostly around the 3.7-3.98 GHz range. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●     C-Band is deemed a great fit for 5G because it offers a wide spectrum range that can be used for faster connection than its predecessor 4G.

●     Primarily used for satellite communications, for full-time satellite TV networks or raw satellite feedsHence statement (2) is correct.

●     Commonly used in areas that are subject to tropical rainfall, since it is less susceptible to rain fade than Ku band. Hence statement (3) is correct.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/technology/explained-why-is-5g-rollout-a-problem-near-us-airports/article38311329.ece

4. Consider the following statements regarding NERCORMP Project:

1)  It is a joint initiative of the Ministry of DoNER and the International Fund for Agricultural Development.

2)  It aims to develop and maintain road networks in India’s border areas.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)   1 only

b)  2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d)  Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Earning a living through Animal husbandry- A initiative of NERCRMS, a society under the aegis of NEC -UNDER MINISTRY OF DoNER

●     The NERCORMP Project of NERCRMS, with each minor detail, she began to learn more and more about this project. She took an idea from the project and came up with a proposal for a cow.

●     Through NERCRMS she received two cows and decided to start increasing the number of cows

NERCORMP Project:

●     North Eastern Region Community Resource Management Project (NERCORMP) is a livelihood and rural development project.

●     It aims to transform the lives of the poor and marginalized tribal families in North East (NE) India. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.

●     It is a joint initiative of the North Eastern Council (NEC), Ministry of DoNER and International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). Hence statement (1) is correct.

●     It is operating in four states Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya and Manipur.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1792211

5. Consider the following statements:

1)  The Rajya Sabha has the power to create one or more new All India Services.

2)  Articles 312 of the constitution of India provisions are made with respect to All India Services.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)   1 only

b)  2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d)  Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: A proposal for Indian Environmental Service

●     The Supreme Court has asked the Government if it will create an Indian Environmental Service (IES) as recommended by a committee headed by former Cabinet secretary T.S.R Subramanian in 2014.

●     India has a massive cleanliness problem. Several national level sanitation programs like the Comprehensive Rural Sanitation Program, the Total Sanitation Campaign, the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan and the more recent and certainly well marketed.

●     Swach Bharat Abhiyan has seen some success in increasing the number of dry latrines and reducing open defecation. However, the larger problems of waste disposal and behavioural change have seen no impact except in the event of photo opportunities and namesake token events.

All India Services:

●     The All India Services (AIS) comprises three civil services: the Indian Administrative Service, the Indian Police Service and the Indian Forest Service.

●     A unique feature of the All India Services is that the members of these services are recruited by the centre (Union government in federal polity), but their services are placed under various State cadres, and they have the liability to serve both under the State and under the centre.

●     In the Article 312 of the constitution of India, provisions are made with respect to All India Services. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●     The Rajya Sabha has the power to create one or more new All India Services. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●     It can do so by passing a resolution supported by 2/3rd majority on the plea of national interest.

●     In a similar way, the Rajya Sabha can disband an existing All India Service.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/a-proposal-for-indian-environmental-service/article38317316.ece

6. Consider the following statements regarding Sievert:

1)  It is the unit of radiation absorption in the International System of Units.

2)  It takes into account the relative biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)   1 only

b)  2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d)  Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Adding radioactive substances in wearables unjustified

●     The ANVS found that the level of radiation in these products is low and the risk of health problems is also low.

●     The agency warned the public against using “Quantum Pendant,” “anti-5G pendant” or “negative ion” jewellery items or sleep masks.

●     An air purifier (negative ionizer) is a device that emits two million healthy negative ions per sec from the black brush on its top.

●     Researchers found that eight out of the 20 pendants were capable of exposing the wearers to an annual effective dose above the dose limit of one mSv for the public.

●     The dose from the most radioactive pendant was 8 mSv/year.

mSv:

●     The sievert is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●     It is a measure of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●     The sievert is used for radiation dose quantities such as equivalent dose and effective dose, which represent the risk of external radiation from sources outside the body, and committed dose which represents the risk of internal irradiation due to inhaled or ingested radioactive substances

●     When the physical energy absorbed by tissues from x-rays, gamma rays or electrons is one Joule/kg, the biologically effective dose is considered to be one Sv.

●     Since Sv is a huge unit, specialists use milliSv or “mSv”(one-thousandth of an Sv) as a unit.

●     Skin dose in a chest x-ray exam is about 1 mSv.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/adding-radioactive-substances-in-wearables-unjustified/article38310330.ece

7. Sela Pass Tunnel Project is related to which of the following areas?

a)   China-bordering Arunachal Pradesh

b)  Bhutan-bordering Sikkim

c)   Pakistan –bordering Rajasthan

d)  Myanmar- bordering Arunachal Pradesh

Answer: (a) China-bordering Arunachal Pradesh

Explanation:

In NEWS: Arunachal Pradesh’s Sela tunnel project enters decisive phase: Defence ministry

●     The Sela tunnel project in China-bordering Arunachal Pradesh, which will allow faster deployment of weapons and soldiers to forward areas in the Tawang sector, has entered a decisive phase, with the defence ministry announcing that the final blast for one of the tunnels is being constructed. Hence option (a) is correct

●     The project consists of Tunnel 1 and Tunnel 2, a 1,555-metre twin tube tunnel. The tunnels are coming up through two ridges west of the Sela pass. The project also includes the construction of two roads, measuring 7kmand 1.3km.

●     Tunnel 2 has one bi-lane tube for traffic and one escape tube for emergencies. Only tunnels longer than 1,500 metres have to have an escape passage alongside.

●     The Sela tunnel is a part of the Balipara-Chariduar-Tawang road, one of the key strategic projects near the Chinese border.

Sela Pass Tunnel Project:

●     The tunnel covers a total distance of 12.04 kms which consists of two tunnels of 1790 metres and 475 meters.

●     It is being built at an estimated cost of ₹687 crores by the Border Roads Organisation.

●     It aims to provide all weather connectivity to Tawang in Arunachal Pradesh — an area claimed entirely by China — and other forward areas.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/arunachal-pradesh-s-sela-tunnel-project-enters-decisive-phase-defence-ministry-101642877263942.html

8. Consider the following statements regarding Common Service Centre(s):

1)  It is an initiative of the Ministry of Electronics and IT.

2)  They were established under the Companies Act, 1956.

3)  They are the access points for delivery of various electronic services to villages.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)   1 and 3 only

b)  2 only

c)   2 and 3 only

d)  1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

In NEWS: India will be world’s tech, economic powerhouse in 2047: Jitendra Singh

●     When India turns 100 in the year 2047, it would evolve beyond imagination “as things have been moving so fast that in the next 25 years, the country will be the world’s technological and economic powerhouse”.

●     Pointing out that the government has tried to ensure digital infrastructure as a core utility to every citizen by providing unique digital identity, access to common service centres, he also said that it has provided thousands of services on Demand by seamless integration of services across Departments/Ministries.

Common service centres:

●     Common Services Centre (CSC) programme is an initiative of the Ministry of Electronics & IT (MeitY), Government of India. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●     CSCs are the access points for delivery of various electronic services to villages in India, thereby contributing to a digitally and financially inclusive society.

●     CSCs are more than service delivery points in rural India. Hence statement (3) is correct.

●     They are positioned as change agents, promoting rural entrepreneurship and building rural capacities and livelihoods.

●     They are enablers of community participation and collective action for engendering social change through a bottom-up approach with key focus on the rural citizen.

●     CSC e-Governance Services India Limited is a Special Purpose Vehicle (CSC SPV) incorporated under the Companies Act, 1956 by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY), Government of India, to monitor the implementation of the Common Services Centers Scheme. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●     It provides a centralized collaborative framework for delivery of services to citizens through CSCs, besides ensuring systemic viability and sustainability of the scheme.

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/economy-policy/india-will-be-world-s-tech-economic-powerhouse-in-2047-jitendra-singh-122011501056_1.html

9. When an economy recovers unevenly, and there’s a separate trajectory for two segments of the society, the shape of recovery is

a)   K Shaped

b)  M shaped

c)   L shaped

d)  V shaped

Answer: (a) K Shaped

Explanation:

In NEWS: Government should prevent K-shaped recovery: Raghuram Rajan

●     The Indian economy has some bright spots and a number of very dark stains and the government should target its spending carefully so that there are no huge deficits

●     K-shaped recovery will reflect a situation where technology and large capital firms recover at a far faster rate than small businesses and industries that have been significantly impacted by the pandemic. Hence option (a) is correct.

●     A K-shaped recovery leads to changes in the structure of the economy or the broader society as economic outcomes and relations are fundamentally changed before and after the recession.

●     This type of recovery is called K-shaped because the path of different parts of the economy when charted together may diverge, resembling the two arms of the Roman letter K.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/government-should-prevent-k-shaped-recovery-raghuram-rajan/article38315174.ece#:~:text=Dr.%20raja%20opined%20that%20 Omicron,growth%20 potential%2C%E2%80%9D%20he%20said.

10. With reference to recent developments regarding ‘Recombinant Vector Vaccine’, consider the following statements:

1)  Genetic engineering is applied in the development of these vaccines.

2)  Bacteria and viruses are used as vectors.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)   1 only

b)  2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d)  Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

●     The recombinant subunit vaccine causes the immune response of the human body by directly injecting the subunit of the pathogen into the body. This method is generally of low immunogenicity and can only induce the humoral immune response of the human body

●     The recombinant virus vector vaccine is one of the important emerging technologies. Recombinant vector vaccines are live replicating viruses that are engineered to carry extra genes derived from a pathogen—and these extra genes produce proteins against which we want to generate immunity. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●     It exposes the body to proteins made by a virus or bacteria, which are often made by using weakened or inactive versions of that virus or bacteria. Hence statement (2) is correct.