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Daily Prelims Test – 25_January 2021

Consider the following Statements regarding Ram Setu

It is also known as Adam’s Bridge

It is a 48-km-long chain of shoals between India and Sri Lanka.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2


  • In NEWS: Centre gives green light to underwater study to determine Ram Setu origins
  • Talking about the aim of the exploration, Union Minister of State for Tourism and Culture, Prahlad Singh Patel, said, “The world should get to know about the Ram Setu through evidence based on scientific research.”
  • The government has approved an underwater research project to ascertain the origins of the Ram Setu — a 48-km-long chain of shoals between India and Sri Lanka. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Ram Setu, also known as Adam’s Bridge or Nala Setu, holds religious significance because of the Ramayana. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The study — to be conducted by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) Goa — will focus on the process behind Ram Setu’s formation and also whether there are any submerged habitations around the structure.
  • Ram Setu’s age will be ascertained through the study of fossils and sedimentation to see if it correlates with the Ramayana period. The historicity and the date of ‘Ramayana’ remain a debatable subject among historians, archaeologists and scientists.
  • The agency’s research vessel named Sindhu Sadhana will be deployed to collect samples of sediment from 35-40 metres below the water level. Sindhu Sadhana is an indigenous exploration vessel which can stay underwater for up to 45 days


Consider the following Statements regarding Scientific Social Responsibility policy

It is the confluence of scientific knowledge with visionary leadership and social conscience.

The policy envisages an SSR monitoring system in each institution to assess only individual activity and projects

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only


In NEWS: In the works, CSR-like policy for scientific community

  • The Ministry of Science and Technology has drafted a policy on the lines of the mandatory corporate social responsibility model for the country’s scientific community,
  • The “Scientific Social Responsibility” policy, under consultation for a year now, has been finalised and will soon be sent to the Union cabinet for approval.
  • Scientific Social Responsibility (SSR) is the confluence of scientific knowledge with visionary leadership and social conscience. It is about building synergies among all stakeholders in scientific knowledge community and also about developing linkages between science and society. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Idea inspired from: The Constitution of India (Part-IV, Article 51A(h)) mandates for developing the scientific temper, humanism and spirit of enquiry as part of the fundamental duties of a citizen.

Objectives of the policy:

  • To encourage science and technology (S&T) institutions and individual scientists in the country to proactively engage in science outreach activities to connect science with the society.
  • To harness latent potential of the scientific community for strengthening linkages between science and society, and for making S&T ecosystem vibrant.
  • To develop a mechanism for ensuring access to scientific knowledge, transferring benefits of science to meet societal needs, promoting collaborations to identify problems and develop solutions.

Highlights of the draft policy:

  • As per the draft policy, every “knowledge worker” has to devote at least 10 person-days each year to SSR activity, which can include giving lectures in schools and colleges, sharing infrastructure, conducting skill development workshops, and coming up with solutions to local environmental or health issues.
  • It is an ethical obligation of knowledge workers in all fields of science and technologyto voluntarily contribute their knowledge and resources to the widest possible spectrum of the society, in the spirit of service and reciprocity.
  • The policy envisages an SSR monitoring system in each institution to assess institutional projects and individual activity. Institutes are also to publish their SSR activity as part of their annual reports. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • No institution would be allowed to outsource or sub-contract their SSR activities and projects.


Consider the following Statements regarding Lesser flamingos

On the IUCN Red list, lesser flamingos are listed as ‘near threatened’ species

They are mainly breed at the Rann of Kutch and North-western India

They are found only in the India and Indian subcontinent

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (c) 1 only


In NEWS: Great Rann of Kutch: 60k lesser flamingo chicks emerge from new nesting ground

  • After the Little Rann of Kutch (LRK), lesser flamingos have found a new exclusive nesting ground in Kuda stretch of the Great Rann of Kutch (GRK) from where around 60,000 chicks have emerged this season
  • LRK is a known nesting site of lesser flamingos while Anda Bet, also known as the Flamingo City in GRK, has been an exclusive nesting site of greater flamingos. GRK also has some grounds where mixed nesting of greater flamingos as well as lesser flamingos takes place.
  • Anda Bet has been there for decades as an established nesting site of greater flamingos. But recently, we have been observing lots of lesser flamingos nesting in Kuda
  • The GRK and LRK are believed to be the largest nesting grounds of flamingos in Asia.
  • Flamingos are very sensitive and abandon their eggs if their nest is disturbed. Some eggs also get washed away due to flooding in the desert, forest officers say. It takes around four weeks for the eggs to hatch

About Lesser flamingos

  • India has two flamingo species – the greater and the lesser flamingos
  • The lesser flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor) is a species of flamingo occurring in sub-Saharan Africa and northwestern IndiaHence statement 3 is incorrect
  • They mainly breed at the Rann of Kutch/North-western IndiaHence statement 2 is correct
  • Lesser flamingos are more pink in colour and their legs are sorter. Greater flamingos have light pink beaks with a dark tip which are widespread in India
  • On the IUCN Red list, lesser flamingos are listed as ‘near threatened’ and greater flamingos, as being of ‘least concern’. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Most of the lesser flamingos in India feed in and around Mumbai’s mudflats
  • The species is also listed in the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) Action Plan, Appendix II of the Bonn Convention (CMS) and Appendix II of the CITES Convention.


Recently seen in news, the term e-EPIC is related with which of the following?

Digital version of voter identity card

Digital Version of one ration one nation card

Pensioners’ Portal service

Portal to get E passport

Answer: (a) Digital version of voter identity card


In NEWS: Law minister to launch Digital voter ID card today

  • Union minister Ravi Shankar Prasad will launch the e-EPIC programme and distribute e-EPICs and Elector Photo Identity Cards to five new voters
  • Law minister Ravi Shankar Prasad will on Monday launch the electronic version of the voter identity card which can be downloaded on a mobile phone or a personal
  • The digital version of voter identity card can be downloaded on a mobile phone or a personal computer and can be digitally stored. Hence option (a) is correct
  • The digital version e-EPIC is a non-editable secure portable document format (PDF) version of the EPIC and will have a secured QR code with image and demographics like serial number, part number, etc. This is in addition to physical IDs being issued for fresh registration. The digitalisation of voter-ID card will have a special significance in the upcoming polls in five states — Assam, Kerala, Puducherry, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal.
  • Under the e-EPIC programme, new voters will get the facility after downloading the card on a registered mobile connection. Once the approval by competent authorities for a new application for a voter card is provided, the applicant can get it in digital format.
  • The e version of the voter card is being launched to mark the anniversary of the Election Commission.
  • The EC came into being on January 25, 1950, a day before India became a republic.


Sometimes seen in news, the ‘Kraken Mare’ is related with

Pathogen found in international space station

Anti-Satellite missile developed by China

Invasive Alien Species

Largest sea on Saturn’s moon titan

Answer: (a) Largest sea on Saturn’s moon titan


In NEWS: Largest sea on Saturn’s moon Titan could be more than 1,000 feet deep

  • Saturn’s largest of the 82 moons, Titan’s biggest water body is more than 1,000 feet deep near its centre. The Kraken Mare is so deep that its exact depth could not be measured. Seven years ago, it was believed that the depth of the extraterrestrial lake was 115 feet at least.
  • The depth and composition of each of Titan’s seas had already been measured, except for Titan’’s largest sea, Kraken Mare, which not only has a great name, but also contains about 80% of the moon’s surface liquids. Hence option (d) is correct
  • As a result of the new findings of the mystery moon, researchers believe that they can send a robotic submarine to Kraken Mare. The mission is subjected to be funded and approved by NASA.
  • The measurement was done using echoes of radar waves sent by the Cassini spacecraft from 965 km above Moray Sinus, an estuary located at the sea’s northern end.
  • The depth was calculated using the time it took for the radar signal to bounce back from the liquid surface of the water body and its bottom. The difference between the two was calculated keeping the factors like the composition of the lake’s liquid into account as it absorbs the energy of the signal.
  • Researchers believe that this may help them understand the precipitation cycle on the moon as well.
  • They also hope to find out in the future the origins of liquid methane on Titan despite being 100 times less energy than Earth and being 10 times away from it


Which of the following statements with respect to Cassini mission is/are correct?

It was launched by ISRO, NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA)

It was launched to study Saturnian system in detail.

Both (a) and (b)

Neither (a) nor (b)

Answer: (b) It was launched to study Saturnian system in detail.


In NEWS: Largest sea on Saturn’s moon Titan could be more than 1,000 feet deep

  • The new findings were obtained from the data collected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Cassini mission.

About Cassini mission

  • The Cassini mission to Saturn is one of the most ambitious efforts in planetary space exploration ever mounted.
  • A joint endeavor of NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), Cassini is a sophisticated robotic spacecraft orbiting the ringed planet and studying the Saturnian system in detail. Hence option (b) is correct
  • Cassini also carried a probe called Huygens, which parachuted to the surface of Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, in January 2005 and returned spectacular results.
  • Cassini completed its initial four-year mission to explore the Saturn System in June 2008, and the first extension, called the Cassini Equinox Mission, in September 2010.
  • Now, the healthy spacecraft is making exciting new discoveries in a second extension called the Cassini Solstice Mission.
  • Cassini–Huygens is an unmanned spacecraft sent to the planet Saturn.
  • Cassini is the fourth space probe to visit Saturn and the first to enter orbit. Its design includes a Saturn orbiter and a lander for the moon Titan. The lander, called Huygens, landed on Titan in 2005.
  • As Cassini plunges past Saturn, the spacecraft will collect rich and valuable information far beyond the mission’s original plan, including measuring Saturn’s gravitational and magnetic fields, determining ring mass, sampling the atmosphere and ionosphere, and making the last views of Enceladus.


Consider the following Statements regarding Pradhan Mantri Rashtriya Bal Puraskar

  • It is the India’s Highest Civilian honour for those under the age of 18.
  • The Awards are given by the Prime minister of India in the week preceding Republic Day every year.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only


In NEWS: PM Modi to interact with Pradhan Mantri Rashtriya Bal Puraskar awardees

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi will interact with the awardees of Pradhan Mantri Rashtriya Bal Puraskar (PMRBP) on Monday, a day before the country celebrated Republic Day. The virtual interaction will take place at noon on January 25, the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO)
  • As many as 32 applicants from across the country, under different categories of Bal Shakti Puraskar, have been selected for the award this year

About Pradhan Mantri Rashtriya Bal Puraskar

  • The PMRBP, formerly known as the National Child Award for Exceptional Achievement, is India’s highest civilian honour for those under the age of 18. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Every year ahead of Republic Day, the award is conferred to children with outstanding achievements in the fields of innovation, sports, arts and culture, social service, scholastic field and bravery.
  • The award is conferred by the President of India in the week preceding the Republic Day where the nation’s other prestigious civilian honours like the Bharat Ratna, Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri are also presented. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • The awardees also participate in the Republic Day Parade.
  • These awards are given under two categories – Bal Shakti Puraskar and Bal Kalyan Puraskar.
  • Bal Shakti Puraskar aims to give recognition to children who have achieved extraordinarily in various fields including innovation, scholastic, sports, art & culture, social service and bravery.
  • Bal Kalyan Puraskar is given as recognition to Individuals and Institutions, who have made an outstanding contribution towards service for children in the field of child development, child protection and child welfare.


Consider the following Statements regarding Udyog Sahayak Enterprises Network framework

It aims to create a countrywide nano and micro entrepreneurial network.

It has been put together by the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) and the Tata Institute of Social Sciences

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only


  • In NEWS: Draft policy to help grow nano, micro enterprises
  • The proposed framework, whose draft was jointly put together by the Azim Premji University, the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), and the Tata Institute of Social Sciences. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The approach is based on the belief that India rather than creating more nano-entrepreneurs, should rather focus on helping existing MSEs grow in size. The framework is aimed at providing a slew of growth-driven services to over 62 million nano and micro-enterprises that currently employ over 100 million people in India.
  • The USENET framework aims to create a countrywide entrepreneurial network. The platform will give the nano and micro-enterprises, facing growth challenges, information on policies, government schemes and credit options, and visibility to lenders and customers and thereby help them grow. The framework will also create a support system to help these enterprises adopt new technologies, and increase productivity. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Union government is likely to sanction upto ₹5,000 crore to part-fund CAPEX to set up at least 19 lakh USENET centres. Each of these centres will be headed by a Udyog Sahayak, who will have a mandate to help and monitor the growth of 15 to 50 enterprises
  • This new policy may give a major fillip to the growth-stunted nano and micro-enterprises in India’s informal sector.
  • By enabling scale-up of nano and micro enterprises, USENET can aid in the creation of an additional 10.3 million jobs over five years, going up to nearly 56.9 million jobs over 10 years. Hence it holds the potential to grow and create a large number of jobs.
  • The framework is expected to boost the value-added per worker potential and this alone could bring in a 12% nominal growth in GVA (gross asset value), amounting to an economic value of Rs. 2.16 lakh crore in five years and over Rs. 19 lakh crore at the end of 10 years.


Consider the following Statements regarding Bhima-Koregaon battle of 1818

It was fought between the Peshwa forces and the British

It was closely associated with battles of the second Anglo-Maratha War

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are incorrect?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only


In NEWS: UN rights body calls for release of Bhima Koregaon activists

  • The top human rights body of the United Nations has urged the Indian government to release the activists who are in prison for the 2018 Bhima Koregaon case, “at the very least on bail”.
  • The Bhima Koregaon case dates back to January 1, 2018, which marked the 200th anniversary of the battle of Bhima Koregaon. The event was organised to celebrate the victory of the British, which included a large number of Mahars, against Peshwa Baji Rao II’s army. A person was killed and several others were injured during the 2018 event.
  • Several human rights activists, including Sudha Bharadwaj, Varavara Rao and Gautam Navlakha, were arrested during the course of the investigation. The case is currently with the National Investigation Agency

About Bhima-Koregaon battle of 1818

  • Bhima-Koregaon, a small village in Pune district of Maharashtra, has a rich Maratha history. Two hundred years ago, on January 1, 1818, a few hundred Mahar soldiers of the East India Company, led by the British, defeated the massive Peshwa army, led by Peshwa Bajirao II, in Koregaon. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Legend has it that about 500 Mahar soldiers under the East India Company clashed with a 25,000-strong army of Peshwa Bajirao II.
  • Mahars, at this point, were considered an untouchable community, and were not recruited in the army by the peshwas.
  • Peshwa Bajirao II had insulted the Mahar community and terminated them from the service of his army. This caused them to side with the English against the Peshwa’s numerically superior army.
  • The defeat of Peshwa army was considered to be a victory against caste-based discrimination and oppression.
  • It was one of the last battles of the Third Anglo-Maratha War, which ended the Peshwa domination. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • On January 1, 1927, Bhimrao Ambedkar started the ritual of holding a commemoration at the site of this pillar, one that is repeated every year.
  • The pillar was erected by the East India Company in memory of those who fought the battle. The names of the Mahar soldiers who unknowingly brought an end to the Peshwa rule in 1818 are inscribed on the pillar.


Which one of the following regions of India has a combination of mangrove forest, evergreen forest and deciduous forest ?

North Coastal Andhra Pradesh

South-West Bengal

Southern Saurashtra

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Answer: (d) Andaman and Nicobar Islands


All three occur together in Andaman and Nicobar islands only.