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Daily Prelims Test – 25_August_2021

Consider the following statements with respect to the Sree Narayana Guru:

1) He gave the famous slogan One Caste, One Religion, One God for All.

2) In 1903, he established the Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam.

3) He led a reform movement against the injustice in the caste-ridden society of Kerala in order to promote spiritual enlightenment and social equality.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 and 3 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 2 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Sree Narayana Guru’s messages have solution to Afghanistan crisis: Pinarayi

  • The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi has paid tributes to Sree Narayana Guru on his Jayanti. 
  • Sree Narayana Guru’s messages have solutions to some serious problems faced by the world, including that in Afghanistan, Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan has said. “Afghanistan puts forward a big lesson to humanity. If religious extremism flares up, people and countries will burn in it.

Sree Narayana Guru (1856-1928):

  • Narayana Guru was a philosopher, spiritual leader and social reformer in India.
  • He led a reform movement against the injustice in the caste-ridden society of Kerala in order to promote spiritual enlightenment and social equality. Hence statement (3) is correct.
  • His family belonged to the Ezhava caste and was considered ‘avarna’ according to the social mores of the time.
  • From an early age, he was drawn towards asceticism. He lived as a hermit in a forest for eight years.
  • He learned Vedas, Upanishads, literature, logical rhetoric of Sanskrit, Hatha Yoga and other philosophies.
  • He gave the famous slogan “One Caste, One Religion, One God for All” (Oru Jathi, Oru Matham, Oru Daivam, Manushyanu). Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • In 1888, he built a temple dedicated to Lord Shiva at Aruvippuram which was against the caste-based restrictions of the time.
  • In one temple he consecrated at Kalavancode, he kept mirrors instead of idols. This symbolised his message that the divine was within each individual.
  • In 1903, he established the Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam (SNDP) as the founder and president. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • Narayana Guru organized an All-Region Conference in 1923 at Alwaye Advaita Ashram, which was reported to be the first such event in India. This was an effort to counter the religious conversions Ezhava community was susceptible to.
  • Sree Narayana Guru became one of the greatest proponents and re-evaluators of Advaita Vedanta, the principle of non-duality put forward by Adi Shankara.
  • He was in the forefront of the movement for universal temple entry and against the societal ills like the social discrimination of untouchables.
  • He provided the impetus for Vaikom agitation which was aimed at temple entry in Travancore for the lower castes.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1748236

Consider the following statements with reference to Indira Point:

1) It is the southernmost point of Indian Territory.

2) It is north of Indonesia’s northernmost territory on Rondo Island.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Swarnim Vijay Varsh celebrations at Indira Point

The Swarnim Vijay Varsh Victory Flame was taken to Indira Point, the southernmost tip of the country on August 22, 2021, as part of its voyage to the Nicobar Group of Islands.

The Armed Forces personnel from Andaman & Nicobar Command hoisted the National Flag and collected the soil from the location to mark the momentous occasion.

Indira Point:

  • Indira Point is the southernmost point of Indian Territory. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • It is a village in the Nicobar district at Great Nicobar Island of Andaman and Nicobar Islands in India.
  • Rondo Island, Indonesia’s northernmost island in Sabang district of Aceh province of Sumatra, lies 163 km south of Little Andaman Island and 145 km or 80 nautical miles from Indira point. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • The point was formerly known as Pygmalion Point and Parsons Point. It was renamed in honour of Indira Gandhi during the mid-1980s.
  • India and Indonesia are upgrading the deep sea port Sabang under the strategic military and economic collaboration to protect the channel between Great Nicobar Island and Rondo Island which is 612 km or 330 nautical miles from Indira Point.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1748162

Yuktdhara Portal is launched by which of the following ministries in India?

a)  Ministry of Rural Development

b) Ministry of Road Transport and Highways

c)  Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution

d) Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare

Answer: (a) Ministry of Rural Development

Explanation:

In NEWS: New portal under Bhuvan “Yuktdhara” will facilitate planning of new MGNREGA assets using Remote Sensing and GIS based information: Union Minister Shri Jitendra Singh. Hence option (a) is correct.

  • The portal will serve as a repository of assets (geotags) created under the various National Rural Development Programmes, such as MGNREGA, Per Drop More Crop Programmes, Integrated Watershed Management Programme and Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana.
  • It will integrate a wide variety of thematic layers, multi-temporal high-resolution earth observation data with the analysis tool.
  • Planners will be able to analyse previous assets under various schemes and facilitate the identification of new works using online tools. Prepared plans will be then evaluated by appropriate authorities under State Departments.

Yuktdhara Portal:

  • Yuktdhara is a geospatial planning portal under Bhuvan.
  • The portal will help in facilitating new MGNREGA assets using remote sensing and geographic information system-based data.
  • The portal is a culmination of joint efforts of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the Ministry of Rural Development.
  • The name of the portal is very apt as the word ‘Yukt’ is derived from Yojanam, indicating the planning and ‘Dhara’ indicates the flow.

Sourcehttps://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1748294

 Consider the following statements with reference to Group of Seven (G7):

1) It is an intergovernmental organisation that was formed in 2004.

2) India is not a part of G7 countries.

3) The headquarters is located in New York,USA.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 and 3 only

b) 2 only

c) 1 and 2 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer:(b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Afghan crisis: G7 leaders demand Taliban ‘guarantee’ safe passage from Kabul after August 31 deadline

  • British Prime Minister Boris Johnson said on Tuesday the G7 had agreed a plan to deal with the Taliban, with their number one condition being that militants must allow safe passage to Afghans wanting to leave the country even after an Aug. 31 deadline.
  • “What we’ve done today, the G7, is we’ve… agreed not just a joint approach to dealing with the evacuation, but also a roadmap for the way in which we’re going to engage with the Taliban,” Mr. Johnson said after an emergency virtual meeting of the leaders of the Group of Seven rich nations.
  • “The number one condition we’re setting as G7 is that they’ve got to guarantee right the way through, through August 31 and beyond, safe passage for those who want to come out.
  • “Some of them will say that they don’t accept that, some of them I hope will see the sense of that, because the G7 has very considerable leverage, economic, diplomatic and political.”
  • Mr. Johnson said the “huge leverage” which the G7 could wield over the Taliban after it seized control of the country just over a week ago included withholding substantial funds.
  • “What we’re saying is Afghanistan can’t lurch back into becoming a breeding ground of terror, Afghanistan can’t become a narco state, girls have got to be educated up to the age of 18,” he said.
  • Mr. Johnson sidestepped a question about whether other G7 leaders had expressed frustration at U.S. President Joe Biden over his handling of the crisis and refusal to extend the deadline for U.S. troops remaining in Afghanistan.
  • “Let’s be clear, the immediate phase of the evacuation is actually … a very considerable success by the military,” he said. “We’re confident we can get thousands more out. But the situation at the airport is not getting any better. It’s harrowing scenes for those who are trying to get out.”

Group of Seven (G7) countries:

  • It is an intergovernmental organisation that was formed in 1975. Hence statement (1) is incorrect.
  • The bloc meets annually to discuss issues of common interest like global economic governance, international security and energy policy.
  • The G7 countries are the UK, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the US. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • All the G7 countries and India are a part of G20.
  • The G7 does not have a formal constitution or a fixed headquarters. The decisions taken by leaders during annual summits are non-binding. Hence statement (3) is incorrect.

Source: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/south-asia/g7-demands-taliban-guarantee-safe-passage-from-kabul-after-august-31/articleshow/85602861.cms

Consider the following statements with reference to National Monetisation Pipeline:

1) It was prepared by NITI Aayog in consultation with infrastructure line ministries, based on the mandate for ‘Asset Monetisation’ under Union Budget 2021-22.

2) It aims to unlock the value of investments in both greenfield and brown field public sector assets by tapping institutional and long-term capital.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Roads to railways, Rs 6 lakh crore assets to be monetised, ownership will remain with Govt

    THE GOVERNMENT unveiled a four-year National Monetisation Pipeline (NMP) worth Rs 6 lakh crore to unlock value in brownfield projects by engaging the private sector, transferring to them the rights but not the ownership in projects; and using the funds for infrastructure creation across the country. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.

  • To enable ‘Infrastructure Creation through Monetisation’ wherein the public and private sector collaborate, each excelling in their core areas of competence, so as to deliver socio-economic growth.
  • Roads, railways and power sector assets will comprise over 66 per cent of the total estimated value of the assets to be monetised, with the balance coming from sectors including telecom, mining, aviation, ports, natural gas and petroleum product pipelines, warehouses and stadiums.

       It was prepared by NITI Aayog in consultation with infrastructure line ministries, based on the mandate for ‘Asset Monetisation’ under Union Budget 2021-22. Hence statement (1) is correct.

        The National Monetisation Pipeline comprises a four-year pipeline from 2022-2025 of the central government’s brownfield Infrastructure Assets.

  • The top three sectors identified for asset monetisation include railways, airports and coal mining.
  • Besides these, assets such as roads, power transmission lines and gas pipelines will also be part of the monetisation plan.
  • Under the plan, private firms can invest in projects for a fixed return using the Infrastructure investment trusts(InvITs) route as well as operate and develop the assets for a certain period before transferring them back to the government agency. Hence, the ownership (of assets) will remain with the government and there will be a mandatory hand back after a certain time.
  • Moreover, only under-utilised assets will be monetised, and the plan will help identify brownfield assets that need to be better monetised.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/business/economy/finance-minister-fm-nirmala-sitharaman-launches-national-monetisation-pipeline-nmp-7466745/

Recently discovered new species Acetabularia Jalakanyake, is related to

a)  Green Algae

b) Mango Variety

c)  Herbal Plant

d) Frog species

Answer: (a) Green Algae

Explanation:

In NEWS: Indian scientists discover ‘mermaid’ plant species

  • Scientists from the Central University of Punjab, Bathinda have discovered a new species of marine green algae from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The green seaweed is named Acetabularia jalakanyakae.
  • Acetabularia jalakanyakae is a bright green algae with a size as small as 20 to 40 mm.
  • This algae species is named after the word ‘jalakanyaka’ which means ‘goddess of oceans’ or ‘mermaid’ in the Sanskrit language. Hence option (a) is correct.
  • Acetabularia jalakanyakae have caps with intricate designs as if they were umbrellas of a mermaid.
  • The main feature of the newly discovered species is that the plant is made up of one gigantic cell with a nucleus.
  • Its nucleus forms a rhizoid structure, which facilitates the algae to attach itself to shallow rocks.

Source: TH

Chakmas and Hajongs are ethnic peoples belonging to which of the following regions?

1) Nepal

2) India

3) China

4) Bangladesh

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 2 and 4 only

(b) 1, 2 and 3 only

(c) 2, 3 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: (a) 2 and 4 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Chakma groups reject proposed relocation move from Arunachal Pradesh, write to PM Modi

  • Chakma and Hajong groups have rejected a purported move by the Arunachal Pradesh government to relocate them to another state
  • Chakma organisations have slammed the proposed deportation of 60,000 people belonging to the Chakma and Hajong communities from Arunachal Pradesh.

Chakma and Hajong communities:

  • These are ethnic people who lived in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, most of which are located in Bangladesh. Chakmas are predominantly Buddhists, while Hajongs are Hindus. They are found in northeast India, West Bengal, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Hence option (a) is correct.
  • They fled erstwhile East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) in 1964-65 and came to India and settled in Arunachal Pradesh. Chakmas lost their land to the development of the Kaptai Dam on the Karnaphuli River, Bangladesh. Hajongs faced religious persecution as they were non-Muslims and did not speak Bengali.
  • The groups entered India through what was then the Lushai Hills district of Assam (today’s Mizoram). While some stayed back with Chakmas already living in the Lushai Hills, the Indian government moved a majority of the refugees to North-East Frontier Agency (now Arunachal Pradesh).

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/cities/others/chakma-groups-reject-proposed-relocation-move-from-arunachal-pradesh-write-to-pm-modi-101629740848589.html

Consider the following statements with reference to Saroop:

1) It is a physical copy of Sri Guru Granth Sahib also called Bir in Punjabi.

2) Guru Nanak compiled the first Bir of the Guru Granth Sahib.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: The saroop of Sikh Holy Book

Three of the last six remaining troops in Afghanistan have been flown into India.

Among the most striking images emerging from the flight of Sikhs from Afghanistan have been those of Union Minister Hardeep Singh Puri carrying on his head.

Saroop:

  • Saroop is a physical copy of Sri Guru Granth Sahib, also called Bir in Punjabi. Every Bir has 1,430 pages, which are referred to as Ang. The verses on every page remain the same. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The Sikhs consider the saroop of Guru Granth Sahib a living guru and treat it with utmost respect. They believe that all the 10 Gurus were the same spirit in different bodies, and the Guru Granth Sahib is their eternal physical and spiritual form.
  • It was the fifth Sikh master, Guru Arjan Dev, who compiled the first Bir of the Guru Granth Sahib in 1604, and installed it at the Golden Temple in AmritsarHence statement (2) is incorrect.
  • Later, the tenth Sikh master, Guru Gobind Singh, added verses penned by the ninth master, his father Guru Tegh Bahadur, and compiled the Bir for the second and last time. It was in 1708 that Guru Gobind Singh declared Guru Granth Sahib the living Guru of the Sikhs.
  • Gurdwaras have a separate resting place for the Saroop, called ‘Sukh Asan Sthan’ or ‘Sachkhand’ where the Guru rests at night. This takes place at the end of the day when the holy book is ceremoniously shut and rested. In the morning, the saroop is again installed in a ceremony called ‘prakash’. Many tourists specially come to watch the prakash and sukhasan ceremony of the Guru Granth Sahib at the Golden Temple.
  • There was a tradition among Punjabis, both Sikhs and Hindus, to copy the Guru Granth Sahib by hand and produce multiple copies. The Udasi and Nirmala sects also played a role in making handwritten copies of the Birs until the British introduced the printing press.
  • The British also published several small copies of the Guru Granth Sahib for their Sikh soldiers so that they could carry these with them on the battlefield.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/saroops-of-guru-granth-sahib-afghanistan-taliban-7469203/

Consider the following statements:

1) The privileges of the Rajya Sabha members of freedom from arrest does not extend to criminal offences or cases of detention under preventive detention.

2) No arrest can be made within the precincts of the House without the prior permission of the Speaker.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What is the procedure to arrest a cabinet minister in India?

  • Cabinet Minister Arrest Procedure in India: Three FIRs have been registered against Union Minister and Rajya Sabha member Narayan Rane, and the Maharashtra Police has sent a team to arrest him.
  • Three FIRs have been registered against Union Minister and Rajya Sabha member Narayan Rane in connection with a speech at Raigad where he spoke against Chief Minister Uddhav Thackeray.

What is the procedure to arrest a cabinet minister in India?

  • If Parliament is not in session, a cabinet minister can be arrested by a law enforcement agency in case of a criminal case registered against him.
  • As per Section 22 A of the Rules of Procedures and Conduct of Business of the Rajya Sabha, the Police, Judge or Magistrate would, however, have to intimate the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha about the reason for the arrest, the place of detention or imprisonment in an appropriate form.
  • What is the procedure to be followed by the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha in case of an arrest?
  • The Chairman is expected to inform the Council if it is sitting about the arrest. If the council is not sitting, he/she is expected to publish it in the bulletin for the information of the members.
  • What about the privileges of the Rajya Sabha members vis-a-vis arrests?
  • As per the main privileges of Parliament, in civil cases, they have freedom from arrest during the continuance of the House and 40 days before its commencement and 40 days after its conclusion, as per section 135 of the Code of Civil Procedure.
  • The privilege of freedom from arrest does not extend to criminal offences or cases of detention under preventive detention. Hence statement (1) is correct
  • Can a person be arrested from the precincts of the House?
  • No arrest, whether of a member or of a stranger, can be made within the precincts of the House without the prior permission of the Chairman/Speaker and that too in accordance with the procedure laid down by the Home Ministry in this regard. Hence statement (2) is correct
  • Similarly no legal process, civil or criminal, can be served within the precincts of the House without obtaining the prior permission of the Chairman/Speaker whether the House is in Session or not.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/union-cabinet-minister-narayan-rane-arrest-procedure-explained-7468333/

The term “sixth mass extinction/sixth extinction” is often mentioned in the news in the context of the discussion of

(a)                     Widespread monoculture practices in agriculture and large-scale commercial farming with indiscriminate use of chemicals in many parts of the world that may result in the loss of good native ecosystems

(b)                    Fears of a possible collision of a meteorite with the Earth in the near future in the manner it happened 65 million years ago that caused the mass extinction of many species including those of dinosaurs.

(c)                     Large scale cultivation of genetically modified crops in many parts of the world and promoting their cultivation in other parts of the world which may cause the disappearance of good native crop plants and the loss of food biodiversity.

(d)                    Mankind’s over-exploitation/misuse of natural resources, fragmentation/loss of natural habitats, destruction of ecosystems, pollution and global climate change.

Answer: (d) Mankind’s over-exploitation/misuse of natural resources, fragmentation/loss of natural habitats, destruction of ecosystems, pollution and global climate change

Explanation:

  • The term ‘sixth mass extinction/sixth extinction’ is often mentioned in the news in the context of the discussion of disappearing flora and fauna species.  
  • According to news reports, it could be caused by human activities causing over-exploitation/misuse of natural resources, fragmentation/loss of natural habitats, destruction of ecosystems, pollution and global climate changeHence option (d) is correct.